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Cornell University Library 
DA 68.12.W62A3 1868 

Memoir of the services of Lieu 


3 1924 028 000 077 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



K.C.B., K.C.H., G.C.F. 






K.C.B., K.C.H., G.C.F. 





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K.C.B., K.C.H., G.C.F. 

Colonel of the 71st Highland Light Infantry. 














Sjjis JSMum* 18, 


ogi wspwifttllg §jeiuatjeb. 






The errors and imperfections contained in the first 
edition of this work, occasioned its speedy suppression, 
in order to substitute for it the revised, and, as the Editor 
trusts, considerably improved volume now offered to the 
public. His best thanks are assuredly due to those 
critics who have already noticed the work ; because, as 
may be seen at the end of the Appendix, they have amply 
justified the opinion which he had long entertained, that 
the services of Sir Samford Whittingham required only 
to be better known in order to be fully appreciated by 
his generous, countrymen. 

Of those services the Editor hopes that the present 
volume is more worthy than its predecessor of becoming 
the permanent record. 

It is only necessary to add that the engraving in this 
edition is a great improvement on the preceding one, 
and now does full justice to the portrait from which it 
was taken. 


It does not appear that the subject of this Memoir 
ever contemplated making any record of his services. 
His brother-in-law, however, Mr. Eichard Hart Davis, 
successively member for Colchester and Bristol, always 
preserved as much as possible his letters and papers ; in 
the belief that such a publication as the present, would 
sooner or later occur. 

Unfortunately many valuable letters have been lost, 
including the greater part of General Whittingham's cor- 
respondence with two successive military secretaries at 
the Horse-Guards. The Editor was not, however, greatly 
surprised, when the letters in question were found missing 
from their registered places, as he had long believed that 
their contents had, for the most part, been embodied in 
Southey's ' History of the Peninsular War.' Indeed a 
number of details in that work could hardly have been 
collected from any other source. At the battles of 
Baylen and Medellin, for instance, only one Englishman 
appears to have been present, and yet he is not mentioned 
by his brother Bristolian, Southey ; although from him 
only could the latter have learned the speeches which 
Castanos and Alburquerque addressed to that English- 
man. This personal silence confirms the fact in question 
to those who know how General Whittindiam was wont 


to leave to others the task of recording his merits and 

In consequence of the loss of the letters addressed to 
Colonels Gordon and Torrens, the private letters to his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Hart Davis, form the chief basis of 
this Memoir ; and their frank and unreserved style is 
particularly suited for such a purpose. But from their 


voluminous nature, it has been possible only to give brief 
extracts, as a general rule. 

The Editor first projected this work in 1845. Aware 
that the late heroic Earl of Fife had been the friend and 
admirer of Sir Samford Whittingham, he wrote to his 
Lordship to inform him of, and to consult him on, his 
intentions. The following (omitting only some irrelevant 
private matters) was the reply of Lord Fife : — 

< Duff House : Tuesday, [post-mark 28 March, 1845]. 

'Dear Whittingham, — I was very happy to have the 
pleasure of receiving your interesting note regarding the 
memory of your excellent father, my late intimate and 
worthy friend. I, of course, am acquainted with much 
information about Sir Samford, and all that I can pos- 
sibly do, to forward your views and wishes, shall be with 
much good will executed ; to do justice to the gallant 
soldier, and talented gentleman, your father. 

' Suchet, with whom I was well acquainted, often con- 
versed with me regarding different officers who had 
opposed him ; and particularly mentioned the merits of 
your father which, he said, might have been followed 
with bad results to the French, had the war continued 
much longer. He said, " Whittingham's corps was the 
best disciplined, and if the example had been followed 
in many other instances, in different parts of Spain, the 
French army would have felt the effects in a remarkable 


' General Eeeves, an intimate friend of mine, who was 
in Catalonia, often spoke most honourably of your father, 
although he did not much like those English who were 
with the Espagnolles. 


'There are two points to be noticed about your father's 
conduct, which party and other reasons have rendered 
obscure : his commanding the troops that marched to 
Madrid, when the Cortes were assembled ; and also at the 
battle of Barrosa. I shall afterwards make some obser- 
vations and references about both ; and also [give] some 
details of his services in the early part of the war with 
[General] Cuesta, and the Duke of Alburquerque, the im- 
portance of which were passed over or little known. . . . 

' I took your father from Talavera, and, I think, saved 
his life, in having a very good surgeon of the Guards* 
every day, and [by having] fed him with tea, coffee and 
butter, which were [then] of more value than gold ; and 
I obliged him to go from the field in the evening, and 
made a doctor go with him to my quarters. 

'My brother, Sir Alexander Duff, knew your father 
well, and came home with him from Buenos Ayres. I 
was nearly being his second in a duel between him and 

J of the Guards. Sir Charles Felix Smith, his second 

and I made it up ; which was fortunate for J , as 

your father was a capital shot.f 

' Believe me, most truly, [yours] 

' Fife.' 

' Major Whittingham, [26th] Cameromans, 

In consequence of the increasing infirmities of Lord 
Fife, the Editor did not again trouble his Lordship, nor 

* The goodness of the surgeon, in a medical sense, is disproved in this 

f No record of this affair will be found in this volume, owing to want of 
details on the subject. The Editor believes that, either at Cadiz or Seville, 
the quarrel arose from some expressions on the part of the Guardsman, 
which were deemed insulting to the Spanish officers. 

PREFACE. . Xlll 

did the latter ever send his promised information. By 
his letter, however, he had confirmed to the son, that 
valuable testimony regarding Marshal Suchet, which in 
1814 he had spontaneously sent to the father.* But the 
effect of his letter was to delay the writing of this Memoir. 
Regimentally the Editor was then only a captain ; and 
he had not the means or leisure for acquiring that com- 
pleteness of information, necessary to do justice to a case, 
which party spirit and ignorance of details, had rendered 
obscure, in the opinion of a good and friendly judge. 
Indeed some important facts only came to the knowledge 
of the Editor, after the death of Sir William Napier and 
the publication of his life. 

The Editor, however, delayed chiefly on account of his 
roving and unsettled life. He waited therefore till he 
should have both leisure, and a fixed habitation, to enable 
him to study the voluminous correspondence of Sir Sam- 
ford Whittingham and the ' Wellington Dispatches.' At 
length he has accomplished his task to the best of his 
ability ; amidst the difficulties of selection, rejection, and 
condensation, and of the loss of many valuable papers ; 
and having also considerably to curtail the MSS. when 
finished, as too bulky. 

The delay brings with it, however, this advantage, 
that it has facilitated candour and plain speaking ; and 
has also probably given time for the decay of that party 
spirit, and professional jealousy, by which some facts were 
formerly greatly misrepresented. 

The Editor also trusts that the letters of distinguished 
persons which are published in this volume, may be in- 

* See p. 280. 


teresting in themselves, as well as from their being strong 
testimonies to character and conduct. Next to those of 
the Duke of Wellington, and of the Marquis Wellesley, 
the letters of the Honourable Sir Edward Paget, and of 
Lord William Bentinck, furnish the strongest proofs of 
the merits of Sir Samford Whittingham. Lord William 
has an established reputation as a good officer and en- 
lightened statesman ; but Sir Edward Paget has not 
perhaps been sufficiently appreciated. How highly the 
Duke of Wellington esteemed him, his c Dispatches ' have 
proved : but what Sir Charles Napier thought of him is 
probably less known, and is, therefore, here recorded ; on 
the authority of a living eye — and ear — witness of the 

In 1848 Lord Frederick Fitz- Clarence, then Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Portsmouth, accidentally met, in the 
streets of that town, the two soldier-sons of Sir Edward 
Paget, and asked them to lunch with him that day, as he 
was expecting Sir Charles Napier, on his way to Osborne 
to see the Queen. This was at the time, when, at the 
general call of the country, Sir Charles was about to pro- 
ceed to India to save that empire from what was then 
considered as impending ruin. Lord Frederick intro- 
duced the young men to his distinguished guest, who, 
taking them each by the hand, said : ' Ah ! if poor Sir 
Edward had had the health for it, he would have been 
the man to send to India.'* 

Although four portraits of Sir Samford Whittingham 
exist, the best by far is a small one from which the 

* As this circumstance occurred some years after the death of Sir 
Samford Whittingham, it is recorded here instead of in the body of the 


engraving in this volume is taken. It has, indeed, the 
disadvantage of presenting him as the undecorated Cap- 
tain of 1807, instead of the General with his three orders 
of knighthood and seven medals, or minor decorations. 
But this defect the skill of the engraver has lessened 
by making a representation of the decorations under the 

During his last visit to England Sir Samford promised 
at the request of his eldest niece (Mrs. Harford of Blaise 
Castle) to commit to writing some of those Peninsular 
anecdotes with which he had amused his relatives. This 
promise he fulfilled on his last voyage to Madras in 1840 ; 
and the Editor has made use of nearly all these ' Eecol- 
lections ' ; placing them in this volume, as far as possible 
in the order of their proper dates. 

Finally, as far as is consistent with the sacred claims 
of justice to the memory of a beloved and honoured 
parent, the Editor has endeavoured to justify the con- 
fidence placed in him by the highly estimable gentleman, 
who may be deemed to represent the interests of his 
celebrated connection — Sir William Napier. This task 
has been greatly facilitated by the fact that six of the 
seven grand-children of Sir Samford Whittingham are re- 
lated to that family, one of whose most distinguished 
members did him a great, even if unintentional wrong. 

The confidence in question was expressed in a note 
concluding with the following words : — 

'I greatly respect your sense of honour and justice and 
am sure that in vindicating your distinguished father you 
will not forget what is due to others.' 





Difficulty in tracing the Family Antecedents — William Whittihg- 
hani of Bristol — Miss Richardson — Samuel Ford changed to 
Samford — He would be a Soldier — Old Mr. Whittingham objects 
to his Son's entering the Army — Samford proceeds to Spain — 
The ruling Passion — Death of his Father — Returns Home — 
Gazetted Ensign — Lieutenancy in 1st Life Guards — Disadvan- 
tage of tardy Entrance to the Army — High Wycombe College — 
Sixteen Hours a day Study — Mr. Thomas Murdoch — William 
Pitt's secret Mission — Note of Hon. W. Eliot — Lisbon — Rogers 
and Richardson — Mr. Pitt's Thanks— His Death — The loth 
Light Dragoons — Early Promotion of the Hon. Edward Paget, 
the future Friend of Samford Whittingham . . . 1 — 8 



Secret Expedition under Brigadier-General Robert Craufurd — 
Captain Whittingham embarks at Portsmouth, 12th November, 
1806 — Touches at St. Iago — Midnight Freak of some British 
Officers — Generosity of Portuguese Governor — A well-kept 
Secret — Arrival-frt^he Cape — How the Secret was discovered 
— Arrival at (Montevideo — General Whitelocke — Order of 
Battle — Landing-tteap^arragan — General Whitelocke's flatter- 
ing Offer to Captain Whittingham — Why declined — General 
Whitelocke's Errors — Question of not loading — Captain Whit- 
tingham sent to reconnoitre — Captain Whittingham volunteers 
to enter the Town — How he reached the Plaza de los Toros — 
Returns to Head -quarters for Aid — Volunteers again to endeavour 
to join Craufurd — Joins Nicols and Tolly at Residencia — Proof 
of Craufurd's Surrender — Successful Charge of Major Nicols — 




Captain Whittingham returns to Head-quarters — Suspension 
of Hostilities — General Gower differs in opinion from Captain 
Whittinghani — Preliminaries of Peace — A disgraceful Treaty 
— General Liniers — Loss to England by the Surrender — The 
civic Compliments to General Whitelocke — CapttfirPCormero's 
Information regarding the Weakness of the BWoos-^Ayres 
Garrison — Durable Friendships contracted at Buenos Ayres — 
Henry Torrens and the Hon. Henry Cadogan — General White- 
locke's Trial — Brings Captain Whittingham into notice — Duke 
of Kent becomes his Patron — General Robert Cimifurd's Tes- 
timony and that of Colonel Gordon .... 9 — 27 


Appointed to the Staff of the Army in Sicily — Takes leave of the 
Duke of Kent — Arrives at Gibraltar — Acts as Military Secre- 
tary to Sir Hew Dalrymple — Obtains leave to join General 
Castanos as a Volunteer — His Brother-in-law's Letter of 
Advice — His Appointment to the Staff of Sir Arthur Wellesley 
— His ' Recollections ' of the Battle of Baylen — Castanos' gene- 
rous Speech to Dupont — The first Englishman who fought in 
the Peninsular War — Shared in the Victory by joining La 
Pena's Advanced Guard — Interview with Lord Colling wood — 
With the Traitor La Morla — Scene at Seville in the Junta 
Suprema — Castanos' Patriotism — Whittingham made Colonel 
of Horse — The Englishman's Fall — The Duke of York's Pre- 
sent to Castanos — Colonel Whittingham's Letter to Hon. 
Henry Cadogan — His prophetic Anticipations of Spanish 
Failures — Don Santiago Whittingham — Fever at Tudela — A 
nearly smothered Medico — Disgrace of Castanos after Defeat of 
Tudela — An t/ttdistinguished Relative of the Empress Eugenie 
— Effective Speech to a Spanish Mob — l When the Englishman 
pays it, it must be true ' — Things more agreeable as Recollec- 
tions than when actually occurring — Duke of Infantado sends 
Colonel Whittingham on a Mission to Seville — Gloomy Aspect 
of Affairs in the absence of Sir Arthur Wellesley — First Meet- 
ing with Lord William Bentinck .... 28 — 50 



The Duke of Infantado's Commission — The Duke's Retreat — The 
chivalrous Duke of Alburquerque — Surprise of Mora — An 



Exciting Chase — A Fox-like Ruse — A horrible Incident — A 
cunning Countess — A complete Humbug — A modest testa- 
mentary Request — Letter to Mr. J. Hookham Frere — Bad 
Conduct of General Urbina — His disgraceful Rout — Albur- 
querque's Treatment of Traitors — Gallant Charge of Albur- 
querque and Staff at Medellin — Alava's Heroism — Reforming 
routed Cavalry — Unfortunately lost Letters — Alburquerque's 
Laudatory Letters to Duke of York and Lord Castlereagh — 
Contradictory Orders of Spanish Government — Letters to Mr. 
Hookham Frere — A Prophecy destined to speedy fulfilment — 
General Cuesta' s earliest British Critic — A constant Source of 
Annoyance — Sir A. Wellesley's Return to the Peninsula — 
Brigadier-General Whittingham's Letter to Duke of Kent — 
Harmony of Frere and Whittingham — Marquis Wellesley's 
Opinion of Whittingham — Duke of Kent's Letter to Mr. Davis 
concerning Brigadier- General Whittingham — Lost royal Letters 
— Interview with Sir Arthur Wellesley — Meeting of General 
Cuesta and Sir A. Wellesley — Whittingham's Mission to Cuesta 
— Narrow Escape of Sir Arthur Wellesley — His Remarks to 
Whittingham — Colonel Roche's Letter on Talavera — Sir A. 
Wellesley's Dispatch — A glaring Lijustice — A truthful Com- 
parison ......... 51 — 93 



To Seville for Cure of Wound — Attached to Marquis Wellesley's 
Embassy — Dr. Kennedy's Treatment — Dr. Knighton — General 
Cuesta resigns his Command — Sir A. Wellesley's Retreat — 
Brigadier-General Whittingham's confidential Employment under 
Marquis Wellesley — Don Pedro de Creus y Ximenes, Intendant 
of the Spanish Army — Affectionate Letter to Colonel Cadogan 
— Lord Wellesley's Character — Cadogan's Present to Whitting- 
ham — A Judge of Wine — Whittingham Major-General in 
Spain — Inconvenience of Marquis Wellesley's Ambassadorship 
— Sir Arthur Wellesley's candid Confession of Error — A Secre- 
tary of Legation's Jealousy — Whittingham and Frere deemed 
too partial to Alburquerque — A justified Preference — Lord 
Wellington's aristocratic Prejudices — Close of Lord Wellesley's 
brief Embassy — The Marquis's eulogistic farewell Letter — 
Genial Shade of Aristocracy — Lord Wellington's Esteem for 
Alava and Whittingham — Lord Macduff— Lord Wellington's 
Letter to General Whittingham — Castanos appoints him General 
of Division — Employed in Isla de Leon — Organizes a select 

a 2 



Body of Horse — Importance of the Balearic Islands — General 
Whittingham's Promotion to Major in the English Army — 
Alburqucrque relieves Cadiz — His Resignation — Proceeds to 
London as Ambassador — Dundas translated into Spanish — 
Mr. Wellesley and General Graham recommend Whitting- 
ham's Promotion — Invitation to his Nephew — Colonel Campbell 
of the Majorca Division — General Graham's voluntary Testi- 
mony — Mr. Wellesley's official Praise — Marquis Wellesley's 
kind Letter to General Whittingham . . . . 91 — 120 


The great Difficulty of General Whittingham — Napier and 
Southey on the Battle of Barrosa — Graham's Assumption of 
Command — He imputed no Blame to Whittingham — General 
Whittingham commanded Infantry as well as Cavalry — Disad- 
vantage of trusting to Memory — Whittingham's official Report 
to La Pena — Ordered to retreat on main Body — Graham's 
successful Charge — Whittingham's Report indirectly blames La 
Pena — Accidentally delayed Advance — An egregious Misre- 
presentation of Facts — General Whittingham's Letter to Mr. 
Davis on Barrosa — The Duke's comprehensive Testimony in 
favour of Whittingham — The Duke of Kent's spontaneous 
Tribute to his Merits 121—133 


1811 — continued. 

General Whittingham's arduous Task at Majorca — Financial Duties 
— A punctilious Governor — Lands at Palma — French and Ger- 
man Prisoners — General Don Gregorio Cuesta again — Letter to 
Colonel Torrens —Letter to Right Hon. Henry Wellesley — ■ 
Treatise on Majorca — Letter to Hon. Captain Blackwood, R.N. 
— Letter to Admiral Pellew — Colonel Torrens's Opinion of 
Whittingham — Letter to Colonel Torrens — Promotion to Lieut.- 
Colonel in British Army — Letter to Mr. Davis — Captain 
Briarly's Mission to Cadiz — Official Delays — General Whitting- 
ham desired as Governor — Solicitations from Englishmen — 
Spanish Jealousies and Intrigues — A nearly exhausted Patience 
— General Cucsta's Enmity and Insults — General Cuesta's 
Death ......... 134 — 150 




Letter to Sir Henry Wellesley — General Whittingham's Visit to 
Minorca — Colonel Serrano's Report of the Alarm in his Absence 
— Military College established by General Whittingharn — A 
generous and liberal Spanish Bishop — Voluminous Dispatch 
to Mr. Wellesley — Importance of the Majorca Division — Its 
numerical Strength at this time weak — Shocking State of 
Spanish Officers in Palma — Conditional Resignation of Com- 
mand — Majorca Division to operate on Eastern Coast under 
Lord William Bentinck — Letter to Spanish military Intendant — 
A justified Assurance given to the Admiral — Urgent Request 
for a Paymaster — General Whittingharn embarks with his 
Division — Resigns his Command prospectively — Is flatteringly 
requested to relinquish his Design — His grateful Reply to the 
Ambassador — Successful Affairs of Posts — A military Diver- 
sion — The Paymaster Difficulty — A Prospect of Relief 151 — 168 


Lord Wellington's Instructions — Lord Wellington refuses the 
Inspectorship to General Whittingharn — The French attempt to 
surprise Xigona — Treachery of an Italian Regiment — Colonel 
Walker and Officers of H.M.'s 58th Regiment — Lord Welling- 
ton grants the previously refused Inspectorship — His Reluctance 
to the Measure — Different Style adopted to another Agent — 
Gallant Conduct of the Spanish Captain Ruti — Generous Conduct 
of the French Captors — A successful Ruse — A brave Spanish 
Lieutenant — The French driven by General Whittingharn 
through the Pass of Albayda — General Murray's Two General 
Orders — Lord Wellington's Dispatch — General Whittingham's 
Report to the Ambassador — Concentayna Combat — Sir Henry 
Wellesley's Congratulations — Lord Wellington's Proof of Confi- 
dence — Third General Order praising Whittingham's Division 
— General Whittingham's Report to Sir John Murray— Battle 
of Castalla— Sir John Murray's Dispatch to Lord Wellington 

At Castalla Spaniards rivalled the British— Anecdote from 

the l Recollections' 169 — 198 



1813 — continued. 


Increase of French and Decrease of English Force — Reputation of 
the Majorca Division — Death of Honourable Colonel Cadogan — 
Lord William Bentinck supersedes Sir John Murray — General 
Whittingham covers the Retreat from Tarragona — Effected 
without Loss — Whittingham exceptionally favoured by Lord 
Wellington — An Order more flattering than agreeable — Cavalry 
unshod for want of Money — A German Aide-de-Camp — Official 
Jealousies and Persecutions — General Whittingham's Resig- 
nation of Command — His Reasons for resigning — Account of 
passing the Ebro — A drunken Commander — The French murder 
Colonel O'Reilly — Retaliation by the Spaniards — Great Evils 
require strong Remedies — Magazines filled in a Week — Lord 
Wellington feels the utmost Concern at General Whittingham's 
Resignation — Withholds his Papers till he shall hear again — 
Gives him a large Command of Cavalry — The Glory and Duty 
of obeying Wellington — State of Spanish Cavalry — Hazardous 
Alternative — A fraternal Epanchement de Cceur — Training of 
Spanish Cavalry — Colonel Torrens's Letter to Mr. Davis — 
Routine carried too far — Lord Wellington resigns the Command 
of the Spanish Army — Improvement of Spanish Cavalry — A 
disappointing Peace ...... 199 — 227 


Spanish Promotions — A Prayer not heard — Lord Wellington's 
Fears regarding Spain — Reception of Ferdinand VII. at Sara- 
gossa — A triumphant Entry — Constitution unpopular in Spain 
— The King requests Gen. W. to accompany him to Valencia — 
The royal Present — Arrests — ' The Majesty that doth hedge a 
King ' — The King and Don Carlos's flattering Request — The 
Duke's Testimony to the Merits and Services of General Whit- 
tingham — His Conversation with the Duke — Unpopularity of 
King Ferdinand in England— Appointed Aide-de-Camp to the 
Prince Regent — Promotion to Lieut.-General in Spain — Sir 
John Murray's Court-martial — Sir Henry Wellesley recommends 
General Whittingham to Viscount Castlereagh — The Earl of 
Fife's Letter — Marshal Suchet's Opinion of Whittingham — 
Inquisition established in Spain — Spanish Finances — Sir John 
Murray's Trial— Unlucky * Buts '—General Mina's Rebellion— 

CONTENTS. xxiii 


Recollections of King Ferdinand — Triumphal royal Route — 
The King and the Constitution — Royal Thanks — General Whit- 
tingham commanded to continue with His Majesty — General 
Zayas sounds General Whittingham — His Opinion not approved 
— Arrests — March on Madrid — Cavalry Field-day — Lieutenant- 
Generalship conferred by the King — Ministry of War offered — 
Declined after reference — Takes Leave of the King and Don 
Antonio 228 — 248 



Sir John Murray's Trial — Sentence of Admonishment not carried 
out — An absurd Parliamentary Calumny — A Duel prevented by 
the Speaker — Quarrel adjusted — Colonel Campbell's Letter from 
Madrid — His Description of the Anglo-Spanish Officers — Gen. 
Whittingham's Appointment in the Spanish Army — Failed to 
obtain Employ with British Troops — Want of Rank in the 
British Army — The secret Dispatch — Aristocratic Nature of 
Wellington — Commissionership with Austrian Army declined 
— The Spanish Offer preferred — George IV.'s Aide-de-Campship 
no Sinecure — Duke of York's Letter to Sir Henry Wellesley — 
Disappointing Peace — Grand Cross of San Fernando — State of 
Finances in Spain — General Whittingham's Memoir to the 
King on the Slave Trade — Why unemployed at Madrid — Royal 
Favour — Russian Influence — Mr. B. Frere's Engagement — An 
expensive Honour for Lady Whittingham declined — Legiti- 
mately exercised Influence — Explanation of his Conduct to 
Lord Castlereagh — Declines all Rewards — The only Favour 
asked of the King — Government declined — Services unre- 
warded — Starvation in the midst of Honours — Mr. Vaughan's 
Recommendation of the General — His diplomatic Services to 
Mr. Vaughan — Diplomatic Services to Sir Henry Wellesley — 
Introduces his Nephew to the best Society — Marriage of Mr. 
B. Frere by Proxy — Sir H. Wellesley's Letter to the Duke 
of York — The royal Reply — Plenty of Praise, no Rewards 
— Troubles in Spain — Defence of the King a Point of 
Honour — Decline of English and Rise of Russian Influence 

Secret Negociations by the Russian Minister — Death of 

Mrs. B. Frere — General Whittingham leaves Madrid — His 
Success against the Slave Trade — Chamois-hunting in the 
Pyrenees — Offered the Government of Dominica — Bids Fare- 
well to the King of Spain — An attentive royal Host — Opinion 
applauded but not followed— The Ambassador's final Testimony 



— Nothing ask, Nothing have — General Whittingham's Letter to 
Mr. Murdoch — Fruitless Mission of the Count de Corres — Lord 
Castlereagh's Testimony of Mr. Davis— Baron Hugel's Descrip- 
tion of the West Indies 249—284 



General Whittingham's Arrival in Dominica — Restores Order and 
Concord — Anxious to obtain Employment in India — His System 
of Government — Favours the Slave Population — Testimonials 
both from the Islanders and the Proprietors resident in England 
— Boon to the White Soldiers by Sir Samford's Recommendation 
— Wilberforce's Letter to the Bishop of Calcutta — His Auto- 
graph Letter to Sir Samford — George IV. and the Duke of York's 
Letters of Introduction — Sir Henry Torrens's prophetical Letter 
— A most delightful Personage — A popular Marquis — Uncle 
Toby and Corporal Trim — A Governor- General's Smiles and 
Frowns — Visit to Lord Hastings at Barrackpore — His Lordship's 
flattering Confidence — How Lord Hastings silenced Ava's King 
— Arrival of Sir Edward Paget, the new Commander-in-Chief — 
Lord Hastings' great Error ..... 285 — 303 



Death of the Marquis of Londonderry — Death of Bishop Middleton 
— Sir Edward Paget's flattering Proposal — India should be ruled 
by a Viceroy — The King of Oude — A handsome Commander- 
in-Chief — Reorganization of Bengal Army indispensable — 
Wretched State of military Means — Arduous official Labours — 
Encouragement to Smokers — Sir Edward Paget's sole Source 
of Comfort — The Mutiny at Barrackpore — Sir Samford's Report 
of the Mutiny — His subsequent Defence of Sir Edward Paget — 
Death of Sir Alexander Campbell — The Alter Ego of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief — Sir Herbert Taylor's Letter to Sir Samford — 
Illness of Sir Edward Paget — Advice followed Forty Years 
later — Lord Combermere's Arrival — First Impressions of his 
Lordship — Character of Sir Edward Paget — Parting Exchange 
of Presents — The Hookah and the 'Admiral' — Lord Comber- 
mere's Advance to besiege Bhurtpore — Efficient Preparations 
owing to Sir Edward Paget — Lord Combermere's temporary 
Coldness to Sir Samford Whittingham . . . 304 — 327 





Sir Samford receives a Contusion at the Siege of Blmrtpore— His 
narrow Escape — Extraordinary Valour of Lieut Caine— Defence 
of Sir Edward Paget — An invaluable Intellect— A satisfactory 
Letter — A Meerut Scandal — A Meerut Duel — Coolness under 
Fire considered criminal — Effects of a masterly Letter — Slow 
Posts caused ludicrous Results — 111 Health of the Duke of York 
— Sir Herbert Taylor's eulogistic Letter — Defective military 
Organization in India — Increase of European Force necessary 
from the Insubordination of Native Soldiers — Sir Edward Paget' s 
generous Letter to Earl Bathurst— How the Means were created 
for taking Bhurtpore. 328 — 340 



Two Letters of same Date Ten Thousand Miles apart — Sir Edward 
Paget's Congratulations — Death of the Duke of York — Captain 
Seymour's Death — Copy of Sir Edward's Letter to Lord Bath- 
urst reaches India — Aide-de-Camp selected for his Merit — 
Lord Combermere the Guest of Sir Samford — The Talk of the 
Garrison — The King of Oude — Lord Combermere's Friendliness 
— The Reaction of a generous Mind — Lord William Bentinck's 
Appointment — Sir Edward's Present of genuine Havannahs — 
Thanks of the House of Commons — Sir Edward's generous Dis- 
claimer of Thanks — Willoughby Cotton's affectionate Letter — A 
Model of what a Man ought to be — Willoughby Cotton's Opinion 
of Sir Edward Paget — The principal Promoter of the Passage of 
the Douro — Lord Combermere's kind Letter — Lord William 
Bentinck's Arrival — His Request — Sir Herbert Taylor's Opinion 
of Sir E. Paget — The Confidant of Three successive Kings — Lord 
Combermere's Proof of Confidence — Sir Edward's Affection — Sir 
Samford's Greatest Ambition ..... 341 — 359 


On route to meet Lord Combermere — Takes final Leave of Lord 
Combermere — Letter of Southey to Mr. Hart Davis — Great Un- 
popularity of Lord William Bentinck — Captain Caine A.D.C. 
and the Tigers — Delightful Climate of Meerut — Universal Har- 




mony at Cawnpore Station — Lord Comberinere's Letter — Mus- 
sourie Hills — India not a good School for young Soldiers — A 
Home on the Hills — Lord Hastings versus Lord Amherst as a 
Financier — Accounts mysteriously withheld — Sir Henry liar- 
dinge's Correspondence with Sir Samford — Expected Visits from 
Lord William Bentinck and Lord Dalhousie — Anxiety for a 
prolonged Command ...... 360 — 369 



Visits of the Earl of Dalhousie and of Lord William Bentinck — 
The Duke of Wellington's repeated Observation to Mr. Hart 
Davis regarding General Whittingham — Wholly adopted and 
rejoiced in by Lord William Bentinck — The Duke's Declaration 
against Reibrm — The Duke's Loss of Office injurious to Sir 
Samford — The rival Champagnes — A candid noble Sportsman 
— Lieutenant (now Sir Henry) Durand — One of the Duke's 
last official Acts — Lord William Bentinck's opinion of 
Daniel O'Connell — His Confidence in his Countrymen — A 
characteristic Letter by ' The Duke ' — Lord Hill's Opinion of 
Sir Samford ........ 370 — 379 



Mussourie — Chiefs at Simla, with their respective Staffs — Sir 
Edward Barnes — Bad Handwriting no Proof of Greatness — Lord 
William on the Royal Discretion — Sir Edward Barnes — The 
Commander-in-Chief's official Death Warrant — The Duke's 
Dictum on the Disagreement of Indian Chiefs — Lady William 
Bentinck — Injustice of Napier's earliest Volumes — The Non- 
publication of the ( Wellington Dispatches ' an insufficient Excuse 
— The Barrosa Injustice — Colonel Caine's Recollections — Sir 
Samford writes to Sir Edward Paget for Redress and Satis- 
faction 380—384 



An inauspicious Day — Sir Frederick Adam, Governor of Madras 
— ' Les absents ont toujours tort ' — A reckless Rider — A General 
calls out an Ensign — An unexpected broad Front — Cruel only 



to be kind — Lord William Bentinck's Comments on the Duel 

— The Governor-General appointed Commander-in-Chief 

Application for the Military Secretaryship — Sir Samford's Value 
to Lord William — A very hard Case—Colonel Napier's State- 
ment too favourably judged by its Victim — Sir Samford unjust 
to himself — An official Letter on broken Promises — First Meet- 
ing since Childhood of Father and Son — The Nilgherry Hills — 
Sir Edward Paget and the ' United Service Journal ' — Lord 
William's Confidence in General Whittingham — Babington 
Macaiday, Member of Council — Sir Samford's Admiration for 
the Prussian Military System — Requests Sir Edward to be his 
Second in a Duel with Colonel Napier — Sails for England in 
the ' Curacoa ' 385—403 



Mr. Davis's Letter to Sir E. Paget — Sir Edward declines to take 
Part in a Duel —Sir Rufane Donkin's decisive Conduct approved 
by Sir Edward Paget — A double Breach of Faith — A Question 
left to the Judgment of the Reader — Interviews with ' The Duke ' 
and Lord Glenelg — Men of no Party apt to be neglected — The 
Compiler of the immortal ' Dispatches ' consults Sir Samford — 
Lord Auckland's Invitation — His Lordship's Notes to Sir Sam- 
ford — The lion. Admiral Fleeming — Lord Elphinstone — 
Lord William Bentinck's Dinner to Lord Auckland — Lord 
George Bentinck — Royal Presentation — The King's Questions 
— William IV.'s flattering Finale — Sir H. Taylor's Letter on 
the Death of Sir William Knighton — The Duke of Wellington 
on the same Subject — Sir Samford Whittingham's Reply to his 
Grace — Sir Edward Paget's Farewell — Lord William Bentinck's 
Farewell — His Lordship's Philosophy — Correspondence between 
Sir Samford and Lord Palmerston — Portsmouth Hospitalities — 
Embarkation ........ 404 — 425 



Sir Samford's Second Service in the West Indies — Seeds of Dissen- 
sion sown in vain at Barbadoes — A profitless Command — Cares 
for the Health and Comfort of Soldiers — Mutiny of the Black 
Troops in Trinidad — A Roman View of Military Discipline — A 
fraternal Difference — i The best Inspecting- General we have ' — 



Sir Charles Paget's flattering Letter to Sir Samford — Popularity 
at the Expense of Discipline despised — Appointed Colonel of the 
71st Highland Light Infantry — Congratulations of Sir John Mac- 
donald the Adjutant- General — Sir Charles Paget's < Heart and 
Soul Remark' to his Brother — An invaluable Inspecting-General 
— Sir De Lacy Evans — The Hougomont Plero — Dr. Archibald 
Hair's Congratulations — Lord Glenelg's Letter — Doctor Cole- 
ridge, Bishop of Barbadoes — Sir Samford's Joy at the Emanci- 
pation of the Negroes — Inspection Visit to Dominica — Sir 
Samford's Capacity for Labour — A fiery Interview between 
Wellington and Picton — Yellow Fever in its last Stage — 
Satisfaction of Home Authorities — Death of Admiral Sir Charles 
Paget — His Relatives advise Sir Samford to resign — Mr. B. 
Frere's Letter to Sir Samford — Appointed Commander-in- 
Chief at Madras — Parting Compliments from the Governor 
and Assembly — Departure . . 426 — 453 


Returns to England for the last time — Last recorded Meeting of 
Two old Friends — Moore and Dickens — Duke of Wellington's 
kind Note — Letter to Sir John Ilobhouse on Corporal Punish- 
ment — Writes his l Recollections ' at Sea — Arrives at Madras 
during Lord Elphinstone's Absence — Lord Elphinstone's natural 
but needless Fears — Reinforcement to China — Letter from Lord 
Burghersh — Letter to the Hon. W. G. Osborne — Sir Charles 
Felix Smith's eulogistic Letter — A true Prophet on Indian Affairs 
— Sir Samford recommends Rapidity of Military Movements — A 
be-jewelled Rajah — An unworthy Englishman — Evil Effects of 
the West Indies — Sir Harry Smith's spontaneous Letter to Sir 
Samford — Evil Results of paternal Prejudices — Letter from the 
Bishop of Madras — Sir Samford's Loyalty to the Government — 
Correspondence about the ' Wellington Dispatches ' — Sir Sam- 
ford's Letter to Colonel Gurwood — Sir Samford's last Letters — 
His sudden Death — Lord Fitzroy Somerset's Letter to the Editor 
—The Funeral 454—491 









For more than sixty years the subject of this Memoir and 
his sons have passed the best part of their lives in the 
public service of their country, in various parts of the 
world, and without a settled habitation. Owing to this 
fact, to the local changes in his native town, and to the 
circumstance that all the early contemporaries of Sir 
Samford Whittingharn have long since departed this life, 
it is no easy matter to trace in accurate detail the antece- 
dents of the family. Nor is this necessary in a case where 
the distinction gained by personal merit, unaided by aris- 
tocratic connections, is one of the chief justifications for 



holding up as a useful example to others the career of a 
military officer. 

The father of Sir Samford Whittingham was a respec- 
table citizen of the ancient and honourable city of Bristol. 
Mr. William Whittingham appears to have retired from 
business, with an independent, though not large, fortune, 
and thenceforward to have lived on his means as a gentle- 
man in his native city. He had early married a young 
lady, who lived in the neighbourhood, who was of War- 
wickshire extraction, and who was called c the beautiful 
Miss Richardson.' They had three children. The eldest, 
a girl, Sarah, married in 1789 Eichard Hart Davis, a pros- 
perous merchant in the Spanish wool trade, who, in 1806, 
became member for Colchester, and in 1812 was returned 
for his native city of Bristol (which he represented in six 
successive Parliaments), and was succeeded at Colchester 
by his eldest son, Hart Davis, afterwards Deputy Chairman 
of the Board of Excise. 

The third child, James, eventually obtained a small post 
under Government. The elder of the two sons, Samuel 
Ford, the subject of this work, was born on the 29th 
January, 1772. When he grew up, his father desired to 
train him to the law, in its less brilliant but more pro- 
bably remunerative branch; but his son revolted at the 
very idea. From the first he was resolutely determined to 
be a soldier ; and nature had fitted him for the profession 
of arms. 

Tall and broad-shouldered, with a fine figure, and an 
excellent constitution, he possessed an open fearless dis- 
position, and an enthusiastic impetuosity, with much am- 
bition, all tempered by the most generous and chivalrous 
feelings. In addition to this, Samford (for into that one 
word the names Samuel Ford were soon contracted by 
himself and his friends) possessed much natural ability, very 
great energy, and a truly wonderful power of application. 
A bright and winning smile, a large and powerful fore- 


head, neutralized the irregularity of his features, and, 
coupled with his strong and commanding figure, formed 
a prepossessing exterior, which manners, always allowed 
to be singularly charming, rendered very attractive even 
to strangers, and completely fascinating to relatives and 
friends.* His respectful and disinterested deference and 
attentions to the fairer half of the creation was ever one of 
his most striking characteristics ; and he truly was the 
knight without fear and without reproach. His natural im- 
petuosity was calculated to make great friends or great 
enemies. If in his career the former greatly prepon- 
derated ; if the latter were indeed very rare, as is believed 
to have been the case ; this must be attributed to those 
winning qualities, that never lost a friend, but often won 
over an enemy. But his father would not hear of his en- 
tering the army ; and his filial piety was such that he gave 
up the cherished object of his life till he became his own 
master.f He even allowed his brother-in-law, Mr. Hart 
Davis, to persuade him to give a trial to the wool trade, so 
far as to agree to travel into Spain, and visit the connec- 
tions at Bilbao of the Bristol House. The desire to travel 
and see the world attracted him. He proceeded to 
Spain ; there, with his wonted application and energy, he 
speedily acquired a perfect knowledge of the Spanish lan- 

* One of Sir Samford Whittingham's nieces thus describes her uncle's 
appearance : — i If by the word handsome is simply meant beauty of feature 
and profile, it does not apply to him. But if eyes of matchless brilliancy, 
and the whole heart and soul animating a countenance beaming with talent 
and affection, be the test, then his countenance was eminently fascinating 
and delightful to look upon ; as were his manners and powers of conversa- 
tion, by which he won the hearts of all who approached him.' 

To this may be added another peculiarity, which may interest the reader. 
One of the medical officers called in when Sir Samford Whittingham was 
dying afterwards declared that he had ( the largest forehead he had ever 


t According to the Bristol Times (in its review of this work) Samford 
Whittingham was one of the mounted volunteers composed of the richer 
citizens, who were enrolled in Bristol in 1797, on a threatened French inva- 
sion. No doubt this episode increased his warlike tendencies. 



guage and people. But he preferred the society of the 
military to that of the merchants, and the ruling passion 
only became stronger and firmer than ever. 

Mr. William Whittingham died at Earl's Mead, Bristol, 
on the 12th September, 1801, aged sixty ; a man much re- 
spected by his relatives and acquaintances. The part of 
the town in which he lived has undergone such changes 
as to be no longer recognizable, thus adding to the diffi- 
culties of all researches into the past. 

By. his father's death, Samford Whittingham became in- 
dependent. He did not, however, immediately return to 
England ; probably waiting till he should learn if there 
were any prospect of his being at length able to obtain a 
commission in the army. Fortunately the rule that pre 
vented anyone above twenty-six years of age from obtain- 
ing a commission did not then exist. But it is probable 
that the further unfortunate delay was occasioned by his 
respect for his mother, who might have been shocked at the 
earnest wishes of the father being disregarded too soon 
after his death. The son appears to have remained 
abroad till he received the news of his approaching ap- 
pointment. At all events it was not till the 3rd of January, 
1803, that he arrived at the house of his widowed 
mother, in College Green, Bristol ; and on the 20th of the 
same month he was gazetted to an ensigncy. But he was 
bent on being a cavalry officer, and immediately pro- 
ceeded to London to negotiate the exchange. 

The following fragment of a letter (which must have 
been written from London about the middle of February 
1803, as it is recorded that he left the Green on the 3rd 
of that month) was carefully preserved by his mother, and 
found in her pocket-book, after her death : — 

'My dearest Mother, — I have almost concluded the 
business of the Lieutenancy in the [1st] Life Guards. 
Lord Harrington, the Colonel, is to give me a positive 


answer on Monday ; and Mr. Greenwood * has no doubt it 
will be favourable. The price is 2,000 guineas ; but out 
of this will be deducted the price I have already paid for 
the Ensigncy, &c.' 

Samford Whittingham was now thirty-one years of age. 
At that period, men usually obtained their first commis- 
sions at sixteen or earlier. He had thus lost at least 
fifteen years, and started in the army at a most lamentable 
disadvantage. If such a thing were possible now, it would 
be sufficiently disadvantageous. But sixty years ago it 
was worse. It is true that, thanks to that * Soldier's 
Friend,' the Duke of York, the days were past in which 
English colonels might be seen in long clothes, or Scotch 
majors be heard 'greeting for their porridge.' But the 
road to promotion for the noble and wealthy was still 
wonderfully quick ; and many men scarcely out of their 
teens were often found in actual command of regiments. 
Mr. William Whittingham's obstinacy had done irrepa- 
rable injury to his son, rendering it almost impossible for 
him to expect to live to attain to the higher posts and 
rewards of the profession of arms, especially as he had 
nothing but his own merit to rely on in the struggle. 

He did not return to Bristol, but proceeded imme- 
diately to the military college, then situated at High 
Wycombe. Although in those days science was not much 
encouraged in the army yet the zealous soldier was deter- 
mined thoroughly to fit himself for the duties which he 
had undertaken to perform. He determined to endeavour 
to make up for lost time by extra exertions. It is re- 
corded that, whilst at college, he lived on vegetable diet, 
in order to be able to study sixteen hours a day ! And his 
constitution was able to bear for about a year and a half 
this trying strain upon its powers. He left an impression 

* The firm now called Messrs. Cox and Co., the par excellence Army 
Agents of England. 


at High Wycombe, which, in the memory of more than 
one professor, was transmitted to Sandhurst College, when 
the scholastic locality was changed ; and of which im- 
pression, the editor was an ear-witness nearly thirty 
years later. 

Samford Whittingham appears to have joined the 1st 
Life Guards in London towards the latter part of 1804. 
He had made, probably in Portugal, the acquaintance of 
Mr. Thomas Murdoch, a wealthy and influential wine 
merchant. This gentleman appears to have been the 
means of introducing Lieutenant Whittingham to the 
notice of the Eight Honourable William Pitt, the Premier, 
who was then projecting an expedition against the Spanish 
South American colonies, and was desirous to secure for 
that purpose the services of a certain Englishman, named 
Captain Rogers, then in Madrid, in the service of Spain. 
Piogers was probably the captain of an English merchant 
ship, though this is a matter of conjecture only. The 
Life-Guardsman's knowledge of Spain and of the language, 
and his High Wycombe education no doubt were con- 
sidered good qualifications for the negotiation in question : 
and he was of course delighted to be of service to the 
great Minister of the day. 

As Mr. Pitt entered into his last period of office in May 
1804, and as Lieutenant Whittingham belonged to the 
1st Life Guards only from the 10th March, 1803, to the 
14th February, 1805, there is no difficulty in filling up 
that part of the date of the following note, which is left 
blank in the original : — 

1 Greenwich, 18th December [1804]. 

4 Dear Sir, — Mr. Pitt will be glad to see Mr. Whitting- 
ham to-morrow morning at any time he will call and send 
in his name. The sooner he calls after eleven o'clock the 
less chance there will be of his being kept waiting. 


6 1 have written, by his direction, for leave of absence to 
Lord Harrington. 

6 Yours faithfully, 

' Wm. Eliot. 

' Thomas Murdoch, Esquire, 
'No. 1 Fitzroy Square.' 

There is no doubt that the above note was written by 
the honourable William Eliot, brother to the first Earl, 
and afterwards himself the second Earl, of St. Germans. 
The ensuing correspondence has been lost, hi consequence 
of the box in which it was deposited in the care of Mr. 
Eichard Hart Davis having been stolen a few years later. 
A certain Captain Eichards was, it appears, employed 
by Lieutenant Whittingham to proceed from Lisbon to 
Madrid in the disguise of a smuggler, and to bring over 
Captain Sogers to England, and nothing more is at present 
known of the transaction itself. As regards Lieutenant 
Whittingham, he obtained the thanks of Mr. Pitt, but 
declined at the time all remuneration. The premature 
death of the Minister, on the 23rd January, 1806, was 
one of Samford Whittingham's earliest misfortunes, pre- 
venting his deriving at that time any advantage, either 
from his services or his disinterestedness. But the Ministry 
took these services, amongst others, into consideration 
when, many years later, a small pension was granted 

to him. 

In the United Service Journal for April, 1841, this 
affair with Mr. Pitt is thus noticed in the account of the 
services of Sir Samford Whittingham : — 

' In 1801, Lieutenant Whittingham, at the desire of 
Mr. Pitt, was selected to proceed to Portugal on a secret 
mission. This service detained him in that country about 
twelve months, and during his residence at Lisbon, he 
was promoted to a company in the 20th Foot. 

' Captain Whittingham, on his return to England, was 
complimented by Mr. Pitt on the very able manner in 


which he had executed the commission entrusted to him 
by that Minister ; and shortly after a troop in the 13th 
Light Dragoons becoming vacant, he was removed into 
that regiment.' r - 

The article from which the above was taken was (there 
is every reason to believe) written by Mr. Hart Davis, 
Junior, late Deputy Chairman of the Board of Excise, who 
was better acquainted than any person then living with 
all that concerned his uncle, Sir Samford Whittingham. 
The exchange into the 13th Light Dragoons must have 
cost a large sum of money ; but the amount has not been 

In that same year, 1805, in which Samford Whitting- 
ham was promoted to be captain, his future greatest 
friend and patron — then wholly unknown to him, and two 
years younger than himself — was gazetted a Major- 
General. This was the honourable Edward Paget (whose 
brother, Lord Paget, afterwards became Marquis of 
Anglesey), of whom much mention will be made in the 
latter half of this volume. 









Towards the close of 1806, when the secret expedition 
against Lima, under the command of Brigadier-General 
Eobert Craufurd was organized, Captain Whittingham 
was appointed Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General 
to that force. Early in October, he joined it at Ports- 
mouth, and sailed from England on the 12th November 
of the same year. From the day of his embarkation to 
that of his return to England, he — notwithstanding his 
many official duties — kept a copious journal, which com- 


pletely filled two small manuscript volumes. From these 
alone a full and graphic history of one of the most disas- 
trous expeditions, that England ever embarked in, might 
easily be written. And surely with profit : for the study 
of defeats, by teaching us how to avoid them, is as profit- 
able, though not as agreeable, as the study of victories is 
to teach us how to gain them. But as this work is not a 
history, but only the memoir of an individual, the quota- 
tions from these voluminous journals will be limited to 
such matters as regard the character, conduct, and for- 
tunes of Captain Whittingham, although to do this clearly 
must entail the narration of many general details of the 

The fleet and convoy touched at St. Iago, the capital of 
the Verde Islands, on the 14th December, 1806. There 
Captain Whittingham 's knowledge of languages was very 
useful to the Brigadier-General, in official matters, and 
very agreeable to the donna and to her lovely daughters 
at whose house the Captain was quartered during the few 
days the fleet remained in the harbour. As the Staff 
Officer of the force, he had also to settle a serious affair, 
the result of the wanton midnight freaks of some wild 
British officers, who had finished by insulting the guard 
of the Governor Don Antonio Continho.* But the gene- 
rous Governor was satisfied with an apology, interceded 
warmly in favour of the offenders, and finally ended 
by hospitably entertaining them and their mediator to 
dinner. ' Sorry I am to say, 7 says the journalist about 
this business, ' I never saw my countrymen appear to less 
advantage.' — 

On the 11th June the expedition left the Islands. On 

* The ring-leader of these rioters was the Hon. Captain , who was 

madly determined to force the Governor into a bag, which he had obtained 
for the purpose j and he was with difficulty dissuaded from carrying out his 


the 29th, it passed the line, and reached the Cape of 
Good Hope on the 15th March. The secret of the ex- 
pedition had been well kept even from the Staff Officer. 
But fresh instructions received at the Cape caused an 
entire change of the original plan. Meantime the stay 
at the Cape was enlivened by putting the troops ashore 
for some days ; on one of which there was a grand re- 
view of the united forces under Generals Grey and Crau- 
furd. The second of the two following extracts shows 
the penetration of the writer of the journal : — 

6 Qth April [1807]. — The gale having subsided about 
half past four in the morning, we got under way. The 
weather was beautifully serene, and a few hours took the 
whole fleet out of the harbour. In the evening we were 

4 1th April. — Yesterday evening the Admiral [Murray] 
made the compass signal to steer north-west during the 
night. This has decided my opinion as to our present 
destination : we are certainly going to St. Helena, and 
thence to Buenos Ayres.' 

The fleet sighted St. Helena on the 19th April. On 
the 20th, Captain Whittingham left the ' Warre ' transport 
to take the orders of the General, who was on board the 
Admiral's ship. He then proceeded ashore to call on 
the Governor, with whom he breakfasted ; a clever 
crotchety man, who started a long and tedious discussion 
in the vain endeavour to prove to the pupil of High 
Wycombe the value of some very doubtful improvements 

in gunnery.* 

On the 25th, the fleet and transports again started ; 
and cast anchor near Montevideo on the loth June, 
where they found Sir Samuel Achmuty* (who had taken 
it by storm) with some 7,000 men. General Whitelocke 

* The whole discussion is given in voluminous detail in the journal. 


had also arrived ; and now Craufurd's division was incor- 
porated with the rest, and Captain Whittingham lost his 
Staff post. But General Whitelocke appointed him his 
extra aide-de-camp without delay, and ever afterwards 
treated him with kindness, and with a flattering appre- 
ciation of his abilities.' 

c 16th June. ... At five, we were going to sit down 
to dinner at General Whitelocke's, when a flag of truce 
arrived. . It proved to be an aide-de-camp of General 
Liniers, a captain of hussars, named Don Pedro Joseph 
de Pendo. He came to propose an exchange of pri- 
soners . . . General Whitelocke rejected the proposal 
altogether. He [the captain] was invited to dinner ; and 
in the course of the evening, the General desired him 
to say to General Liniers that he could not, after the 
abusive letters which had been addressed to his prede- 
cessor [Sir Samuel Achmuty], enter into any correspond- 
ence whatever.' 

On the 18th June, the order of battle was given out to 
the troops as follows : — 

In the first line Brigadier-General Achmuty was to 
command the left Brigade, consisting of the 5th, 87th, and 
28th Regiments of Foot ; Brigadier-General Lumley was 
given the command of the centre, composed of the 36th 
and 88th Foot, and a part of the 17th Light Dragoons dis- 
mounted. To the right Brigade, commanded by Briga- 
dier-General Craufurd, were attached the 95th Regiment, 
and the Light Battalion. 

The right of the first line was to be supported by two 
batteries of artillery of six guns each. 

The second line, or reserve, was supported on its left 
flank by a six-gun battery. Then came, successively, the 
9th Light Dragoons on foot, the 45th and 40th Regi- 
ments, the 6th Dragoon Guards on foot, and finally the 
remainder of the 17th Light Dragoons mounted. 

The whole force considerably exceeded 10,000 officers, 


non-commissioned officers, and men, from which might be 
deducted about 400 sick, and less than 50 absent. 

The embarkation at Montevideo was successfully carried 
out ; and the landing, ' a little to the westward of Barra- 
gan,' which began at ten a.m. on the 28th June, was 
effected without opposition. 

Previous to leaving Montevideo (where Colonel Brown 
was deft in command), General Whitelocke made an offer 
to Captain Whittingham, which, however kindly intended, 
and however flattering, yet proved how little he understood 
the character of his aide-de-camp. The journal records : 
— ' He [the General] began by saying that, if my views in 
this country were those of pleasure and amusement, he 
feared that what he had to propose would not merit my 
approbation ; but that, if, on the contrary, my desires and 
wishes were to render myself useful to my country, and to 
make unto myself a. name, he thought he had an opportu- 
nity of placing me in a situation of honour, of emolument, 
and of much utility to the public good. 5 

; In a word, he wished to make me a sort of command- 
ant, and to place under my care the police of Buenos Ayres, 
and of all the surrounding country, giving me the direction 
and control of all the force, whether native or English, that 
should be employed for that purpose. He did not entirely 
explain himself on this head, but as far as I understood him, 
he intended to appoint one officer under me, and he wished 
me to recommend another. Under the direction of the 
first the military branch might be immediately placed; 
under the orders of the second, the civil branch ; both, of 
course, to be immediately under my command. Soon after- 
wards Major-General Gower repeated nearly the same offer. 
I told them both, and more particularly General White- 
locke, that I could not sufficiently express my gratitude 
for the confidence with which he was pleased to honour 
me ; that T felt highly honoured by the offer he had 
made me : but that, as he had condescended to enquire 


into my views and wishes as a soldier, I hoped he would 
excuse the liberty I took in stating that, if the employ- 
ment he intended to confer on me must of necessity 
confine me to Buenos Ayres, and prevent my following 
the army to the field, I should feel myself called upon to 
refuse it, if left by him a right of election. " For, sir," 
I added, " I would rather be a common hussar in the 
outposts in an active campaign than enjoy the most 
honourable and the most lucrative situation which should 
deprive me of the chance of seeing service." I had the 
satisfaction of finding my sentiments were not disap- 
proved of.' 

In his journal of the 3rd July, Captain Whittingham 
narrates the first of the most important faults made by 
his kind but inefficient commander : — ' It appeared that 
General Grower had passed the Eichuelo [rivulet] the 
day before at the Paso Chico, had fallen in with the 
enemy's advanced guard at the Miserere, and had taken 
nine pieces of cannon and a howitzer. This trifling ad- 
vantage unfortunately changed the original plan of at- 
tack ; which was to have gained the north-west side of 
the town, and to have taken up a position from the 
Eicoleta to the Plaza de los Toros. From this com- 
manding; situation it would have been in the General's 
power to have laid the town in ashes, or to have dictated 
to the inhabitants the terms of a capitulation. It was 
now determined to attack the town from our present 
position, which was behind it, upon a line nearly parallel 
to the bank of the river.' 

' 4:th July. — I was sent with a flag of truce to offer 
terms to General Liniers. They were refused, and the 
attack was ordered for the next day.' 

He then gives in his journal all the orders for the 
attack in great detail. The chief mistake was the division 
of the troops into many separate columns, too distant to 
support each other, and having to penetrate narrow streets, 


the windows and housetops of which were crowded with 
armed militiamen. The troops were ordered to ad- 
vance to the proposed point of union or post which they 
were to reach, not only without firing, but also un- 
loaded. The wisdom of the latter part of this order at 
least may be doubted, but the General was acquitted at 
his court-martial of all blame in this respect; and this 
acquittal of part of one charge was the only exception to 
the universal verdict of guilty, on four charges. The 
words of the order in question were ' The whole to be un- 
loaded, and no firing to be admitted on any account ; ' an 
order not calculated to encourage troops exposed to mur- 
derous street-firing, and not sanctioned by the example of 
more recent times in Paris and elsewhere. 

' bth July. — The signal agreed upon was made at thirty- 
five minutes past six. The Commander-in-Chief was 
stationed in the rear of one of the centre streets. The 
fire was very heavy, but more particularly on the left. In 
consequence of having observed some considerable bodies 
of the enemy's cavalry hovering about, I was sent to 
reconnoitre them with ten dragoons and a small body of 
infantry. I was joined soon after by Colonel Torrens, 
and we pushed our reconnoissance to some miles distance. 
However, in spite of every stratagem we could make use 
of, we could never get the enemy to stand the charge, 
though their numbers exceeded at one time 200. The 
dragoons came up with them once, and despatched five 
in less than as many minutes. On our return we found 
that the Carabineers had advanced up the centre street to 
take some guns, and that they had behaved with great gal- 
lantry, though they had not succeeded. Colonel Kington 
was wounded and taken prisoner, and Captain Burril 
killed. The 9th Dragoons had got into much confusion, 
and had lost some men. No account whatever had been 
received from either wing, and all communication with 
the right and left was entirely cut off. A little before 


three o'clock, General Whitelocke began to be uneasy at 
having heard nothing from Sir Samuel Achmuty, or from 
Brigadier-General [Eobert] Craufurd, and [General White- 
locke] said that, although it was a service that he would 
not press upon any man, yet he should feel himself infi- 
nitely obliged to any of his staff who would- undertake to 
penetrate to the Plaza de los Toros, and find out the state 
of Sir Samuel [Achmuty] and his Brigade. I immediately 
said I should be most happy to have an opportunity of 
rendering myself useful, and at three o'clock I marched off 
with a sergeant and ten dragoons, and thirty infantry. I 
neglected no precaution as to the proper distribution of 
my little force. The whole country about Buenos Ayres 
is intersected with hedges. I divided the infantry into 
two separate bodies, to act as flankers, one on each side 
of the road ; and I had, moreover, a corporal and two 
mounted dragoons as an advanced guard, and two private 
dragoons at some distance as a rear guard. I had good 
reason to be satisfied with having taken these necessary 
precautions, for our whole route was one continual skir- 
mish, and the enemy was constantly on the watch to sur- 
prise us. 

6 Captain John Brown, J..D. and A.D.C., joined me, as 
a volunteer. My directions— for finding the Plaza de los 
Toros were to keep the Ricoleta on my left, and whenever 
this church should bear nearly west, the Plaza de los 
Toros would be nearly east. Notwithstanding, when we 
got within about a mile, being desirous to come to it by 
the most private road, I ordered the flankers, instead of 
firing upon the next armed people they should meet with, 
to endeavour to make them prisoners. They presently 
brought me three, and I gave them to understand that, if 
they wished to avoid the gallows, they must take care to 
conduct me safelv to the Plaza de los Toros : where, in 
fact, I arrived after a march of one hour and a half. 

4 1 found Sir Samuel Achmuty in complete possession of 


the Plaza de los Toros. He had taken thirty-three pieces 
of cannon, an immense quantity of ammunition, and 607 
prisoners. The slaughter of the enemy had been con- 
siderable. Sir Samuel had under his command ... his 
own brigade, which had suffered considerably, and the 
36th Eegiment, which had joined him, under General 
Lumley. The 88th Eegiment, which formed part of 
General Lumley's brigade, was missing. The communica- 
tion with the navy was opened. Sir Samuel expressed 
his desire that the Commander-in-Chief should, if he 
thought proper, effect a junction with him without loss of 
time with all the force [which] he could draw from the 
centre. But, at all events, he requested that some artil- 
lerymen might be sent immediately to work the guns 
which had fallen into his possession. As it appeared of 
importance to communicate Sir Samuel's report as soon 
as possible to the Commander-in-Chief, I left the infantry 
at the Plaza de los Toros, and effected my retreat with 
the dragoons. I got to head-quarters in less than an hour, 
and, in consequence of my report, eighteen artillerymen 
were forthwith sent to Sir Samuel. 

4 We were still ignorant of the fate of General Crau- 
furd's brigade, and of [that] of the 45th ; and that of the 
88th Eegiment appeared very doubtful. It was very ne- 
cessary that the General should know as soon as possible 
the state of affairs on the right, and I again volunteered 
my services to penetrate to the position which General 
Craufurd might be in possession of/ 

6 6th July. — At daybreak I was on horseback. My in- 
structions were to make about one mile southing, and 
then three miles easting. At the moment of my depar- 
ture, one of the Peones* arrived with the intelligence that 
Colonel Mahon had passed the bridge with the column 
under his command of the 40th Eegiment, the 17th Light 

* Native scouts or spies. </ . v .'*-.;■ .,/' '■ ■* 


Dragoons dismounted, two companies of the 45th Eegi- 
ruent, and one hundred men of the 88th, and waited for 
further orders. 

' Colonel Mahon had been left at La Eeduction, with 
the above-mentioned force, to act according to the orders 
he might subsequently receive. A letter had been sent 
to him to advance, but he had not received it, and had 
passed the bridge [only] in consequence of the firing he 
heard, and as concluding naturally that he should, at all 
events, make his force more disposable, by getting rid, as 
soon as possible, of the obstacle of the bridge. 

' With the usual precautions, I advanced within half a 
mile of the Eesidencia, when, finding the enemy's parties 
falling back on the same point, and collecting in great 
numbers, I thought it right to endeavour to communicate 
to Colonel Mahon the order to advance to head-quarters, 
before I attempted to force the road to the Eesidencia. 
I inclined, therefore, to the right, and in about half an 
hour fell in with the advanced pickets, and waited upon 
the Colonel at his head-quarters. With Colonel Mahon, 
I left the party of thirty infantry I had brought with me, 
and received in return 100 men of the 40th Eegiment, 
under the command of Captain Gilles. . A little after one 
o'clock, I joined Majors Nicols and Tolly at the Eesidencia. 
Major Nicols had under his command seven companies of 
the 45th Eegiment. 

'Major Tolly, of the 71st Eegiment, who was one of 
the prisoners under General Beresford's capitulation, but 
had made his escape, led this column on the day of attack, 
and had taken possession of the Eesidencia with the loss 
of only seven men. They had had no communication with 
General Craufurd. On the morning of the attack, an 
English flag had been seen flying about 700 or 800 yards 
in advance towards the north-west, or [the] direction 
where General Craufurd was expected to be. At three 
o'clock p.m. of the same day, it was struck.' (An almost 


sure proof of the surrender of that brigade and of its most 
gallant leader.) 

c Colonel Gerard, of the 45th, had advanced with his 
company of grenadiers, soon after his regiment had taken 
possession of the Eesidencia, to endeavour to open a com- 
munication with General Craufurd, and had been seen no 
more. Whilst we were in conversation on the top of the 
building, a cannon-shot went over our heads ; the guns 
were advancing up the street. In a moment, Major 
Nicols was at the head of his men, and in less than five 
minutes a howitzer, with the timbers, was in our posses- 
sion. Major Nicols and Major Tolly having given it as 
their opinion that it would be in vain for a small force to 
attempt to penetrate in search of General Craufurd, and 
that a large force could not be spared without risking the 
safety of the Eesidencia, we were constrained to give up 
all hopes of opening a communication with the Light 
Brigade ; and at four o'clock p.m. I began my retreat. 

6 At seven o'clock p.m. I arrived at head-quarters, with- 
out having lost a man; a little skirmishing had taken place 
on the road, and the enemy lost two men killed, and two 
taken prisoners. I found that the Commander-in-Chief 
and Major-General Gower had gone to the left, and that 
Colonel Mahon had occupied with his brigade our former 
position at the Miserere. I reported to the Colonel the 
strength of Majors Tolly and Nicols' position, the abun- 
dance of the provisions they had [found] in the convent 
and adjacent houses, and the two guns and the howitzer 
they had taken ; the proximity of the river, which was not 
300 yards distant, and the ease with which a communica- 
tion might be opened with the navy. [I added] the want 
they had expressed of an artillery officer, and the advan- 
tage they would derive from a reinforcement. The Colonel 
immediately decided that a reinforcement of 300 men, 
under Major Gwyn, should be sent to them next morning, 
with an artillery officer.' 

c 2 


6 7th July. — At daybreak, I was on horseback, to pro- 
ceed with a small detachment to the Commander-in-Chief 
on the left ; and the party for the support of Majors 
Tolly and Nicols was already paraded, when a flag of 
truce arrived with orders from General Whitelocke to 
suspend all hostilities till further orders ! 

4 At nine o'clock, I joined General Whitelocke, and re- 
ported upon the state of the Eesidencia, Colonel Mahon's 
Brigade, &c. I then learned to my infinite sorrow that 
soon after my departure a flag of truce had arrived from 
General Liniers to inform the Commander-in-Chief of 
the capture of General Craufurd, Colonel Duff,* Colonel 
Gerard, Colonel Pack, and Colonel Cadogan, together 
with the 95th, the Light Battahon, and the 88th; and to 
offer all the English prisoners in South America to return 
if the General would agree to evacuate the territory of 
Buenos Ayres in ten days, and the river Plate in the 
course of two months. This offer was rejected without 
hesitation. The flag of truce was sent back, and the Com- 
mander-in-Chief and Major-General Gower repaired with- 
out loss of time to the Plaza de los Toros. 

6 On my return from Sir Samuel Achmuty on the even- 
ing of the 5th, I had reported the position of the Plaza de 
los Toros to be extremely good ; that from it we might 
lay the town in ashes ; that no force the enemy could 
bring forward would ever be able to take it from us ; that 
the head-quarters of the army might be established in 
the Pticoleta, a short distance to the rear ; that a few 
mounted dragoons would clear the country . . . and, 
consequently, ensure our Peones being able to supply the 
camp with beef; and that, finally, our communication 
with the navy being opened, we should be enabled to ob- 
tain an ample supply of salt provisions, biscuit and spirits. 

* Younger son of the Earl of Fife and afterwards General the Honour- 
able Sir Alexander Duff. He was brother to the gallant Lord Macduff 
and father of the present Earl of Fife. 


'When the two generals came to the Plaza de los 
Toros, Major-General Gower's opinion of the position by 
no means coincided with my report, and I understand he 
expressed himself so strongly as to say that nothing more 
could be done, and that it would be better to accept 
General Linier's terms. I have since, however, had the 
satisfaction to find my report of the position completely 
supported, in all its extent, by the Chief Engineer, Cap- 
tain Squire, and the commanding officer of Artillery, 
Captain Fraser. 

' On the morning of the 6th, a very sliort time after 
his arrival at the Plaza de los Toros, Major-General Gower 
went himself with a flag of truce to General Liniers, and 
agreed upon the preliminaries of the treaty. This took 
place about the time I was returning from the Eesidencia. 

'At twelve o'clock, the 7th of July, I was sent to Gene- 
ral Liniers, who returned with me to wait on General 
Whitelocke. The preliminaries were finally agreed upon. 
In the evening, English and Spanish patrols of cavalry 
were established in the town. It was determined that the 
Eesidencia and Miserere should be evacuated, and that all 
the troops should reunite at the Plaza de los Toros. At 
eight p.m. the treaty arrived, signed by General Liniers. 
General Whitelocke signed it the same evening, and 
Admiral Murray the next clay.' 

The journal of Captain Whittingham contains many 
pages of sharp criticism and of indignant commentaries on 
the facts which led to this shameful surrender, which will 
not be dwelt on in this Memoir. One passage, however, 
is here given ; and this chapter will conclude with a few 
more extracts from the journal, personally concerning its 

6 (7th July.) — History will record, and posterity with 
difficulty will believe, that such an army as ours capitu- 
lated with the rabble of a South American town, and sold 
the interests of the country, and gave up the hard-earned 


conquests of their brother soldiers, in order to secure a 
retreat which it was most amply in their power to have 
made at their good pleasure ; or, at best, to procure that 
liberty for their countrymen which under such circum- 
stances was scarcely worth their acceptance. But enough 
of this subject. I am sick of it! Would to God the 
waters of Oblivion were as near at hand as are those of 
La Plata ! ' 

' 11th July. — Generals Whitelocke and Lumley, with 
their staff, dined with General Liniers at the fort. The 
dinner was excellent, and veiy well served. " God save 
the King " was played, and the healths of the Kings of 
England and Spain drunk. The meeting went off as well 
as the nature of the affair could admit, and certainly no- 
thing could exceed the modesty and propriety of General 
Liniers's behaviour . . . Liniers is an emigrant, an ex- 
Baron, and a ci-devant captain of a ship of the line in the 
French Navy/ 

' 12th July. — I waited upon General Liniers for the last 
time relative to the hostages. They are three volunteers 
— Captains Stanhope, 6 th Dragoon Guards, Carroll, 

88th Eegiment, and Hamilton, 5th Eegiment 

At two o'clock, [I] got on board the "Aurora" packet. 
We went under the stern of the "Nereide," and, having 
received the General's final instructions, made sail for 

' lith July [Montevideo]. — I cannot express what I 
have felt this morning, at having been informed by 
Brown, Blake, and Forster, that upon many of the corners 
of the streets was written, " General Whitelocke is either 
a coward or a traitor ! Perhaps both ! " 

' All the English merchants are in an uproar. They 
say their losses will be immense ; that upwards of three 
millions worth of property is on its way to this country, 
and that, if it is given up, half the merchants in England 
will be ruined. God knows what will be the result of this 


most unfortunate affair. It appears to me one of the most 
severe blows that England has ever received.' 

'lhth [July]. — Lieutenant-General Whitelocke landed 
about seven o'clock a.m. [at Montevideo].' 

By a return written by Captain Whittingham, but evi- 
dently copied from the official one, dated 5th July, 1807, 
there were 16 officers killed at the attack on Buenos 

Ayres, and 56 wounded ; and of non-commissioned offi- 
cers and men, 289 killed, and 592 wounded; 207 was the 
total amount of the missing. 

The following extract from the journal is inserted from 
a feeling of justice and compassion to poor General 
Whitelocke, since many a man unfit for the trying post 
of a military commander in war may yet be excellent in^ 
other positions, and worthy of love^attd-i^gard. C J?M* 

'17th July. — The head of the^Cavildo^ waited upon §*- 
the General, to request he would sigrrmsitain papers rela- 
tive to their justification, which the General promised to 
do. The head of the Cavildo begged leave to return his 
most sincere thanks to General Whitelocke for the honour- 
able and generous treatment [which] the magistrates and 
people of Montevideo had experienced at his hands, and 
at those of his predecessors. He added that he was well 
aware that under the mild and benign influence of the 
British government alone could they have hoped to meet 
with such strict and impartial justice, tempered with 
mercy. He spoke of the mob of Buenos Ayres in much 
the same terms as I have Hone heretofore,f and seemed 
to think the period of a revolution not far distant.' 

Before dismissing the subject of the Buenos Ayres ex- 
pedition, it must be stated that the journal of Captain 
Wliittingham contains a long and interesting conversation 
that he had on the 26th July, at Montevideo, with Cap- 
tain Cormero, the aide-de-camp of General Liniers;^ or 

* Local governing council of Montevideo. 

t In a part of his journal not published in this work. 


rather, it was the questions of the Englishman that drew 
out the information from the Spaniard. Captain Cormero 
(at the hospitable table of Captain Squire) appears to have 
been very frank in his communications. They were of a 
nature completely to confirm and verify the criticisms 
which had previously been entered in Captain Whitting- 
ham's journal ; though also imparting much new and valu- 
able information. One only of the answers will be here 

' In possession/ said Captain Cormero, ' as you were, of 
the two important posts of La Plaza de los Toros, and 
the Eesidencia, we were convinced from the very instant 
that you indicated a wish to treat of a capitulation that 
your General must have been influenced by the tenor of 
his instructions, which, we conceive, must have directed 
him, in the most positive manner, to avoid all harsh mea- 
sures with the inhabitants of South America. In no 
otlxer way could we account for his conduct ; though we 
had no idea at that time that the whole British force had 
ever exceeded 5,000 men, including all the losses in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, sustained in the attack of the 5th. ' 

Captain Whittingham was eager to leave Buenos Ayres, 
and return to England. He had lost his paid Staff ap- 
pointment, and was only an extra aide-de-camp to a Gene- 
ral going home. He wished to obtain some new appoint- 
ment, or, failing that, to rejoin the 13th Light Dragoons. 
Accordingly, having obtained leave from the General, and 
a passage from the Admiral, and taken leave of both those 
functionaries, he sailed from Montevideo for England, on 
the 30th July, 1807. 

Whilst on the Staff of General Whitelocke, in South 
America, Captain Whittingham contracted many durable 
friendships amongst his brother officers, and more espe- 
cially with Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Torrens, and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel the Honourable Henry Caclogan. The 
former was destined soon to become the military secretary 


of His Eoyal Highness the Duke of York, and under the 
name of Sir Henry Torrens to acquire a reputation at the 
Horse Guards, honoured and respected in the army ; the 
latter, a younger son of the Earl of Cadogan, gallant, chi- 
valrous, and generous-minded, was destined to an early, 
but glorious, death, whilst leading his regiment to victory 
under the great captain of the age. But before this sad 
event was to occur, Lieutenant-Colonel Cadogan and Cap- 
tain Whittingham were to renew their friendship in the 
Peninsular War, although their meetings there were to be 
brief and rare. The letters of Cadogan have not reached 
the author's hands. It is possible that they may have 
been returned to his friends at his death, although of this 
there is no proof. Fortunately, two copies of letters written 
to him by Captain Whittingham have been preserved, and 
will appear in their proper places. It is enough here to 
say that they give sufficient proof of a warm and almost 
romantic affection, rarely to be met with in these calm and 
civilized days. 

It is probable that Captain Wliittingham divided the 
few months that he remained in England (which were not 
occupied with the long trial of General Whitelocke) in 
doing duty with the 13th Light Dragoons, in which he 
was a captain, and in visiting his sister and brother-in-law. 
The famous court-martial commenced its proceedings on 
the 28th of January, 1808, at the Eoyal Hospital, Chelsea, 
under the presidency of Sir William Meadows, KB. 

Captain Whittingham was one of the most important 
witnesses ; and to him (from the uniform kindness which 
he had received from the unfortunate prisoner) the task 
he was compelled to perform must have been truly painful 
to his feelings. The trial lasted till the 18th of March ; 
about six weeks from which time Captain Whittingham 
re-embarked for foreign service, having obtained a new 
Staff appointment. 

General Whitelocke was tried on four long charges, 


most of them implying want of judgment and of capa- 
city. The third charge was the most disgraceful, accusing 
him of being wanting in personal exertion, in a manner 
that appeared to comprehend a still graver charge, which 
it is needless to specify. The prisoner was sentenced to 
be ' cashiered,' and was declared to be ' wholly unfit and 
unworthy to serve His Majesty in any military capacity 

Short as was the time that Captain Whittingham had 
at his command, during his present stay in England, it is 
certain that he then had the high honour of attracting 
the notice of that great admirer of military merit, and 
indeed of all merit, His Eoyal Highness the Duke of 
Kent. This was, no doubt, due to the reputation which 
Captain Whittingham had acquired by the publication of 
his (and other corroborative) evidence on Whitelocke's 

The first of the following two letters was written by 
General Kobert Craufurd, one of the best and bravest of 
soldiers, who was afterwards mortally wounded at the 
siege of Ciudad Eodrigo on the 19th January, 1812, and 
died on the 24th of the same month. 

The date of the note, unfortunately, does not fix the 
time ; but it must have been in the autumn of 1807 : — 

Brigadier- General Robert Craufurd to Captain Samford 


1 Mickleham, Sunday evening [1807]. 

' My dear Whittingham, — A visit from a brother, whom 
I have not seen for a long time, and who can only pass 
two days with me, and some other circumstances, have 
occasioned my deferring this answer to your last letter, 
in which you expressed a desire that I would write to 
Gordon.* You may perfectly depend upon my sending 

* Lieutenant- Colon el Gordon, Military Secretary at the Horse Guards, 
afterwards for very many years Quartermaster-General of the army, as Si 
Willoughby Gordon, G.C.B., and who survived to an extreme old age. 


you, by to-morrow's post, a letter both to him and to 
General Brownrigg ; and I beg you to be assured that to 
have an opportunity [of] expressing the very high opinion 
which I entertain of your military merit, or of proving 
my very sincere personal regard and friendship for you, 
will ever afford me the most real pleasure and gratifi- 

' Believe me always, your sincere friend, 


' [P.S.] — I hope my letters will not arrive too late. If 
you have not been with Gordon or Brownrigg, Tuesday 
will, I suppose, be as good a day as Monday. At any rate, 
pray send my letters to them if you do not get them in 
time to deliver them in person.' 

Lieutenant- Colonel Gordon to Richard Hart Davis , 

Esq. M.P. 

1 Horse Guards, 30th Septe?nbe?; 1807. 

c Sir, — I have the pleasure of your letter of yesterday, 
with its enclosures, which I will give to Mr. Murdoch as 
soon as he comes to town. 

1 It has given me great satisfaction promoting the views 
of Captain Whittingham y of whose good conduct every 
officer under whom he has served speaks in the highest 
praise. I remain, with great truth, sir, 

' Your faithful servant, 

' J. W. Gordon. 

i Richard Hart Davis, Esq. M.P. 
< Clifton, Bristol.' 







Captain Whitthstgham was appointed in the spring of 
1808 Deputy- Assistant-Quartermaster- General on the Staff 
of the army in Sicily. This was a post not at all to 
his taste, for he conceived himself much better fitted by 
his antecedents for service in South America ; to which it 
was then believed that another expedition was soon to be 
despatched, to recover lost prestige by new and better or- 
ganized plans. In 1806 his brother-in-law had been 
elected member for Colchester, and he was no longer in 
the friendless state in which he had entered the army; 


whilst his conduct at Buenos Ayres had gained him some 
friends, who were attracted to him both by his military 
merits and by his agreeable manners. 

Captain Whittingham to Richard Hart Davis, 

Esq. M.P. 

' Sunday morning [probably April 1808]. 

'I dined yesterday with Colonel Gordon, who received 
me in the kindest manner. He has promised to endea- 
vour to procure me a passage in a frigate which will sail 
in a few days. To-morrow I go to the Duke of Kent's, 
and from thence to Fulham, so that I shall not be able 
to see you. Tuesday I am to see the Duke of York and 
Colonel Gordon. But I will not fail to call upon you 
previously to my going to the Horse Guards.' 

As Captain Whittingham had no official connection 
whatever with His Eoyal Highness the Duke of Kent, his 
going to take leave of that Prince previously to embarking 
for foreign service is a proof of the favour he enjoyed in 
that quarter. Then, doubtless, was arranged that corre- 
spondence the existence of which will be proved; although 
the letters themselves, with one exception, are unfortu- 
nately lost or mislaid. This correspondence was a great 
and valuable tribute to the merit of a captain of brief 
standing in the army, and possessed of neither military 
nor aristocratic connections. 

Captain Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Portsmouth, 28th April, 1808. 

' General Oake's aide-de camp has just been here to an- 
nounce that we weigh anchor at eight o'clock to-morrow 
morning. I shall not, therefore, be able to receive your 

* As nearly all the letters in this work from Samford Whittingham to 
his brother-in-law, Mr. Davis, will be extracts, the word extract will be 
omitted in future in such letters. 


letter of to-morrow. There seems to be a strange kind of 
predestination in my going to the Mediterranean ; and a 
soldier is more particularly bound to believe that whatever 
is, is right. It is to me most grievous to think that all my 
hopes of being once more employed where best I could 
have served my country are done away with. The die is 
cast, however, and there is no remedy. For as to my re- 
call from Sicily to join the army in South America after 
the affair is over, I cannot even wish it. For that would 
be completely reducing one to the situation of a civil agent, 
whose knowledge of the language might be considered 

Captain Whittingham, however, sailed without effecting 
his object of a change of destination. After his arrival at 
Gibraltar, (where, as in duty bound, he waited on the 
Governor, Lieutenant-General Sir Hew Dalrymple,) he 
wrote on the 2nd June : — c You will see by the enclosed 
letter for Mr. Murdoch the present state of things, and will 
judge of the heavy heart with which I shall, in a few days, 
embark for Sicily. When you have read it, have the good- 
ness to send it to him. I have seen Maitlancl. He is well, 
and going into Spain with Captain Dalrymple. The King 
and Queen of Spain, the Prince of Asturias, and several of 
the first nobility have been arrested at Bayonne, where 
they went to meet Buonaparte, and have been sent into the 
interior of France.' 

Captain Whittingham, it appears, now acted as Sir Hew's 
Military Secretary in the absence of Captain Dalrymple on 
leave. He thus discovered that the Governor was in cor- 
respondence with Lieutenant-General DonXavier Castaiios, 
commanding the Spanish camp near Gibraltar, relative to 
the plan of a projected campaign against the French. He, 
therefore, entreated Sir Hew Dalrymple to give him per- 
mission to join General Castaiios as a volunteer. As his 
perfect knowledge of the language and people of Spain 


especially fitted him to cement the alliance of the two 
nations, the Governor does not appear to have thrown any 
difficulties in his way. How delighted this consent made 
him, let his own pen demonstrate : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Gibkaxtar, 5ih Jime, 1808. 

6 My dear Davis, — It would be in vain to attempt to ex- 
press to you the feelings of my heart upon this most 
delightful occasion. I feel thankful to God for all things ; 
and I bless that fate which has been so singularly pro- 
pitious to all my soul's best wishes. This very morning, 
my own dear brother, I proceed to San Eoque, to meet the 
Spanish General Castanos, and to accompany him to the 
advanced guard of the Spanish army, which is at present 
near Ecija. I saw General Castanos yesterday, and he 
was highly pleased at Sir Hew Dalrymple's offer to send 
me to remain with him during the campaign. My instruc- 
tions from Sir Hew are to send him a faithful and exact 
account of the state of the Spanish army, its numbers, its 
positions, the marches that may be made, and the battles 
that shall take place ! This, of course, during His Majesty's 
pleasure ; and I have now only to beg and entreat that you 
and my dear Mr. Murdoch will, if Colonel Gordon approve, 
use your utmost endeavours with Lord Castlereagh to get 
my present appointment from Sir Hew Dalrymple con- 

He concludes a long letter by requesting his brother to 
get him put on half-pay, if his request could not other- 
wise be granted. The reply from the Horse Guards was 
long in reaching him, in his opinion ; and yet the author- 
ities could hardly have answered quicker, or, practically 
speaking, in a more flattering manner. But, meantime, he 
was exceedingly anxious on the subject. Full of hope, 
nevertheless, he joined General Castanos, whose head- 
quarters were soon after established at Utiera. 


The following extract from a letter speaks for itself. It 
is written with the kindness and in the spirit of an affec- 
tionate elder brother : — 

Richard Hart Davis, M.P., to Captain W hitting ham. 

1 [London,] 12th July, 1808. 

' My dear Samford, . . . Your most welcome letter of 
the 5th has come to hand. We share all your feelings in 
regard to your appointment . . . Prudence requires that 
your communications with Mr. Murdoch and myself should 
only embrace transactions that would be interesting to us 
in as far as you are personally engaged in them, and not 
embracing, as your letters to Government undoubtedly 
will, the secrets of the Spanish army, and the general 
policy of the country. In short, ours must be an in- 
teresting correspondence, because it regards you, but not 
as politically regarding Spain. Trust no one with infor- 
mation but through the regular channel of Government. 
Suspect all men around you ; and depend alone on your 
own clear and unbiassed judgment. Inspire enthusiasm in 
others ; but do not be led [into] acting by it yourself. 
Never push yourself unnecessarily into danger : my caution 
shows how ready you will be to meet it* Never send in- 
formation home as certain and to be depended on but on 
the clearest evidence. Always speak cautiously as to future 
events, but without desponding. Eecollect that it is a new 
system of warfare [that will be required] to make volun- 
teers beat the troops that have conquered all Europe. 
Perhaps the Fabian system of delay, though the least 
magnanimous, will be of the most efficacy. I want in some 
degree to temper your enthusiasm, by suggesting that you 
may be uselessly sacrificed by your ardour in leading on 
young troops who may be panic-struck, and desert you. 

* His relations ever feared that his chivalrous eagerness for distinction 
might lead him into acts of rashness. 


Excuse this advice which may be, nay, probably is, unneces- 
sary, but which the warmest affection for you suggests. You 
must, at all events, make up your mind to a long struggle, 
if Spain is to be successful ; God grant that she may. If 
an early battle is fought, and the Spaniards are defeated, 
I fear that it will break the energy of their measures, and 
the unanimity of their councils. France has possession of 
the government, and the centre of the country, and can 
march to any part of the circle, and separate the force that 
is forming against her. She has, besides, possession of the 
passes into the country, and can, therefore, reinforce her 
army to any extent. The salvation of Spain, in my opinion, 
will not depend upon her own efforts only, nor on our as- 
sistance, powerful as it will be ; but it must be connected 
with other hostile movements in other parts of Europe.* 

' Be cautious in writing your dispatches. Use your 
own short and nervous language. Cultivate the good 
will of the Spanish Commander-in-Chief. You will be 
the link to unite the two armies, nay, perhaps the two 
countries; and to be successful, they must be harmonious. 
Besides, what the Spanish commander says of you in his 
dispatch will have great weight. I am most anxious to hear 
of the expected engagement with Dupont. Wellesley has 
probably sailed from Cork with his armament.' 

The following letter was not communicated to Captain 
Whittingham till some time after the battle of Baylen, 
though written more than a fortnight before it : — 

Colonel J. W. Gordon to Lieutenant-General Sir Hew 



( Horse Guards, 2nd July, 1808. 

'Sir, — Captain Whittingham, of the 13th Light Dra- 
goons, having been appointed a Deputy-Assistant Quar- 

* A true prophecy : for except for the invasion of Russia by Napoleon, 
the Peninsula could scarcely have been delivered. 



termaster-General to the forces under the command of 
Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, I am directed 
to acquaint you that Captain Whittingham has the Com- 
mander-in-Chief's permission to remain with General Cas- 

Had this post been given to Captain Whittingham a 
few weeks sooner, he would undoubtedly have joined 
Sir Authur Wellesley without delay, and thus have been 
attached to that illustrious hero for the rest of the Penin- 
sular War. In after years, he often regretted the decision 
that he now made to adhere to the career which he 
had, in the first instance, embraced mainly to escape pro- 
ceeding to Sicily. He would certainly have been spared 
many disappointments and mortifications, occasioned by 
the misfortunes and misconduct of the Spaniards, if his 
service in the Peninsula had all been performed on the 
Staff under the eye of the great duke ; and he would 
have personally shared in more of his victories. But, on 
the other hand, the very subordinate rank he would have 
held would have deprived him of the opportunity of dis- 
playing the military ability that he undoubtedly did dis- 
play with the Spanish troops, the wretched condition of 
which ennobled the task of commanding them by in- 
creasing its difficulty. Still less, had he adhered to his 
English Staff Captaincy, could he have gained the confi- 
dence and respect of Marquis Wellesley, and of Lord 
Cowley, or have earned the flattering praises of an accom- 
plished Marshal of France ; all of which advantages fell 
to his lot in the service of Spain. 

From Sir Samf orcl's 'Recollections' (Mentioned in the 


6 The army of Castanos was composed of 10,000 regu- 
lar infantry, 25,000 rabble, twenty-four pieces of horse 
artillery, and about 1,500 cavalry. The French force at 


that time in Andalusia exceeded 25,000 men.* Our fust 
point of assembly was at Utiera, from whence we ad- 
vanced to Baylen in four divisions, [the three first] com- 
manded by Major-General Eeding,f Lieutenant-General 
the Marquis de Compigny, and Lieutenant-General La 
Pena.ij; The fourth division formed the reserve. Previous 
to the memorable battle that took place some days after- 
wards, Eeding and Compigny, by a flank movement, got 
to the rear of the French position; whilst Castanos, with 
two other divisions, attacked it in front. Dupont, in 
the battle, committed the fault of successively attacking 
the Spanish position at four different points, instead of 
concentrating and repeating his efforts upon one and 
the same point. The Spanish troops behaved nobly ; 
and the Spanish artillery was eminently successful. Vic- 
tory, after a hard-fought day, declared for the Spaniards ; 
and the French remained prisoners of war. Nothing 
could excuse or palliate the conduct of Dupont; for 
he had not only surrendered himself and his army to 
a far inferior force, but he obliged General Vedel to 
countermarch on his route to Madrid, and to come to 
Baylen to be included in the capitulation/ [After describ- 
ing how the disgraceful conduct of Dupont was mainly 
owing to his desire to save his effects, and the plunder 
he had accumulated, the ' Eecollections' continue :] ' On 
the following day, when Dupont advanced at the head of 
his Staff to deliver up his sword to General Castanos, the 
Spaniard dismounted, and approaching the carriage in 
which Dupont and his Staff were seated, he addressed him 
in a kind and consolatory speech : calling his attention 
to the inevitable vicissitudes of human life, and attributing 

* The French, however, at Baylen had only 17,500 men, including cavalry ; 
but that number should have easily routed the undisciplined troops of Cas- 

t General Reding was a Swiss officer of considerable ability. 

t This General was destined, at a later period, to be the involuntary cause 
of the greatest mortification that ever befell the subject of this Memoir. 

d 2 



his victory over one of the most renowned of Napoleon's 
generals more to his good fortune than to any superiority 
of talent. 17,500 men, of which 3,000 were cavalry, 
and a brilliant and numerous train of horse artillery, 
filed off before our ragged ranks, and laid down their 

By joining La Pena, Captain Whittingham shared per- 
sonally in this victory, and had thereby the honour of 
being the first Englishman who fought for Spain in the 
Peninsular War. Two days later, 20th July, 1808, Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, having preceded his troops, landed at 
Coruiia, from His Majesty's ship ' Crocodile,' commanded 
by Captain the Hon. George (afterwards the late Earl) 
Cadogan, the younger brother of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cadogan, the intimate friend and correspondent of Captain 

In his c History of the Consulate and the Empire,' M. 
Thiers says : — ' Such was the famous capitulation of 
Baylen, the name of which, in our childhood, resounded in 
our ears as often as that of Austerlitz or of Jena.' * 

In one of his letters to his brother-in-law, Captain 
Whittingham writes : — ' General Castanos deserves the 
highest honour for his well-conceived plan, and for the 
cool determination with which he carried it into execu- 
tion, in spite of all the popular clamours for an immediate 
attack upon the position of Andujar. The General was so 
kind as to allow me to advance with General La Peria's 

After Baylen, he travelled in various parts of Spain on 
General Castanos' missions, who himself, it appears, went 
to Seville. 

* ' Telle fut cette fameuse capitulation de Baylen, dont le nom, dans notre 
enfance, a aussi souvent retenti a nos oreilles que celui d' Austerlitz ou 
d'lena.'— Vol. i. p. 205. 

uuinukaL CASTANOS. 37 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Cordova, 15^ August, 180S. 

' You forgot to enclose the note from Sir Thomas 
Plumer. I will not attempt to express the delight with 
which I have heard Sir Thomas's opinion upon my con- 
duct. I will not run into unnecessary danger; but in the 
day of battle I cannot remain at head-quarters. General 
Castaiios permitted me, with some difficulty, to move with 
the advanced guard at the affair of Baylen. I trust that 
he will never refuse his permission in future. It is the 
only point upon which I shall differ in opinion with my be- 
loved General, whose kindness to me is that of a father to 
a son. Charles IV. has lost Spain for ever. He and his 
infamous Queen are detested, and the hopes and wishes of 
the people are fixed upon Ferdinand VII. 

' . . . I have bought four horses, three for riding, and 
one as a Mt horse ; and a travelling carriage. I have made 
upwards of a thousand miles post since the battle of Bay- 
len ; and in this country we are obliged to travel with four 
horses. A number of little purchases made at Gibraltar 
for officers of General Castaiios' staff I have requested 
them to accept, because even in the veriest trifle at pre- 
sent I would wish to see liberality the order of the day. 
. . . On the 29th July, I delivered my letter for you to 
Lord Collingwood.* I explained to his Lordship the rea- 
sons which induced General Castaiios to grant such favour- 
able terms to General Dupont, " namely, the impossibility 
of preventing the retreating of General Vedel upon Ma- 
drid." In the evening, I waited upon General Morla.f 

* 'Lord Collingwood had not been satisfied with the terms granted to 
[General] Vedel. He was not sufficiently acquainted with the circumstances 
to understand why an inferior division should have been allowed to capitu- 
late after the principal force had been defeated.' — Southey's Peninsular War, 
vol. i. page 390. 

f Don Thomas de Morla, whose treacherous surrender, afterwards, of 
Madrid has covered his name with perpetual infamy. 



31st July, I left Cadiz, and on the morning of the 1st 
August arrived at Gibraltar. Sir Hew received me with 
the greatest kindness. 3rd August, returned to Algeciras ; 
5th, to Cadiz; 6th, went again on board the fleet to see Lord 
Collingwood, where I learned the news of the augmen- 
tation of the British army of Portugal and the appoint- 
ment of Sir Hew Dalrymple to the chief command. In 
the evening General Morla informed me that the French 
evacuated Madrid on the 31st July. On the 7th, I dined 
with Mrs. Gordon, at Xeres, and on the 8th, arrived at 
Seville at nine in the morning. 

6 1 do not conceive I am wanting in my duty by com- 
municating to you the very satisfactory conversation I had 
with General Castanos on my return to Seville.' [After 
mentioning a number of military arrangements that he 
had made in the province, Castanos added,] ' that he had 
sent the Chief of his Staff to General Moreno to Madrid, 
where he intended to go himself within a few days. The 
General then informed me that a battle had been fought in 
the neighbourhood of Kio-Seco between General Cuesta 
and General Bessieres ; the French force consisted of 
15,000 men; the Spaniards, including the army of Galicia, 
amounted to 50,000. The Spaniards had no cavalry. The 
battle ivas fought in a plain. The French horse turned the 
left wing of the Spanish line; the defeat was complete; 
5,000 or 6,000 men were killed, and the whole army 
dispersed. General Cuesta retreated to Salamanca, and 
General Blake, with the army of Galicia, to the frontiers 
of that province. 

4 If I might be allowed to give an opinion upon matters 
of such high importance, this battle of Cuesta, evidently 
fought without a proper attention to the nature of the 
ground, or the composition of the army, will ultimately 
tend to much good. In all probability it will lead to 
giving the chief command of the whole Spanish army to 
General Castanos, who will, I have no doubt, follow up 


the excellent system which he has begun, and prove him- 
self the Fab ius of Spain/ 

' ll^A August. — I had a long conversation with the 
General, relative to the affairs of this Government. It 
appears that disputes had run high in the Junta Suprema 
of Seville upon the subject of Granada. Count Tilly 
threatened that a division of the army of Andalusia should 
march against Granada, and force them to obey the orders 
of the Junta of Seville. General Castanos then arose from 
his seat, and, striking the table with his hand, he said, 
" And who is the man that will dare to lead a division of 
my army, contrary to my orders ? I do not consider the 
army I have the honour to command as the army of An- 
dalusia, but as the army of Spain, and never will I stain 
the laurels which it has won by suffering it to become the 
vile instrument of civil discord. The affairs of Granada 
may be amicably and easily settled." 

' As soon as the General had done speaking, Don 
Vincento Ori stood up, and, taking off his banda, threAV it 
upon the table, saying that " he would never be a member 
of any body where such words as those which, he had just 
heard from Count Tilly were tolerated." 

" The discussion ended by an apology on the part of the 
Count for what he had said, and a recantation of his ideas 
upon the subject of civil war.' 

For his services at the battle of Baylen, Captain Whit- 
tingham was made a Colonel of Cavalry in the Spanish 
army by General Castaiios, subject to confirmation by the 
Junta. Colonel Whittingham, soon after the above letter, 
accompanied his beloved and excellent chief to Madrid, 
and here we will quote from his manuscript ' Eecollec- 

tions :' — 

' On our passage through La Mancha to Madrid, I was 
taken to the house of a woman, who had obtained great 
celebrity by the murder of a number of French soldiers. 
In the court-yard of her dwelling, there was a well of very 


good water, but the rope for drawing it up was very short, 
and you were obliged to stoop forward in order to be able 
to drink out of the bucket. Whenever an incautious 
soldier came to the well, and bent over to drink, she came 
behind him, and, seizing him by the legs, tumbled him 
into the well. She had, I understood, put eight men to 
death in this manner. 

* The triumphant march of General Castaiios to Madrid 
far exceeds my powers of description. On entering the 
gates of Atocha, our steps were directed to the chapel to 
hear mass. The crowd was immense ; and at the church 
door, one of the Manolas, a stout handsome young woman, 
threw her arms round my neck with such affectionate vio- 
lence that down we came at full length together on the 
floor, she exclaiming all the while, " God bless the English- 
man, the delight of my soul."* The burst of laughter was 
not quite in harmony with church gravity, but Castaiios 
long enjoyed the joke, and the Englishman's fall became a 
standing dish at his table/ 

To appreciate the joke, the reader must bear in mind 
that Colonel Whittingham was about six feet high in his 
boots, and stout and broad-shouldered, even more than in 
proportion to that stature ; and he was a fine figure in the 
dress which he still wore, of Captain of the loth Light 
Dragoons. He was, from early date, however, obliged to 
guard against a too great embonpoint, and at times lived 
very abstemiously for that purpose. 

Whilst at Madrid, Captain Whittingham (for so by the 
Horse Guards authorities he was still styled) must have 
received the letter of which the following is an extract, 
and which was found amongst his papers : — 

* Bendito sea el Inglesito de ini alma. 


Lieutenant- Colonel Gordon to R. II. Davis, Esq.M.P. 


< Horse Guards, 23rd August, 1808. 

' You may assure Captain Whittingham that his conduct 
has given great satisfaction, and that, whenever the rules 
of the service admit of it, the Commander-in-Chief will im- 
mediately recommend him to the King for promotion.* 
He is in the meantime to continue with Castanos, and to 
hold his appointment as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster- 
General to the army, under Sir Hew Dalrymple. It is 
perhaps unnecessary for me to repeat to you the high 
opinion I have long formed of Captain Whittingham ; but 
you may rely upon me for every aid in my power to the 
advancement of his interest, convinced that hi so doing 
I am assisting an officer whose zeal and talents will be 
eminently useful to his country.' 

A letter from Samford Whittingham to his brother-in- 
law, dated Madrid, 2nd September, 1808, concluded with 
this commission : — ' On the part of General Castanos, pray 
ask Mr. Knight to order one of the machines for making 
lint for the use of the army, to be forwarded immediately 
to Coruna. Adieu, God bless you. The French have pil- 
laged Bilbao. The slaughter has been great/ 

This commission for Mr. Knight led to a graceful act 
of courtesy on the part of the Duke of York to General 
Castanos, which Mr. Knight thus explained in a letter to 
Mr. Hart Davis, dated Weymouth, 30th October, 1808 : 
— ' I accidentally mentioned to the Duke of York the com- 
mission of General Castanos, and His Eoyal Highness has 
taken advantage of the circumstance and the opportunity 

* The Supreme Junta of Seville, by a decree in the name of King- Ferdi- 
nand VII. of 20th July, 1808, had made Don Santiago Whittingham a 
Colonel of Cavalry, ' for the zeal and known valour with which you have 
distinguished yourself in the campaign of Andalusia, which terminated 
with the glorious battle of Baylen.' 


to pay His Excellency a suitable compliment, by direct- 
ing me to accompany the machine with a present from 
His Eoyal Highness of a portable medicine chest and com- 
plete set of instruments, finished after the manner in which 
they are furnished for service, for the Duke's personal use 
... I think this is a most handsome trait of the Duke, 
and it is like himself.' 

It may be easily imagined what pleasure it gave to 
Colonel Whittingham to be the first to announce to his 
respected and kind chief the coming present from the 
Eoyal Commander-in-Chief of the British army. 

General Castanos, whilst at Madrid, despatched Colonel 
Whittingham on a special mission, which the latter thus 
announced to Mr. Davis in a letter, dated Madrid, 7th 
September : — ' I leave this town for Saragossa to-morrow. 
v General Castanos sends me to examine into the real effec- 
tive forces and condition of the armies of Aragon, Valencia, 
and Castile. I shall return with a faithful account of the 
state of things to our divisional head-quarters, which are 
about to be established at Soria. My old friend and com- 
mander, Lieutenant-General La Pena, commands there, 
and is extremely anxious to receive a report on the sub- 
ject from me.' 

On the 22nd September of this year, Sir Arthur Wel- 
lesley, unfortunately for the Peninsula, embarked at 
Lisbon to return to England. He arrived in London on 
the 6th October. There he was detained by the long 
enquiry into the convention of Cintra, and received the 
warm thanks of both Houses of Parliament. It was not 
till the 22nd of April, 1809, that he returned to Lisbon. 
During his absence occurred the defeat of the Spaniards 
under Castanos at Tudela, and the death of Sir John 
Moore at Coruiia, followed by the abandonment of that 
coast of Spain. 

In a long letter to Mr. Stuart, the Minister, dated 
Madrid, 22nd September, 1808, Colonel Whittingham 


defends the conduct of General Castanos after the battle 
of Baylen. The last sentence alone is here quoted : — 

' The terms of the treaty, it is very clear, cannot be 
fulfilled. The Spaniards have neither ships, men, nor 
money to send these men to France, and by the capitu- 
lation they can only be sent home in Spanish vessels 
manned by Spaniards. They must, therefore, of neces- 
sity remain prisoners in Spain at least for some years.' 

Colonel Whittingham to Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. 
Henry Cadogan, list Regiment, 2nd Battalion. 

1 Madrid, Gth October, 1808. 

' My dear Cadogan, — It would be difficult for me to 
express the pleasure which I have received from your 
truly friendly letter. Believe me, few things .in this life 
could have given me greater satisfaction. I love to 
cherish the hope that you will be with us. We have 
much yet to do, and great indeed is the assistance which 
we stand in need of. I have been detained in Madrid 
longer than I had wished or expected. The proposed 
march of the English army to this country has been the 
cause of it. Everything is now settled, and to-morrow I 
go off to the anny. We occupy the right bank of the 
Ebro, and the French the left. Their right is at Miranda, 
and their left at Milapo. Pampeluna is in their posses- 
sion, and the other day they again entered Bilbao. They 
expect strong reinforcements by the 15th of this month. 
Their present force is 45,000 men. The centre of our 
army, commanded by General Castanos, occupies Lo- 
grono, Calahorra, Corella, Cascarte, and Tarragona. The 
left under Blake is at Frias and Orduna. The right, 
under Palafox, is at Saragossa, with a detachment ad- 
vanced towards Sanguera. Our whole force may amount 
to 100,000 men. But at least 30,000 of them are not 
yet near the scene of action, having been detained by a 
complete want of clothing. Yet there is no time to be 


lost if we mean to attack the French before the arrival 
of their reinforcements. The orders to this effect from 
government are positive, and I shall probably have to 
communicate an account of a general action in less than 
ten days. For the first time in my life, my dear Caclogan, 
my heart misgives me, and forebodes no good. I fear the 
result of this action* The French are concentrated, and 
we are considerably scattered. Their troops are all equal ; 
ours, some bad, and some good. They have the advantage 
of unity of command ; we are directed by three generals, 
all independent of each other. I trust in God that nothing 
will delay the march of the English army to Burgos. It 
will be an excellent rallying point for us in case of disaster ; 
but no time must be lost. The enthusiasm of the Spaniards 
is worthy of their cause, and their bravery such as you 
would wish your best friend to possess. But we are not 
yet organized ; and as we are now to move in large 
bodies, and with combined operations, I cannot help en- 
tertaining some doubts of the issue of the first battle. As 
I shall probably not have time to write to anyone again 
before the action, I pray you, should anything happen to 
me, to let Colonel Gordon see this letter. It is not, how- 
ever, with one or with twenty battles that Buonaparte 
will conquer Spain. Every town will become another 
Saragossa ; and when his brother reigns in Spain, women 
and children will be his only subjects. I have General 
Castanos 5 order to join my old commander, General La 
Pena. His outposts are generally engaged with the 
French, and hitherto the Spaniards have uniformly had 
the advantage. When I returned about ten days ago 
from a reconnoissance of the line occupied by our troops, 
I sent my horses forwards ; so that I have nothing to do 

* The Editor has placed these words in italics, as proving that the victory 
of Baylen had not blinded the judgment of Colonel Whittinghain to the 
inferiority of the Spanish to the French troops. The subsequent constant 
defeats of the Spaniards only too well justified his prognostications. 


but to pass into the saddle of a good post-horse, and 
hasten to the scene of action. I have a famous stock of 
cigars, a pocket- compass, and some excellent horses. So 
that, you see, your old friend is well provided for the 
campaign. God bless 3^011, and grant that you may soon 
be with us. 

c Yours ever, 

4 Samford Whittingham.' 

His prophetic anticipations of failure were too soon 
realized, and the reputation of General Castanos was 
eclipsed on the 23rd of November at the fatal battle 
of Tudela. The blame, however, entirely lay with the 
Spanish Government. The battle was fought by order 
of the Commissioner, whom the Supreme Junta attached 
with full powers to the army, and who compelled Cas- 
tanos, against his will, to assault the army of Marshal 
Victor. But by these remarks we are anticipating, and 
must now return to our story. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Head-Quarters, Calahorra, 30th October, 1808. 

' Have the goodness to direct all your letters to me as 
follows : — 

' " A Don Santiago Whittingham, Coronet de Cavalleria, 
en el Quartel General del Ecccellentisimo Senor Don 
Francisco Xavier de Castaiios, Capitan General y Gene- 
ral in Xefe del exercito centro. ' Adonde se halle" * 
C I have paid every trifling debt, and I left Madrid 
without owing a shilling to anyone. On the other hand, 
my contingent account, wdiich will be paid to me by the 
Commissary-General of the British army — at least so Sir 
Hew Dalrymple informed me — amounts to 708 dollars ; 

* From this time forth, lie was usually addressed by his Spanish rank 
during the Peninsular War, except in official letters from the authorities in 
England, in which he was generally addressed by his rank in the British 



all for expenses of different journeys and messengers on 
Government account. My carriage, horses, and personal 
expenses, of course, I have paid myself, and should not 
think of charging. Doyle has a carte-blanche for his 
expenses from Lord Castlereagh. You will see by the 
enclosed copy of a commission which I have received 
from General Castanos that they have made me a Colonel 
of Horse, with full rank and pay. But what I most 
esteem is the cause or motive which they state for having 
conferred the honour upon me, viz. my good services in 
the campaign of Andalusia. As His Eoyal Highness has 
approved of the rank given to Doyle, I flatter myself that 
he will have no objection to my holding the commission 
in the Spanish service. I understand that it is General 
Castanos' intention to give me the command of a regiment 
of hussars. This will not prevent his continuing me upon 
his Staff, and he has appointed me his first- aide-de-camp. 
In regard to my promotion [in the British service], Lord 
Castlereagh has remitted to General Castanos a very hand- 
some letter from His Eoyal Highness the Duke of York, 
in which he is pleased to say that His Majesty will be glad 
to promote me as soon as I have my standing.' — 

On the 6th November, a week after the above letter 
was written, Colonel Whittingham was attacked in Tudela 
by rheumatic fever, which totally deprived him of the use 
of his limbs. He was thus compulsorily absent from the 
battle near that town which took place on the 23rd of the 
same month ; and was saved the chagrin of witnessing the 
defeat of his gallant chief and comrades on that unlucky 
day. But let him speak from his ' Eecollections : ' — 

' Before the battle of Tudela, I had been attacked by 
rheumatic fever, and confined to my bed for many days. 
Towards the close of the action, General Graham* called 

* From this it would appear that General Graham (afterwards Lord 
Lynedoch) was present at the battle of Tudela ; no doubt as a volunteer. 
No English troops were then in Spain, and Sir A. Wellesley was in London 
giving evidence on the Court of Enquiry regarding the Convention of Cintra. 


on me to say that all was lost, and that I must be moved 
forthwith, or I should be taken prisoner. As all my 
horses were too gay and unsteady for a sick man, the 
General had brought one of his own, a strong steady 
horse, quite equal to my weight. A pillow was placed 
on the saddle, and I was carried downstairs, and lifted 
into it. But my sufferings were beyond human endur- 
ance ; and after proceeding about three miles to the 
village of Ablitas, I was taken off the saddle, and thrown 
on a mattress. 

6 About ten o'clock at night, General Castanos and the 
principal officers of his Staff arrived. We had been com- 
pletely defeated, were in full retreat upon Cuen^a, and the 
French pursuing. The General directed that I should be 
carried downstairs, and placed on a mattress in a little 
covered cart, which had been secured ; and that, without 
a moment's loss of time, I should proceed on the road to 
Cuenca. The whole of my body was at that time so 
inflamed with rheumatism that I could only be turned in 
bed by lifting up the sheets on which I was extended. 
Yet in this dolorous state I was forced to make a journey 
of three hundred miles in a cart without springs, in the 
depth of winter, and over abominable mountain roads. 

' Castanos had kindly directed his principal medical 
officer to accompany nle to Cuenca ; and one very cold 
morning before daylight, Doctor Turlan (that was his 
name) requested that I would permit him to enter the 
cart, and share my mattress with him. I readily con- 
sented. But we had not proceeded half a mile when the 
cart was overturned, and pitched down a precipice. In 
the fall, the unfortunate medico got under the mattress, 
and as Santiago (S. W.) with his feather weight remained 
upon it, the poor doctor was nearly suffocated. His cries 
and screeches were quite terrific. " For the love of God, 
Seiior Don Santiago," shouted he, "I am stifled, I am 
suffocated ! For the love of the most Holy Virgin, I be- 


seech you to get up, or I shall die!" " Dearest Turlan,"* 
I replied, " you see that- 1 am totally incapable of move- 
ment ; so that, if it should appear that your last hour is 
arrived, recommend yourself to God ; for from human aid 
you have nothing to expect." 

6 The arrival of a few straggling soldiers put off the 
doctor's evil hour. They dragged me out by the feet, 
and again set the cart upright, but nothing could induce 
Turlan to re- occupy a share of my mattress. 

' On the loss of the battle of Tudela, Castanos was 
superseded, and directed to appear at Seville before the 
Supreme Junta.* 

6 The Conde of Montijo, a grandee of the first class, 
but a man of infamous character, and a personal enemy 
of Castanos, preceded him by some days on the road to 
Seville, and spread the report throughout La Mancha 
that Castanos was a traitor, and deserved to die. At 
Miguel Turra, Castanos was billeted at the house of a 
curate, to whose firmness and presence of mind he owed 
his life. Deceived by the lies of Montijo, an infuriated 
mob assembled before the house of the curate, and de- 
manded their victim. But Castanos had already passed 
through the garden by a back door, and had been con- 
veyed to a secret spot ; where his horses and servants 
were waiting;. 

' A few weeks after this occurrence, I was sent by the 
Duke of Infantado to Seville, and had to pass through 
Miguel Turra. An immense crowd was assembled in 
the Plaza, and I advanced on horseback into the midst. 
They asked, "What news of the traitor Castanos?" and 
I was happy to have an opportunity of speaking on the 

c " Gentlemen," said I, " I am grieved, astonished, and 

* Queridisimo Turlan. 

t The Junta performed the supersession gently and politely ; pretending 
that they wanted the aid of General Castanos as a counsellor. 

*■■! M.- Ml • J V I I * I'j 

oi-uuuii TO A SPANISH MOB. 49 

deeply afflicted, to see so many good and worthy men so 
easily duped and led astray by the lying inventions of one 
of the vilest of men. Castanos commanded the Campo de 
Gibraltar before the present struggle commenced. The 
French did everything in their power to gain him over to 
their party. But he met their intrigues by assembling 
the forces of Andalusia, and gaining the battle of Baylen. 
I saw 17,500 French soldiers lay down their arms, and 
surrender themselves prisoners of war to this very General 
Castanos. He then proceeded to Madrid, and organized 
and commanded the army which a superior French force 
has now defeated at Tudela. But, be it known unto you, 
gentlemen, that the General was obliged to fight this 
battle, against his own better judgment, by orders from 
the Supreme Junta. For he was well aware that an 
army of newly raised levies could ill compete with the 
veteran troops of Napoleon. This same Castanos, your 
best, your most devoted, friend, you, gentlemen, have 
wished to murder, because an infamous and lying coward, 
for such is Montijo, has fled from the field of battle to 
denounce him here." * 

' The boldness of my address evidently surprised them. 
A murmur of consultation ran through the assembly ; 
when a voice from one of the leading men exclaimed, 
" When the Englishman says so, it must be true." f A 
tremendous shout of applause confirmed this opinion ; 
and I was carried in triumph to my quarters, proud in- 
deed of the honour done to my countrymen's integrity by 
so impartial a tribunal.' 

But many things which are agreeable as 'Kecollections ' 

* If the conduct of the Count de Montijo was actuated by a partiality 
for the French, it has met with an unlooked-for reward to his family, in 
the elevation of the fairest and best of the Montijos to the throne of 


f ' Quando el Ingles lo dice, verdad sera/ No doubt, the fluency with 
which the English dragoon officer addressed them in their own language 
(by surprising and pleasing the mob of Spaniards) greatly facilitated the 
success of this well-timed oration. 



are unpleasant enough when actually occurring, as the 
following letter, written at the period in question, will 
demonstrate : — 

i Head-Quarters, CuENgA, 16th December, 1808. 

4 My dear Davis,— A rheumatic fever attacked me on 
the 6th of last month in Tudela, and totally deprived me 
of the use of my limbs. I will not now enter into a 
detail of my sufferings. My escape was miraculous. In 
a covered cart, I have followed the retreat of the army. 
My servants were daily obliged to lift me in and out of 
the cart. I had no powers of motion, and the pains 
which I suffered were intolerable. The army retired to 
Calatayud, Siguenza, Guadalaxara, and Cuen§a. Our rear 
was warmly pursued by the French. Madrid has capi- 
tulated. Buonaparte is now collecting all his force to 
attack Sir John Moore. We shall probably soon advance 
towards Madrid. I can scarcely hold the pen. Let this 
plead in excuse for not writing to Colonel Gordon, to 
whom you will please to communicate this letter. I shall 
not abandon the Spanish army as long as I consider that 
my communications with Mr. Frere can be useful to the 
service of my country/ 

The prospect of affairs in Spain in the absence of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, and with General Cuesta as chief of the 
principal Spanish army, were now gloomy enough to ex- 
cite very serious apprehensions of many coming disasters 
and defeats. 

At some period in 1808, which the Editor is unfortu- 
nately unable to particularize, Colonel Whittingham cer- 
tainly met Lord William Bentinck for the first time at 
Aranjuez, and assisted his Lordship in certain negotia- 
tions with the Spanish Government in that town, for the 
fact (as the reader will find) is recorded by him more 
than twenty years afterwards, after having, for the third 
time, acted officially under that distinguished and excel- 
lent nobleman. 





castlereagh — contradictory orders of spanish government — 
letters to mr. hookham frere — a prophecy destined to speedy 

fulfilment general cuesta's earliest british critic — a constant 

source of annoyance — sir a. wellesley's return to the peninsula 
— brigadier-general whittingham's letter to duke of kent — 
harmony of frere and whittingham — marquis wellesley's opinion 
of whittingham — duke of kent's letter to mr. davis concerning 
brigadier- general whittingham — lost royal letters — interview 
with sir arthur wellesley — meeting of general cuesta and 
sir a. wellesley — whittingham's mission to cuesta — narrow es- 
cape of sir arthur wellesley — -his remarks to whittingham — 
colonel roche's letter on talavera — sir a. wellesley's dispatch 
— a glaring injustice — a truthful comparison. 

The commencement of a new year found Colonel Whit- 
tingham at Seville recovering his health, having been 
sent there by the Duke of Infantado. We continue the 
fraternal correspondence : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' Seville, 13th January, 1809. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that my health is 
tolerably re-established, and that I shall again set off for 
head-quarters in a few days. You axe not to imagine 
that I should have quitted the army for anything relative 

E 2 


to myself. The Duke of Infantado requested that I would 
go to Seville on a particular commission, which, I am 
happy to say, I have executed to his satisfaction ; and I 
have now no other anxiety but that of again entering the 
field of Mars with all possible expedition. I shall enter 
into no details upon our late unfortunate campaign, be- 
cause I have to remit to Colonel Gordon by the next post 
General Castanos' defence of his conduct as laid before 
the Supreme Junta.' 

To the Same. 

1 Seville, 20th January, 1809. 

c My dear Davis will rejoice to hear that this fine 
climate has operated a most favourable change on my 
health. I am, thank God, once again fit for the field; 
and I love to flatter myself that fate will throw in my 
way some opportunity to distinguish myself. 

6 21st. — On the 13th and 14th, the advanced guard of 
the Duke of Infantado, at Tarancon and Uccles, was at- 
tacked by the French in force, and obliged to retire upon 
Cuen<ja, our head-quarters. For the last three days, we 
have received no news from the army. It is sadly to be 
lamented that the Duke had not quitted the position of 
Cuen<ja long since. It was proposed and strongly urged 
that the army should immediately advance to Ocafia and 
Toledo as early as the 29th of last month. The advan- 
tages of this movement were clearly pointed out,* and 
the Duke appeared determined to advance. Cuen9a is 
in itself a bad position, and the retreat towards Anda- 
lusia impracticable, at least for the artillery. Twenty-six 
leagues is the distance from Cuen^a to Manzanares, the 
first town on the high-road to Seville. The road is so 
excessively bad and heavy that I was ten hours making 

* By himself, no doubt. All his Spanish commanders appear to have 
listened to his counsels j but few, except the Duke of Alburquerque, fol- 
lowed them. 


three leagues in a light carriage with five mules, I set 
off for the army on Thursday next. My health is quite 
re-established. Be assured, my dear Davis, that, however 
we may be beat for the present, we shall ultimately drive 
the French out of Spain. I cannot tell you with what 
delight I look forward to my return to the army. I really 
am never quite happy but in active campaign.' 

When the Duke of Infantado left Madrid on 2nd De- 
cember, 1809, to join the army commanded, since the 
departure of Castanos, by Lieutenant-General La Pefia, 
the latter most generously caused the Duke to be elected 
to the chief command. Infantado had been accompanied 
from Madrid by the young, patriotic, and chivalrous 
Joseph Maria de la Cueva Duke of Alburquerque ;* a 
man beloved by his officers and soldiers, and having for 
enemies only the baser and meaner of his countrymen, 
who were governed by their jealousies or other malignant 
passions. If, as was the case with the Spanish nobility 
generally, his education had not been neglected, he might 
have made a greater figure in history ; and as it was, 
he left a name second to none amongst his countrymen 
at that period. Colonel Wliittingham, from the first, 
admired and loved him, and all the more because the 
Duke rarely displayed the obstinacy so common amongst 
his countrymen, and only required to hear in order to 
take good advice. What follows is from the already 
quoted ' Eecollections :' — 

' On my return from Seville, I was attached to the 
corps d'armee under the Duke of Alburquerque in La 
Mancha, where we had many affairs of cavalry, as the 
Duke had under his command 3,500 horse and two 
troops of horse artillery. 

6 At Mora, the French had a detachment of 600 cavalry. 

* In this work the spelling of Spanish names by Colonel Gurwood is 
adopted, as that officer took much pains to acquire accuracy in that matter ; 
whilst compiling the Wellington Dispatches. 


The Duke advanced to surprise the post with 1,500 horse. 
We bivouacked a few miles from their outposts without 
being discovered ; and before daylight we were upon 
them. The surprise was complete. They lost 160 men, 
and fled at full speed. 

' Amongst the foremost of the pursuers was a servant 
of mine, a young Irish lad [named Charles], whom I 
had dressed up as a hussar. He fixed his eye upon a 
well-dressed middle-aged man, well mounted and appa- 
rently well fed. Charles was satisfied that he would turn 
out a good prize. Both horses were excellent ; and both 
were urged to the top of their speed by the pursuer and 
the pursued. But my hussar had the advantage of a 
lighter weight, and was gaining fast upon his adversary, 
when the Frenchman turned round upon his saddle, and 
fired a pistol at him ; which was soon followed by a 
second shot. Both shots, however, missed their object, 
and the old soldier was reduced to his last shift, which 
was, however, a good one. Judging from the appear- 
ance of his pursuer that his object would be plunder, he 
drew a knife from his pocket and cut the straps which 
fastened his portmanteau. The portmanteau then fell 
to the ground, and Charles immediately reined up, and 
secured his prize, which contained a brace of pistols and 
a good stock of clothes. 

' Amongst the variety of incidents of this exciting day, 
an occurrence took place which we all deeply lamented. 
A remarkably fine young woman, apparently about seven- 
teen or eighteen years of age, was making her escape 
from Mora in an open carriage, belonging to the French 
General commanding. Some of our cavalry attempted 
to arrest her progress. She immediately fired a pistol at 
the nearest soldier, and in return received from him a 
coup de sabre which almost divided her head from her 
body. In a moment she was stripped with that dexterity 
peculiar to soldiers, and her body left on the road. 


c On our return to Mora, we were quartered in the 

house of the Countess de , whose previous guest had 

been the French General commanding. The enthusiasm 
of the lady was beyond description. She thanked the 
Blessed Virgin for her miraculous escape from perdition, 
and declared her determination to avail herself of the 
happy opportunity of returning to the paternal house, 
which our arrival afforded. Her gratitude to Heaven 
and to us knew no bounds. Orders were immediately 
given to pack up all her plate and jewels. A splendid 
dinner was prepared by the major-domo. The only 
carriage in the place and six mules were employed by 
the Duke's order for her conveyance, and the hour of 
departure was fixed for four o'clock on the following 

c Our party consisted of the Duke of Alburquerque, 
Alava,* and myself. The Duke retired to rest at nine. 
But I felt uneasy that our departure should have been 
put off till the morning, and I submitted to Alava that it 
was always a point of honour with the French to return 
a surprise with the least possible delay. [I added] that 
their force in cavalry and horse artillery in our immediate 
neighbourhood was very considerable ; and that to effect 
our retreat, we must pass through a long and narrow 
defile, which commenced at the entrance of Mora, and 
that, if attacked during the passage, confusion and com- 
plete defeat would be the inevitable consequences, and the 
Duke's character as a soldier lost. I proposed, therefore, 
that we should awake the Duke, and submit to him the 
expediency of our commencing our retreat forthwith. 
Alava coincided in my view of our position. We awoke 
the General, and orders were immediately given to put 
the troops in motion. 

* Afterwards General Alava (a favourite of Lord Wellington and on his 
personal staff) j eventually Spanish ambassador in London about thirty- 
years later. 


' The chivalrous feelings of the Duke and of Alava did 
not permit their forgetting the perilous position of the 
disconsolate Countess. The carriage was ordered to the 
door, and her servants were directed to finish the packing 
with all expedition. But, alas ! the Countess had fainted ; 
and when she came to herself, she broke out into the most 
bitter lamentations against her cruel destiny. " Alas ! " 
she exclaimed, " by this time to-morrow I shall have 
ceased to exist. For the French, on their return, will 
assuredly put me to death as a traitress and a spy. But, 
happen what may, how is it possible that a poor little 
delicate thing like me should be able to suffer the priva- 
tions, the miseries, the hardships, of a camp follower? 
It cannot be. I am well aware of the cruel death that 
awaits me on the return of the French ; but there is no 
remedy, and if my last hour is come, it is better for me to 
die in my own house and bed than in the fields ! " A 
more complete humbug I never saw ! Thus ended a 
comedy worthy of Camilla and Don Rafael; and the 
Countess, laughing [secretly] at the simplicity of our 
hearts and heads, dedicated herself forthwith to the pre- 
paration of an excellent breakfast for the French General 
on his return. 

c Our accelerated retreat was fortunate. We had 
scarcely cleared the defile when our rear-guard was 

Thus was the gallant Spanish Duke and his party saved 
by the vigilance of their English comrade.* 

On the 30th January, 1809, he relates to Mr. Davis the 
particulars of the defeat at Uccles of General Venegas, 
and adds, ' The Duke of Infantado's want of decision 
was the cause of this misfortune.' The Duke had been 
repeatedly advised to advance and support Venegas, who 

* Doubtless this was one of Saniford Whittingham's ' services in the early 
part of the war, the importance of which was passed over or little known/ 
— See the Earl of Fife's letter in Preface. 


was sure to be attacked, but took no notice of the warn- 
ing. In consequence he was ordered to join General 
Urbina, Count of Cartaojal, and to serve under him as 
part of the army of the Carolina. This supersession took 
place on the 18th February. But General Urbina proved 
to be a far worse commander than the Duke he super- 
seded, as will be hereafter demonstrated. 


To his Brother-in-law. 

' Head-Quarters, La Carolina, 12th February, 1809. 

' The French are advancing against General Cuesta in 
force, certainly not less than 20,000 men. Their head- 
quarters on the 5th were at Oropesa. Their advanced 
posts occupied the bridge of the Arzobispo. General 
Cuesta had his head-quarters at Truxillo ; his advanced 
posts at the bridge of Almaraz. A division of Portuguese 
and English was stationed at Alcantara, a force of from 
12,000 to 14,000 men. Cuesta's army is about the same 
strength. A part of the French army from Galicia had 
directed its march upon Ciudad Eodrigo. On the 5th, 
they had arrived at Martin del Eio, distant from Ciudad 
Eodrigo ten leagues. 

' The moment you cast your eye upon the map, you 
will see the danger of General Cuesta's position. Our 
advanced guard will march to-night upon Toledo, be sup- 
ported by a second division, and followed by the whole 
army. The total strength of this army, now called the 
army of the Carolina, including the remains of the army 
of the centre, amounts to nearly 30,000 men. Our move- 
ment will call the attention of the French ; and even if 
we arrive too late to save General Cuesta, it will prevent 
them following up the advantage which they have ob- 
tained. I have no comments to make on our probable 

' As soon as I receive Mr. [Hookham] Frere's answer, 


I intend to ask General Urbina's leave to join the advanced 

' Adieu, my dear Davis, and as I once before told you, 
if we meet no more on this side of the famous river, don't 
forget to drink a glass of your best wine to my memory 
once a year.' 

To the Same. 

1 Head-Quarters of the Advanced Guard, 

' Ciudad Real, 13th March, 1809. 

c Our head-quarters are changed from Manzanares to 
this place, in consequence of the movements of the enemy. 

' I cannot account for the long silence of my friends in 
England. Your last letter was dated November. Since 
that period I have not heard one word from you, or any- 
one on that side of the water.' — 

There is too much reason to believe that a great num- 
ber of letters addressed to Colonel Whittingham, in the 
course of the Peninsular War, never reached him. But 
at this time, after the departure of the army of Sir John 
Moore from Coruna, and during the prolonged absence 
of Sir Arthur Wellesley from Portugal, the means of con- 
veying English letters into the interior appears to have 
been equally rare and hazardous. 

Colonel Whittingham to the Right Hon. John Hookham 
Frere, H.M.'s Minister in Spain. 

i Ciudad Real, Head-Quarters of the 

i Advanced Guard, 17 th March, 1809. 

' Sir, — The repeated advices of all the confidential 
agents employed by the Duke of Alburquerque to watch 
the movements of the enemy confirm, beyond the possi- 
bility of doubt, the march of the French towards Talavera, 

* This determination, to be always in front, never slackened. The risk, 
■with such troops as the Spanish then were, was self-evident. 


and the certainty that the expected attack upon General 
Cuesta will immediately take place. 

' Our Commander-in-Chief, General Urbina, has re- 
jected the proposition of the Duke [of Alburquerque] to 
allow him to advance upon Toledo with a division of 
12,000 or 15,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry, and twenty 
pieces of artillery. The General-in-Chief considers the 
organization of the main body of the army as an object 
of more importance, and the arguments of the Duke to 
convince him that this organization would be secured 
rather than impeded by his proposed movement have 
been of no effect. 

You may rest assured, sir, that there is no time to be 
lost, and if the Junta Suprema does not come to a speedy 
determination, and immediately communicate decisive 
orders in consequence, it is sadly to be feared that 
General Cuesta will be defeated by the superior force 
which he will have to contend with, viz. from 30,000 to 
35,000 men. 

' You will recollect the effect produced by the expedi- 
tion to Mora, and the retrograde movement made by the 
French troops in Estremadura in consequence. Surely, 
the same arguments which were then made use of by 
General Urbina, to induce the Duke of Infantado to con- 
sent to the advance of the Duke of Alburquerque, exist 
in the present case in even greater force, inasmuch as our 
means of offence are greater, and the dispositions of the 
enemy to attack General Cuesta more formidable. 

' I shall only add that the confidence of the officers and 
men in the Duke of Alburquerque affords the best- 
founded hopes of the fortunate result of the proposed 

' I have the honour to be, with the highest respect, 

' Sir, 

6 Your most obedient servant, 

' Samford Whittingiiam, 


< P.S. — It is scarcely necessary to point out the advan- 
tages of the proposed movement, should the fortune 
of war favour General Cuesta, and the French be re- 
pulsed. The unexpected appearance of the Duke's divi- 
sion upon the rear or flank of a defeated enemy would 
probably prove as decisive as the combined march of the 
columns in the battle of Baylen. 

< s. w; 

From the Same to the Same. 

1 Ciudad Real, Head-Quarters oe the 
' Advanced Guard, 20th March, 1809. 

6 Sir, — In consequence of the orders from the Junta 
Suprema, the whole of the disposable force of this army 
will immediately advance upon Toledo, in order to effect 
a diversion in favour of General Cuesta. The Count of 
Cartaojal [General Urbina], at the same time that he 
communicated this order to the Duke of Alburquerque, 
directed him to deliver up the command to Brigadier- 
General Don Juan Bernuy, and with the division of 
Brigadier Don Luis Bapcourt, and that of Don Pedro 
Echavari, to march immediately to Guadalupe to co- 
operate with the army of Estremadura. 

' Thus, at the moment that the plan proposed by the 
Duke is about to be executed, he is deprived of the com- 
mand of the vanguard, and exposed to risk his military 
reputation at the head of a small body of newly raised 
"nfantry without cavalry or artillery. It is to be feared 
hat the absence of their favourite General may produce 
a bad effect upon the troops. At all events little or nothing 
can be expected in favour of General Cuesta from the 
small corps entrusted to the command of the Duke. 

' I cannot avoid expressing my sentiments with freedom 
at this interesting moment. I conceive that the Duke 
has fallen a sacrifice to his too great popularity with the 
troops ; and I sincerely lament that the army should be 


deprived of the valuable military talents of this officer. 
It is not to be expected, after what has passed, that 
the Duke will accept any command under the Count de 

' According to the advices received to-day from Sevil- 
leja, the French had passed Estrella to attack a division 
of the army under the command of General Cuesta, which 
occupied the position of Valdevilacasa. It is therefore 
very possible that the movement upon Toledo may be 
now too late, and should General Cuesta be defeated, 
much evil, instead of good, may result from it. 

c On the loth of this month, the Duke proposed to the 
General-in-Chief to make this diversion in favour of General 
Cuesta. At that moment there could be no doubt that 
the army of Estremadura would have been saved by our 
advance upon Aranjuez and Toledo. At present the result 
is doubtful, and may be fatal. 

c The Duke begins his march to-morrow towards Gua- 
dalupe, and I shall take care to inform you most exactly 
of everything that occurs. 

4 1 have, &c. &c. 

6 Samford Whittingham.' 

The contemptible conduct of General Urbina was not 
long in bringing deserved retribution upon him, in the 
form of a disastrous and crushing defeat, which was fol- 
lowed by his supersession in the chief command by General 
Venegas : — 

Colonel Wliittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

< Seville, 4tth April, 1809. 

' You will see by all the enclosed papers the chain of 
evils, and the gross misconduct, which have completely 
destroyed our well-founded hopes of soon re-occupying 
the capital of Spain. General Urbina, Count of Cartao- 
jal, has betrayed his country, and fled in disgrace with 


30,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry before 2,000 French 

6 The Duke of Alburquerque has been sacrificed to the 
envy and jealousy of General Urbina. Cuesta has fought 
bravely, but unfortunately. I had the pleasure of being 
with the Duke in this action [the battle of Medellin]. At 
last the eyes of the Junta Suprema are opened. Urbina 
is deprived of his command, and the Duke appointed 
temporarily to the command of the army of the Carolina. 
Things do not look well. But if I can carry the point 
which I have in view, viz. that our total force, amounting 
to at least 40,000 infantry and 8,000 cavalry, shall be 
immediately concentrated, I have yet my hopes. If not, 
depend upon it, all is lost. We leave this place to-mor- 
row at daybreak for the army. We have been here a 
few hours to make arrangements with the Government. 
Have the goodness to get Mr. Murdoch to translate the 
enclosed papers, and lay them before Lord Castlereagh 
and Colonel Gordon, I have not heard from you since 

The battle of Medellin was fought on the 28th March, 
1809, and was one of General Cuesta's numerous defeats. 
That stupid and obstinate, but very brave and indefati- 
gable, old General fought the battle with his usual con- 
tempt of tactics and prudence, and yet had nearly won it 
by the bravery of the infantry but for the gross miscon- 
duct of the Spanish cavalry. Colonel Whittingham, being 
attached to the staff of the Duke of Alburquerque's divi- 
sion, shared his fortunes on that unfortunate day. We 
will now revert to his ' Eecollections :' — 

c Previous to the battle of Medellin, the Duke of Albur- 
querque was directed to join General Cuesta in Estrema- 
dura with two troops of horse artillery and 1,500 cavalry. 
On our route we came to a small town which had become 
notorious for receiving and concealing deserters. The 


Alcalde and' the Escribano* were deeply implicated, and 
the Duke was determined on making an example. They 
were, therefore, both laid hold of, and placed in the 
grenadier company of a leading battalion ' [to expose these 
compulsory soldiers to the greater danger in action]. ' I 
saw these men the next day, as we were moving upon the 
enemy in column of companies, and their faces are even 
at this moment completely before my eyes. I never had 
a just idea of the personification of Fear till then. Their 
countenances were literally horror-struck ; their hair stood 
on end. They recognised me instantly, and, dropping 
on their knees, they shouted out, "Mercy, Senor Don 
Santiago, for the love of God and of the Holy Virgin, 
do not permit this sacrifice ! " But the hard-hearted 
Santiago was implored in vain ; and the butt ends of the 
soldiers' muskets soon brought them on their feet again. 
I never heard what became of them. At the battle of 
Medellin the defeat was complete ; and as Victor gave no 
quarter, they probably perished with the rest.f 

6 When everything was lost, and the last battalion 
broken and dispersed, the French cavalry formed a chain 
in rear of the Spanish troops, and the slaughter com- 
menced. The Duke of Alburquerque, Alava, Bigodet, 
Nazario Eguia, and Santiago, with a few orderlies and 
servants, formed a little group. The chain was closed 
around us. The Duke, turning to me, said, " Santiago, 
do you see that smart light dragoon, how vain he is ? 
Now, be assured that before two minutes are passed, he 
will be under my horse's feet ; " % and putting spurs to 

* The Alcalde, and Escribano, may be roughly translated into the Mayor 
and Town Clerk. 

t This appears like a proof that even the gentle-hearted Duke of Albur- 
querque could steel his heart in active service j but the fact is that, at such 
a time, no Spanish General would have ventured to show mercy to traitors. 

\ These words (written from memory in 1840) slightly differ from those 
given by Southey, who at an earlier period doubtless obtained them from the 
letters written to Colonel Gordon, the Military Secretary at the Horse 
Guards, by the subject of this Memoir. 


his fine Andalusian horse, he charged full speed upon the 
chasseur, followed, of course, by all his little party. The 
chasseur, being somewhat of Falstaff's school, held pru- 
dence to be the better part of valour, and taking ground 
rapidly to the right — with half a dozen soldiers who fol- 
lowed his salutary example — a hole was left in the chain, 
through which we instantly passed at full gallop. The 
chase after us was long, but vainly kept up. 

' A wounded artilleryman whom we passed called out 
to Alava, " Sefior Don Miguel, for God's sake, help me, 
or I am lost ! I am badly wounded, and you see the 
French give no quarter." " Get up behind me," said the 
heroic Alava ; " we will both be saved, or both perish 

' It was about ten at night when we arrived at a soli- 
tary farm-house ; and having made a bonnie fire, and got 
a dish of chocolate and a cigar, the Spaniards unanimously 
agreed, " The more we lose the more we gain ; the 
Body Politic will yet require much blood-letting before 
its health can be perfectly restored ! " * 

' We lost at Medellin 14,000 men. An intimate friend 
of mine, a colonel of infantry, had two sons with him in 
the action. The eldest, under eighteen years of age, was 
most severely wounded by the dragoons late in the day. 
He was taken to Medellin, and to the quarters of the 
Commander-in-Chief, just as Victor was sitting down to 
supper ; who graciously informed the young officer of the 
fate intended for him by saying, " If my orders had been 
executed, you would not have been here ! " ' 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' Cordova, 6th April, 1809. 

4 My dear Davis, — In the actions of the Duke of Albur- 
querque in La Mancha, the troops under his command 

* 'Quando mas se pierde, mas se gana, y que muclias sangrias eran 
menester para restablecer la salud del cuerpo politico ! ' 


were covered with glory. All the officers of his Staff, 
including me, were recommended to the Government for 
promotion.* In the last unfortunate action of Medellin, 
I had an opportunity of particularly distinguishing myself 
by reforming the routed cavalry and leading them against 
the enemy.f The Duke did me the honour to speak of 
my conduct in the field in the highest terms. You are 
yourself well aware that since the first shot was fired in 
Andalusia, I have been constantly with the army, and 
have sought every occasion of rendering myself useful. 
Yet I am the only officer to whose promotion the Govern- v 
ment has objected. The reason is obvious : I was a friend 
of the unfortunate Castanos, and all his friends are per- 

6 I entreat, therefore, that you will immediately apply 
to Colonel Gordon for leave to join my regiment. I can 
no longer be of service to a country to whose Government 
I am become obnoxious, nor am I accustomed tamely to 
suffer the insults of any man or class of men.' 

To the Right Hon. J. H. Frere. 

< Cordova, 11th April, 1809. 

; Sir,^-I observe by your letter of the 7th, which has 
been returned to me from the Carolina, that you consider 
the Duke [of Alburquerque] in command of that army, 
and ready to realize his projected plan of attack against 
the French force in La Mancha. I am surprised that the 
Junta Suprema should not have informed you that a 
division of 7,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry began its 
march from the army of Sierra Morena on the 5th, and 

* He was afterwards made Brigadier- General by the Spanish Government, 
with date from 2nd March, 1809. 

t Here, no doubt, is another of those little known actions referred to by 
Lord Fife (vide Preface). This passing allusion to his having rallied the 
cavalry at Medellin is all the Editor knows on the subject. The lost letters 
to the Military Secretaries at the Horse-Guards might tell more of what 
Lord Fife knew. 



will enter Seville the day after to-morrow. The force 
which now composes the army of Sierra Morena consists 
of 16,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry, and is commanded 
by General Venegas. 

' Had the Duke received the command of the army of 
Sierra Morena before the separation of the above-mentioned 
division, he might have defeated the French force in La 
Mancha, and immediately afterwards have reinforced 
Cuesta with nearly 10,000 men, by the same route which 
we before followed from Ciudad Keal. At the same time 
that I received your letter, Mr. Ovalle communicated to 
the Duke the same information ; and yet, previous to 
that date, General Venegas had taken the command 
of the army, and the division had already begun its 
march, with orders to the commanding officer, Major- 
General Count of Orgaz, to report daily to the Minister 
of War. 

' I have, &c. 

6 Samford Whittingham.' 

Most unfortunately, all Mr. Hookham Frere's letters to 
Colonel Whittingham are lost. The above letter proves 
how necessary British agents were, from whom alone the 
English envoy could obtain reliable information and 
active assistance. 

There is no doubt that Colonel Whittingham had the 
highest esteem for the Duke, as well as affection.* He 
had also had cause for gratitude, as will be seen in the 
following letter to his brother-in-law : — 

1 Seville, 17th April, 1809. 

' I enclose you two letters from the Duke of Albur- 
querque, the one addressed to his Eoyal Highness the 
Duke of York, and the other to Lord Castlereagh. I am 

* These feelings were shared by Mr. Hookham Frere, and, subsequently, 
by Marquis Wellesley. 


proud to receive these recommendations from the Duke, 
because as a soldier he stands unrivalled in this country.' 
[After detailing the ill-treatment that the Duke received 
from General Urbina and the Junta Suprema, he pro- 
ceeds :] ' The Duke was further ordered to put himself 
at the head of a division of troops destined to march from 
the Carolina to the assistance of General Cuesta as soon 
as General Venegas should have taken the command of 
the army of Sierra Morena. 

4 Before the Duke joined the army, General Venegas 
had taken the command, and we are now on our route 
to join General Cuesta at Santa Olalla and Monasterio. 
The division commanded by the Duke is composed of 
2,500 cavalry and 7,000 infantry. 

c General Cuesta's army, after our junction, will exceed 
25,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. The force left in 
Sierra Morena under the command of General Venegas is 
16,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry. In regard to the late 
shameful flight of the army of Sierra Morena from their 
cantonments at La Mancha, it is altogether too bad for 
description. Suffice it to say that folly, or more probably 
treason, sacrificed an army of upwards of 30,000 men, 
including 4,500 cavalry. The battle of Medellin, in Es- 
tremadura, was fought with bravery by all the troops 
excepting the cavalry on the left of the line. Their want 
of firmness lost the day. The right, where I had the 
honour of being with the Duke, behaved extremely well ; 
and as our orders were positive not to retreat, the whole 
division of the Duke was sacrificed. When everything 
was completely lost, we opened a passage through the 
enemy, sword in hand.' — - — 

The following are translations of the two letters which 
were enclosed in the above : — 

F 2 


The Duke of Alburquerque to the Duke of York. 

1 Cokdova, 6th April, 1809. 

; Sir, — The special merit which Colonel Santiago 
Whittingham* has displayed during the whole of the 
present war in Spain — and particularly the great degree 
in which he has distinguished himself in all the actions 
in which he has served under my command — affords me 
the opportunity of having the honour to make this known 
to your Eoyal Highness, for the satisfaction of this deserv- 
ing officer. And for the same reason, I take the liberty 
of entreating your Eoyal Highness to make the same 
known to His Majesty. 

' I take this occasion to present my highest respects to 
your Eoyal Highness, and I pray the Almighty to preserve 
your valuable life through many extended years. 

6 At the feet of your Eoyal Highness, 

' The Duke of Alburquerque.' 

The Duke of Alburquerque to Viscount Castlereagh. 

< Cordova, Qth April, 1809. 

6 Excellency, — I cannot do less than bring to the notice 
of your Excellency the distinguished services which Colonel 
Santiago Whittingham has rendered in the present war in 
Spain, and especially during the time he has been under 
my command, under which he still continues, with the 
most effective desire to distinguish himself daily more and 

' I hope your Excellency will excuse the liberty I am 
taking in order that this highly deserving officer may 
obtain the satisfaction he so justly desires of being made 
known to your Excellency. 

* Apparently, though the rank was dated back to 2nd March, 1809, 
either the Government had not yet gazetted Whittingham as Brigadier or 
the Duke had not known it so early as the 6th April. 


6 This occasion affords me the especial gratification of 
presenting my respects to your Excellency. 
' May God preserve your Excellency. 

' His Excellency the Duke of Alburquerque.' 

Brigadier-General Whittingham to the Right Hon. 

J. H. Frere. 


i Olalla, 23rd April, 1809.* 

' I enclose a copy of the Duke's letter of this morning 
to the Count of Orgaz, who commands the infantry of the 
division of Andalusia. You will observe by his answer 
that he does not consider himself under the orders of the 
Duke, and therefore declines sending him the returns he 
required. In consequence, the Duke has determined to 
proceed to Monasterio, where he will see General Cuesta 
to-morrow morning. 

' These contradictory orders appear too nearly to re- 
semble those of our last expedition to the Carolina. The 
country we have passed over to-day is not the least fit for 
the operations of cavalry. Erom Guillena to Santa Olalla 
the road is one continued defile ; and cavalry, instead of 
being of use, would only serve, by a precipitate flight, to 
weaken the effects of the infantry. The total of General 
Cuesta's cavalry is very nearly 7,000. It appears that 
the French have attacked his advanced guard at Santos 
with a division of 6,000 men. Probably, this will prove a 
reconnoissance in force — an operation which they seldom 
omit previous to a general action. General Cuesta will, 
of course, defend the position of Monasterio as long as 
possible, fall back upon Santa Olalla, and finally occupy 
and defend to the last extremity the strong pass of the 
Herzadura, near to the Venta de la Cruz del Chapaxo, 
two leagues on the Seville side of Eonquillo 

* Sir Arthur Wellesley arrived at Lisbon, on his return from England, on 
the 22nd April, 1809. 


' If 4,000 cavalry were sent immediately to the Caro- 
lina, and the command of that army given to the Duke, 
he would either enter into Madrid or force Victor to 
detach a considerable part of his army towards Toledo. 
This, in my humble opinion, is the only thing to be done 
in the present situation of affairs ; and should General 
Cuesta offer to the Duke the command of the advanced 
guard, he would, I should think, do well to accept it. 
For upon the least further advance of the French, the 
cavalry at Santos must fall back to the rear of the Monas- 
terio, and continue retreating to Seville ; and thus the 
Duke, without the hope of victory, would only have ac- 
quired the fame of being a second time beaten. 

' The present moment is so extremely critical that I 
feel it my duty to state it to you as my opinion that the 
salvation of the country will depend upon the success of 
your endeavours to change the theatre of war once more 
to La Mancha. 

' Should this, however, not be approved of by the 
Spanish Government, they should, at all events, order a 
camp to be formed of 5,500 cavalry in the neighbour- 
hood of Seville, which would be a rallying point for the 
infantry should the passes be forced, and might, possibly, 
if well directed, restore the fortune of the day. I am 
sure you will agree with me that the command of the 
force should be given to the Duke.' 

From the Same to the Same. 

< Santa Olaxla, 24th Ajiril, 1809. 

' Sir, — We have been to day to Monasterio. General 
Cuesta has finally determined that the Duke shall com- 
mand only the cavalry of his former division, which he 
is to canton in the rear of the position of Herzadura. 
To-morrow the Duke will reconnoitre the ground, and 
determine upon the distribution of the force entrusted to 
his command. Major-General Echivari, with the advanced 


guard of this army, is at Fuente de Cantos, five leagues 
in advance beyond Monasterio. The outposts are daily 
engaged with the French. Two leagues in rear of this 
corps is situated Major-General Enesterosa with 3,000 
cavalry ; and he is supported by a strong detachment, at 
the distance of about a league, under the orders of Briga- 
dier Zayas. General Cuesta's head-quarters are at Monas- 
terio. I am convinced more and more by every day's 
experience that General Ouesta is not the man to command 
an army upon which the fate of Spain may depend. His 
age, his infirmities, his excessive reserve, and his constant 
ill success, conspire to render him unfit for his situation ; 
and the Junta Suprema will learn, when too late, that good 
intentions alone are a poor substitute for military talents* 
Would to God it were possible to give General Blake the 
command of this army, and the Duke of Alburquerque 
that of the army of the Carolina ! I am convinced that 
everything would go rightly, and, by a proper co-opera- 
tion with the army of Portugal, affairs might soon be 
completely re-established. 

' Will you have the goodness to send the Duke, if you 
can procure it for him, a map of the kingdom of Seville ? 
I will thank you to direct your letters to me at Gerona, 
where the Duke's head-quarters will be established till 
further orders. He is very much hurt at what has passed, 
and has written to Mr. Ovalle upon the subject. 

; I shall have the pleasure of writing to you as soon as 
we have finished the reconnoissance of the cantonment ; 
and I have the honour to be, Sir, 

' Your most obedient servant, 

' Samford Whittingham. 

1 The Right Hon. J. H. Frere.' 

-* Perhaps the retreat of Sir Arthur Wellesley, in August, from Talavera 
would never have been necessary had the advice of Colonel Whittingham 
in April been acted on, and the stupid and incompetent Cuesta been ex- 
changed for a more rational and practical commander. The Editor has 
placed in italics a prophecy destined to such speedy fulfilment. 


To his Brother-in-Law. 

f Gerona, 25th April, 1809. 

' You will see by the enclosed letters to Mr. Frere the 
position and strength of our armies. The head-quarters 
of General Victor are at Merida ; his force about 40,000 
men. General Sebastiani commands in La Mancha a divi- 
sion of 10,000 men. Of the division of Soult at Oporto 
and of that of Ney, in Galicia, I conclude that you are 
well informed. 

' Our cause is sacred ; and in spite of the errors into 
which we have fallen, we shall, I trust in God, with the 
cordial assistance of England, ultimately prevail. I am 
well aware that the conduct of the Government has been 
in many instances weak and ridiculous ; but I love to hope 
that His Majesty's Ministers will forget and forgive, and 
only look to the great good that may ultimately result 
from the success of our endeavours. 

c I did not lose my horses and baggage at Tudela. They 
afterwards appeared. But I lost at Madrid clothes, bag- 
gage, and a travelling carriage; the total cost of which 
exceeded £350. What most has grieved me is the loss of 
all my books and papers. The value of what I lost at 
Coruna you are exactly acquainted with.* I think, in the 
present state of affairs, you had better not send out the 
carriage for the Marquis of Benamigi.' f 

On the 28th April, Colonel Whittingham forwarded to 
Colonel Gordon, Military Secretary at the Horse-Guards, 
a copy of the following letter which he had addressed to 
the British envoy, the day before Sir Arthur Wellesley 

* His baggage appears to have been lost in Sir John Moore's retreat 
having been sent to Coruna from England. 

t This was, no doubt, some intended present from the too generous 
Englishman to some Spanish gentleman who had formerly shown him 


arrived at Villa Franca, and wrote the first batch of his 
dispatches in Spain : — 

To the Right Hon. J. H. Frere. 


Gekona, 27th April, 1809. 

6 1 had the honour to accompany the Duke of Albur- 
querque in his reconnoissance between this place and 
Santi Penni, and returned to Gerona this day by the way 
of Guillena. In Santi Penni the Duke has left three officers 
of Engineers to make a plan of the adjacent ground/ [He 
then enters into long local details, geographical and strate- 
gical, with his wonted accuracy and clearness, and con- 
tinues :] ' The more I become acquainted with the Army 
of Liberation, and the major part of its generals, the more 
I am convinced that it is not in a state to cope with a 
French army, unless infinitely favoured by the strength of 
the position which it may occupy. General Cuesta would 
already have attacked the French again but for the in- 
structions of the Supreme Junta. Upon so brave and 
respectable a character as that of the old General, I 
should not wish to be severe. But the times are too 
critical to admit of attentions of any kind which may lead 
to the smallest deviations from truth. The General is so 
extremely infirm that he is not in a state to fulfil the 
active duties of his profession, and at the same time so 
jealous of his authority, or so little accustomed to the treat- 
ment of organized armies, that he has no idea of dele- 
gating that proportion of his command to others without 
which the necessary and proper subdivision of labour 
cannot take place. 

' In all the engagements which he has had with the 
French, his mode of attack has been below criticism ; and 
the consequences have been such as might be expected. 
At General Cuesta's time of life, men are little disposed to 
change ; and experience, however dearly bought, is not 


sufficient to correct errors, which by long habit have be- 
come second nature. Eest assured, sir, that, if General 
Cuesta is to direct the operations of this army, it is of the 
first importance to oblige him to remain upon the defen- 
sive ; not only because he is at a distance of only a few- 
leagues from the capital, and, consequently, the effects of 
a defeat may be fatal ; but that it is almost impossible that 
he should ever be successful against the French, fighting 
his battles in the way that he has hitherto done. This being 
the case, the proposed expedition to La Mancha becomes 
doubly necessary. For, at the same time that the greatest 
good would of necessity result from the appearance of the 
Duke of Alburquerque at the head of a strong division in 
a province where his name is idolized, and where public 
opinion has so great an effect upon the people of Madrid, 
we should obtain, also, the much-to-be-desired advantage 
of obliging the Army of Liberation to remain on the de- 
fensive, at least till the co-operation of an English army 
should afford hopes of success.* 

' I have, &c. 

' Samford Wiiittingham.' 

In another letter to Mr. Frere, dated Gerona, 1st May, 
Colonel Wiiittingham enforced the same views, adding 
more details on the state and positions of the Spanish 

The hero of the age had now arrived in Spain, and in 
a letter dated Villa Franca, 29th April, 1809, acknow- 
ledged to Mr. Frere the receipt of a letter from him, and 
of another from General Cuesta. Sir Arthur stated his in- 
tention of communicating with the Spanish Government 
only through Mr. Frere, and one sentence of his letter may 

* In spite of the lost replies of Mr. Frere, there can be no question that 
the latter agreed, and sympathized, with his correspondent. It is a pity, 
however, that he did not- send these letters to Sir Arthur, to acquaint him 
with what the latter learnt only after painful experience — the utter inca- 
pacity of Cuesta. 


be appropriately quoted here, as confirming the wisdom of 
the advice given to Mr. Frere by the English captain who i 
was serving so zealously in the arduous and hazardous 
post of a British agent, and at the same time of a Spanish 
colonel, in an ill-disciplined, disorganized, and badly com- 
manded army. 

' I hope,' writes Sir Arthur, ; that the Spaniards will ad- 
here to their determination of acting on the defensive till 
I shall return to the eastward.'* 

In a letter of the same date to Don Martin Garay, Sir 
Arthur writes : — ' In the meantime, I cannot sufficiently 
recommend a strict defensive position in all quarters.' 

If this advice had been strictly carried out, and General 
Cuesta at once removed from the command, much trouble 
would have been saved to the English commander. For 
although many of the Spanish generals were as incompe- 
tent as Cuesta, few were so impracticably stupid and ob- 
stinate as that old soldier, who, excepting courage, does 
not appear to have had a redeeming quality of any kind. 
To the subject of this Memoir he was destined to be a 
constant source of annoyance and disgust up to the 
very hour of his death, as Captain-General of the Bale- 
aric Islands. 

The return of Sir Arthur Wellesley to the Peninsula, 
who was soon to take into his powerful hands the uni- 
versal management of affairs, naturally lessened in some 
degree the personal influence of the military agent who 
was but a captain in the British army. He continued, 
however, to enjoy the full confidence of the Minister. To 
gain that of Sir Arthur was a work of time, especially as 
he had at first no direct communication with the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, but was considered under the orders of 
Mr. Hookham Frere in his capacity of agent. It may, 
however, be here remarked that, if the subject of this 
Memoir had not eventually obtained the complete confi- 

* Wellinyton Dispatches, vol. iv. p. 281. 


dence of his illustrious chief, these pages would never have 
been written ; for, though the great Wellington was after 
all a mortal, and as such liable to error, still it is not too 
much to say that his opinion of those who served under 
him must be considered as final both for the present age 
and for posterity. 

The jealousy of Cuesta against the Duke of Albur- 
querque vented itself in giving that gallant nobleman so 
reduced a command that ' nothing could induce him [the 
Duke] to remain but the expectation that a general en- 
gagement would take place as soon as Sir Arthur shall 
return from the attack of Soult.'* 

Sir Arthur Wellesley to the Right Hon. J. H. Frere.f 

' Oporto, 22nd May, 1809. 

' My dear Sir, — My letter of the 20th will apprize you 
of all that has occurred in this quarter since I wrote to 
you on the 9th instant. I have returned here with the 
advance of the army, having done all I could, or had to 
do, northward, and having thought it necessary to move 
to the southward, in consequence of the invasion of Por- 
tugal by the attack and capture of Alcantara 

' I am much obliged to you for your letters of the 15th 
and 17th. I acknowledge that I do not consider Lord 
Wellesley 's appointment a subject of congratulation to 
himself or his friends. I suspect that the task which will 
devolve upon him will be a most arduous one ; and that 
some time will elapse before he will be sufficiently au 
courant des affaires to be able to form a judgment of its 
extent. I am truly concerned, however, that your re- 
moval should not be so consonant to your wishes. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Arthur Wellesley.' 

* Letter from Brigadier-General Whittingbam to Colonel Gordon, (Mili- 
tary Secretary at the Horse-Guards), dated Zafra, 20th May, 1809. 
t Wellington Dispatches, vol. iv. p. 353. 


There can be no question that the new appointment 
did not, and could not, suit Sir Arthur Wellesley. The 
Marquis, his elder brother (ahd former patron, and official 
superior as Governor-General), was coming out as Am- 
bassador Extraordinary to relieve the Minister, Mr. Frere. 
With such powers, and considering his past career, Lord 
Wellesley could not be expected to play any but the first 
part ; and Sir Arthur would naturally hold a position re- 
latively inferior to that which he possessed while Mr. 
Frere was Minister. 

The advent of Marquis Wellesley in Spain, if no matter 
of rejoicing to his famous brother, brought with it one of 
the pleasantest episodes of Samford Whittingham's adven- 
turous life, though his Lordship's sojourn in Spain was as 
brief as it was brilliant. 

The following is the only copy in the Editor's hands of 
the several letters which its writer undoubtedly addressed 
to the illustrious father of Her Majesty the Queen :^ — 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent.* 

1 Head-Qtjakters of the Second Division of Cavalry, 


' Zafra, 23rd May, 1809. 

6 Sir, — Since the battle of Medellin, which cost us the 
amount of 22,000 men, great changes have taken place. 
The efforts of this nation are in exact proportion to the 
difficulties which it has to labour under. Defeated at 
Medellin, put to a shameful flight in La Mancha, the 
French advanced to within fifteen leagues of Seville ; the 
whole force which we at that time could collect in the 
passes of the Monasterio, and St. Olalla did not exceed 
8,000 men. General Victor, who commands the French 

* Only a very rough copy, difficult to read, and not apparently in the 
handwriting of Brigadier-General Whittiugham, exists of this letter. The 
writer was for the sake of the unhappy country he was so zealously serving, 
evidently trying to paUiate the national errors. 


army in Estremadura, lost the favourable moment for 
attack, and the energies of the nation were called forth. 
The present force and distribution of the Spanish and 
French armies are as follows : — 

' General Cuesta, 24,000 infantry, 7,000 cavalry, and 
fifty pieces of cannon. His advanced guard at Merida, 
sustained by a body of 2,000 cavalry at Almendraligo ; 
head-quarters at Fuente del Merthyr. His reserve at this 

' Opposed to General Cuesta is General Victor. His 
army is about 30,000 strong. He occupies Truxillo and 
Caceres, and has his advanced guard at Mortanchis. A 
small detachment of 300 or 400 men still occupy the old 
castle of Merida, but they are hourly expected to surrender. 

' General Venegas commands the army of La Carolina, 
but subject to the orders which he may receive from 
General Cuesta. His force is 20,000 infantry and 3,500 
cavalry, and a large and well organized force of horse 

4 General Blake is appointed Commander-in-Chief of 
Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and Murcia. I understand 
that he has advanced from Anton towards Cuenc;a with 
24,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. 

' General Sebastiani, who commands in La Mancha, 
against General Venegas, has with him a body of 9,000 

; General Mortier marched a short time since from 
Saragossa to Burgos with a division of 11,000 men ; and 
it is said that General Augereau has passed Iran from 
Bayonne with a body of 15,000 conscripts. 

' General Ney with a small force occupies Ferrol and 
Corufia, but as the whole of Galicia is again in arms 
under the Marquis de la Eomana, he may be considered 
as blockaded. 

* Zafra, from which tin* letter i* dated. 


' General Soult has been completely defeated at Oporto 
by Sir Arthur Wellesley ; but of this, I conclude, your 
Eoyal Highness is already informed. 

' I have not sufficient details to be able to state accu- 
rately what is passing in Catalonia ; but there is no doubt 
that affairs have there taken a very favourable turn. 

1 The result of this extension of the forces, and distri- 
bution of the Spanish and French armies, is that, should 
Victor fall back upon Madrid, and join Sebastiani, and 
should the divisions of Mortier and Augereau advance 
upon the capital, they will concentrate a force of 70,000 
men. Cuesta, by effecting a junction with Venegas and 
Blake (which it is always in his power to do by a flank 
movement to his right, or by their making a flank move- 
ment to their left), will collect an army of 58,000 infantry 
and 11,500 cavalry. 

' Sir Arthur Wellesley has promised to advance into 
Spain, following the right bank of the Tagus, and to co- 
operate with General Cuesta the moment that he returns 
from his expedition to Oporto ; and he has requested 
General Cuesta not to compromise himself in any general 
action till his arrival. Sir Arthur's force between Coy 
and Portugal is estimated at 50,000 men. It is not £or 
me to presume to give your Eoyal Highness an opinion 
on the issue of the present contest. But, at all events, 
whatever may be the issue, your Eoyal Highness may rest 
assured that as long as we can collect a dozen muskets we 
shall fight, and by dint of fighting, 1 trust in God, we shall 
become good soldiers. 

' I have, &c. 

'Samfokd Whittingham. 

c P.S. — I have the pleasure to inform your Eoyal High- 
ness that the Junta Suprema has made me a Brigadier- 
General of Spanish Cavalry. 

' S. W.' 


Brigadier-General Whittingham to the Right Hon. 

J. H. Frere. 


1 ZafkA, 26th May, 1809. 

' The truth of what you have so often stated relative to 
the necessity of a diversion in La Mancha is now most 
strongly felt at head-quarters.* General Venegas has 
received repeated orders to advance and attack General 
Sebastiani, who has with him not above 12,000 men. But 
General Venegas pleads the want of spirit in his soldiers, 
and their reduced numbers. Under such an impression, 
it may perhaps be better for the country that he should 
do nothing. But it is sadly to be lamented that, at a 
moment when such important consequences might, and 
indeed must, arise from calling the attention of the enemy 
towards the right, the plan of the campaign should be 
exposed to ruin rather than employ, in the command 
of the army of the Carolina, the only man who possesses 
the full confidence of that army, and to whom the peasants 
of La Mancha look up with the most enthusiastic admi- 
ration.' f 

The English Envoy and the military Agent were evi- 
dently working harmoniously together, though we can 
produce only one side of the correspondence carried on 
between them. He now meets again with an old friend : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

< Zafka, 9th June, 1809. 

' I am just returned from the vanguard, where we had 
a pretty little action, and carried off from the enemy 700 


* Those readers who have observed how earnestly the Brigadier had 
suggested to the Minister this diversion in La Mancha will be struck with 
this passage. Anxious to have what is right properly done, he is indifferent 
about the credit of the original suggestion. 

t He alludes to Alburquerque. 


fanegas of corn. Lieutenant-Colonel Bourke and Cadogan 
are arrived at head-quarters from Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
at Alcantara. His whole force may be up in a few days. 
He has with him a force of 40,000 men, out of which 
24,000 are English. General Cuesta has not less than 
35,000 men. These armies co-operating must utterly 
destroy Victor if he awaits the attack. But if, as it is 
feared, he retreats from his present position in time, it 
will be absolutely necessary to pursue and harass him in 
his retreat with the whole body of the united arms.' 

To the Same, 

' Villaneuya de la Serena, 15th June, 1809. 

c The French abandoned Merida on the loth. To-day 
they have retired from Miajadas ; and it is evident that 
they are in full retreat by the bridge of Almaraz. Their 
position on the other side of the Tagus will probably be 
at Talavera de la Eeyna. 

' I cannot help expressing my opinion that, if General 
Cuesta crosses the Tagus, and follows the traces of Victor, 
we shah be reduced to the necessity of fighting a battle 
in order to obtain his further retreat ; and, in the com- 
parative state of the French and Spanish armies, the 
result of a general action is always to be feared ; whereas 
by the plan which I have taken the liberty to propose, 
the desired effect would be produced by a war of move- 
ment without the smallest risk. 

6 1 have taken advantage of Colonel Cadogan's* depar- 
ture for the British army to send you these few lines/ 

To the Same. 

t Villar de Robledo, 25th June, 1809. 

c You will see by the date of my last letter that we are 
within a league of the Tagus. We marched all last night 

* Lieutenant- Colonel Cadogan was aide-de-camp to Sir Arthur WeUesley. 



in order to attack the bridge of Arzobispo this morning. 
It has been delayed in consequence of the artillery not 
arriving in time. We shall probably cross the Tagus 
to-morrow. Sir Arthur is marching from Abrantes to 
Castel Branco, Eosminhal, Sigura, Zarza, Coria, Placencia 
— distance thirty-seven leagues. 

' You will be much grieved to hear that the Duke of 
Alburquerque has left this army. He has been disgusted 
by the repeated ill-treatment which he has received ; but 
I hope, when Lord Wellesley arrives, that everything will 
be set to rights. I remain with the vanguard, or rather 
with the cavalry of the vanguard, commanded by the 
Prince of Anglona. I think that we may probably enter 
Madrid in ten days. 

' Sir Arthur Wellesley has appointed me to the Staif of 
his army as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General. This 
will give me eight shillings a day, and will not interfere 
with my plans here.' 

The Marquis Wellesley to R. H. Davis^ Esq. M.P. 

' Apslet House, 19th June, 1809. 

' Lord Wellesley presents his compliments to Mr. Davis, 
and has the honour to acknowledge the receipt of his 
two notes under date the 4th and 17th June, together 
with the papers from Major* Whittingham, for whose 
character and talents Lord Wellesley entertains the 
highest respect, Lord Wellesley is extremely obliged to 
Mr. Davis for communicating to him these interesting 
documents, which he begs leave to return to Mr. Davis 
with many acknowledgments for his kind attention in 
permitting Lord Wellesley to peruse them.' 

Thus, before ever seeing Samford Whittingham, Lord 

* This arose from some mistake on his Lordship's part ; Samford "Whit- 
tingham was still only a Captain in the British service, but a Brigadier- 
General in that of Spain. 


Wellesley, by the mere perusal of his letters and memo- 
randa, had already imbibed a very high opinion of his 
character. If anyone was ever more ready to acknow- 
ledge merit, wherever it appeared, than this truly liberal- 
minded nobleman, it was the illustrious writer (a few 
days earlier) of the note which follows : — - 

His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent to JR. H. Davis, 

Esq. M.P. 

( Kensington Palace, 12th June, 1809. 

' The Duke of Kent returns his best acknowledgments to 
Mr. Davis for his polite note of yesterday, and the obliging 
attention he has shown in taking the trouble of calling 
himself at Kensington with the letter from his brother- 
in-law, Brigadier- General Whittingham, that was sent to 
his care. The Duke conceiving it probable that the 
General may have instructed Mr. Davis through what 
channel to forward his letters to him, which he has 
omitted to do in his communication to the Duke, he 
hopes that Mr. Davis will forgive him for troubling him 
to take charge of the enclosed for that highly estimable 
officer, which he is peculiarly desirous should reach him 
in safety, as he has reason to believe other letters he has 
written to him before have not found their way to him, 
as in his last he makes no mention of having received 
any from the Duke.' 

It appears, indeed, that none of these letters — not even 
the one which the Duke sent to Mr. Davis with the above 
— ever reached their address. At all events, they have all 
unfortunately disappeared, and it is, therefore, very satis- 
factory that another to Mr. Davis, in addition to the 
above, has reached the Editor's hands, which will appear 
in its proper place. 



To his Brother-in-law. 

'COBIA, UhJuly, 1800. 

' I am just returned from Zarza la Maior, where I have 
been to see Sir Arthur, in consequence of his order. The 
first division of the British army marches into this town 
to-morrow morning ! 

' General Cuesta is at Almaraz, on the left bank of the 
Tagus. Victor occupies a position on the left bank of 
the Alberche river : his head-quarters at Ciboya. King 
Joseph is at Toledo. Sebastiani, reinforced by the greater 
part of the garrison of Madrid, has advanced against 
Venegas in La Mancha. Ferrol and Coruna have been 
evacuated. The Spaniards have taken possession of these 
towns ; and the remains of the divisions of Ney, Soult, 
and Kellermann (in all 20,000 men), have evacuated 6a- 
licia and Asturias, and are directing their march towards 
this part of the country. It does not appear an easy or 
safe operation to attack Victor in his present position. 
Should the other divisions join him, we shall have occa- 
sioned the reunion of the French force, without having 
increased that of the Spaniards in the same proportion ; 
and the truth of what I have before stated of the good 
effect to be expected from placing 60,000 men under Sir 
Arthur will be severely felt. Of course, everything I say 
to you upon these matters is in perfect confidence. If 
any military man can save this country, I think it will be 
Sir Arthur! His great abilities are aided by the most 
conciliatory manners. He is just the man to please the 
Spaniards ; and, in my humble opinion, if he has the 
means, he will constantly prove victorious over the French. 
He is going to wait upon Cuesta in a few days.' 


* On the 13th July, Sir A. Wellesley writes to Mr. H. Frere: — l General 
Castanos having declined to send a large detachment to the quarter proposed 
by me, I, of course, have no opportunity of requesting that the Duke of 
Alburquerque should have the command to which I certainly should have 


The following account of the battle of Talavera is ex- 
tracted from the ; Eecollections : ' — 

6 A short time previous to Sir Arthur Wellesley's ad- 
vance into Spain, I was directed to join his head- quarters 
on the frontiers of Portugal. Cuesta's army had been 
literally destroyed at Medellin ; yet he had collected again 
a force of 35,000 men, of which 6,000 were cavalry, and 
had thrown a bridge of boats over the Tagus at Almaraz, 
of which he was very proud. It was agreed by the two 
chiefs that their meeting should take place near the bridge ; 
and Sir Arthur advanced to the rendezvous escorted by a 
squadron of British dragoons. In consequence of this 
conference, Sir Arthur crossed the Tietar, and the com- 
bined armies advanced upon Talavera. 

6 A slight skirmish drove the French from the town, 
and they took up a commanding position on the left bank 
of the Alberche. 

' Sir Arthur reconnoitred the ground carefully and 
minutely, and proposed to Cuesta that the attack should 
take place the next morning at break of day, in two 
columns. The right column, composed of Spaniards, and 
commanded by Cuesta, [was] to advance on the high-road 
leading from Talavera to Madrid ; the left column, com- 
posed of British troops under Sir Arthur, [was] to march 
direct upon the position occupied by the French army, 
pass the Alberche, and storm the heights on the left bank. 
Cuesta's movement by the high-road would thus bring 
his whole army perpendicular to the left flank of Victor, 
whilst the front attack would be made by Sir Arthur. 

' All Sir Arthur's orders were issued ; but no decisive 
answer having been obtained from the Spanish General, I 

been disposed, as well on account of your recommendation, as from his own 
character.' ' On the 22nd July, the outposts of the French army were driven 
in by the Spanish advanced guard under the command of General Zaya.s and 
the Duke of Alburquerque/ writes Sir A. Wellesley to Lord Castlereagh, on 
the 24th July, 1809. 


was directed to wait upon him, and to ascertain what his 
intentions were. My conference with the old General 
and his Staff lasted till eleven o'clock at night ; but I 
could bring him to no final decision, and I was obliged to 
return to the British head-quarters with this unsatisfactory 

6 Counter-orders were immediately issued, to suspend 
the projected attack ; and an opportunity was lost of 
beating the French army in detail, and of immortalizing 
the opening career of the British General by a suite of 
brilliant and rapid successes, not surpassed at any period 
of the Peninsular War. 

(' See my memorandum on the battle of Talavera.' *) 

' After much hesitation, Cuesta was at last brought to 
consent to the attack as first proposed, and a day having 
been wasted in talk, it was at length determined that the 
attack should take place next morning. We accordingly 
crossed the Alberche, and ascended the heights, but it 
was too late : the bird was flown. Victor had retreated 
upon Madrid the night before. In spite of the remon- 
strances of Sir Arthur, Cuesta and all his force set off in 
the pursuit of the French army, whilst the British General 
was occupied in reconnoitring the ground about Talavera, 
and in choosing the position where he should fight the 
battle which he foresaw must in a few days take place. 

4 Victor, having been reinforced by the troops of Madrid, 
was now at the head of 45,000 men, of which 6,000 were 
cavalry ; and Cuesta was forthwith driven back to the 
entrance of Talavera. It was with the greatest difficulty 
that Sir Arthur obtained permission to speak to Cuesta 
(who at five p.m. was asleep in his tent on the left bank 
of the Alberche), to inform him of the immediate proxi- 
mity of the enemy, and to request him to occupy, with- 
out a moment's loss of time, his position in the general 

* This memorandum is too long for insertion, and, moreover, is (the Editor 
believes) embodied in Southey's History of the Peninsular War. 


line. In the meantime the whole of the British cavalry- 
was thrown out to cover his retreat on the Alberche. 
Colonel Elley,* and the Adjutant-General of the British 
cavalry, manoeuvred the two lines in a most masterly 
manner, and so completely checked the rapid advance of 
the enemy that it was four p.m. before the last of the 
British squadrons repassed the Alberche. 

' 1 had galloped to Talavera to report the result of the 
cavalry movements to Sir Arthur, when a Staff officer 
came in from General Mackenzie — whose division occu- 
pied a wood on our extreme left — to say that the division 
had been surprised ; that one regiment had given way, 
and that all was confusion and dismay ! In a moment, the 
General was in his saddle, and in full gallop towards the 
spot. We advanced into the midst of our skirmishers. 
The fire was hot, and the enemy rapidly approaching. 
Sir Arthur leaped off his horse, and scrambled up the 
wall of an old ruin close at hand. But he was obliged 
to throw himself down on his hands and knees, and to 
remount instantly ; for the enemy's sharp-shooters had 
nearly surrounded the building, and a minute's delay 
would have constituted him a prisoner. 

' A brigade of infantry was formed, at a short distance 
in our rear, on the right of which was the 45 th [Eegiment] 
commanded by Colonel Gordon. He was a little fat man, 
who had commanded the same regiment at Buenos Ayres. 
Whilst the General was speaking to him, a musket ball 
went through the blade of his sword, another took off the 
round knob of his hilt, and a third went through his cap ! 
Sir Arthur then ordered the battalions to retire from the 
right of companies, [in order] to pass the wood in their 
rear. This manoeuvre had scarcely been commenced, 
when the heads of the French columns showed themselves, 
and their artillery opened upon us. 

* AfterwfU'ds General Sir John Elley. 


c Our retreat to the position of Talavera was covered by 
the Spanish cavalry, and conducted with much order. The 
left of the Spanish line, in the position, rested upon the 
right of the British. An English battery of six-pounders, 
in the centre of the line, was removed to make room for a 
Spanish battery of eight-pounders ; the fire of the six- 
pounders being found inadequate. I had no particular 
command in this action ; but finding no commander with 
the Spanish division on the left of their line, I assumed the 
command, and found a ready obedience in both officers 
and men. 

' About ten at night the French threw out parties of 
light infantry to open a light running fire down the line ; 
probably to ascertain its direction. But our young Spanish 
soldiers, taking the alarm, commenced a fire so heavy and 
well kept up that Sir Arthur, who just at that moment 
came up, said — " Wliittingham, if they will but fire as well 
to-morrow, the day is our own ; but as there seems to be 
nobody to fire at just now, I wish you would try to stop 
it." — " I have been trying for some time in vain," I 
replied : and whilst I was speaking three battalions became 
so frightened at their own noise, that they fairty took to 
their heels, and flecl from the field of battle. " Only look, 
Wliittingham," said the General, " at the ugly hole those 
fellows have left. I wish you would go to the second line, 
and try to fill it up." 

' Nothing could give a more correct *idea of the supe- 
riority of Sir Arthur's mind than this little incident. He 
had advanced into the heart of Spain on his own respon- 
sibility. He was now in the presence of 45,000 French- 
men. His whole force consisted of 18,000 British, and 
35,000 Spanish troops ; the latter hastily assembled since 
the defeat at Medellin ; and, consequently, for the most 
part a mere rabble. Panic-struck by their own fire, a 
whole brigade had thrown down their arms and fled. At 
a moment so awful, when all was at stake, Sir Arthur- 


coolly observed that the hole in the first line was an ugly 
one, and requested me to bring troops from the second line 
to fill it up. 

' During the night a false alarm sent all our servants and 
baggage to the rear ; they carried off our horses also, and 
I was glad to mount myself on a stray dragoon-horse, 
which chance threw in my way. We had had nothing to 
eat for the last forty-eight hours, and I was truly glad to 
fall in with General Zayas, who gave us an excellent break- 
fast of " Bacallao con salsa, (salt fish stewed in tomata 
sauce). About three p.m., July 28th, the French made a 
fierce attack upon the left of the Spaniards ; but so mar- 
vellous is the effect of British courage that, like FalstafPs 
wit, it is contagious. The same troops who, a few hours 
previously had run away from their own fire, now fought 
like lions. The French were received in an echelon of 
battalions, the left thrown forward, and their attack failed 
altogether. A regiment of Spanish cavalry charged the 
French line with brilliant success. The Colonel who led 
the charge had his arm broken by a musket ball ; but the 
effect was decisive. As I was giving an order to one of 
the battalions, a musket ball struck me in the mouth, car- 
ried away a large portion of my teeth, broke the jaw-bone, 
and came out behind the ear. I was stunned, but not dis- 
mounted, though instantly covered with blood. 

' The attack on our left having ceased, I proceeded to 
the left of the fine to report to Sir Arthur the result. On 
my way, I fell in with a party carrying Colonel Gordon to 
the rear, — he was severely, but not dangerously wounded, 
■ — when a shell burst immediately upon him, and killed the 
Colonel and his supporters. On the road to Sir Arthur, 
I stopped at the Blood Hospital, and had the wound 
examined, but nothing could be done even to stop the 


'When I ascended the rising ground on which the 
General and his staff were standing, Sir Arthur called out 


to me, " Ah, Whittingham, I wanted you to take a mes- 
sage to the Duke of Alburquerque : " but when he saw the 
state I was in, he turned on his heel, and said no more. 
I then sat down on the grass with Lords Fife* andBur- 
ghersh,f drank a tumbler of sherry, and smoked some 
good cigars with the sound side of my mouth. 

c About seven in the evening, the French being in full 
retreat, Lord Fife, Lord Burghersh, and myself bent our 
course towards Talavera. We had not, however, advanced 
a hundred yards, when a shell fell just in front of our 
horses. Lord B. instantly dismounted, and laid himself 
flat on the ground ; whilst Lord Fife, convulsed with 
laughter, kept calling to me to look at the extraordinary 
length of Lord B.'s figure, which he insisted was beyond 
all mortal bounds. The only wise man of our party was 
Lord B., for the shell burst and covered us with sand and 
dust, and our escape was wonderful. 

' At Talavera my reception at the hospital of the guards 
was truly kind ; but the surgeon wanted experience in gun- 
shot wounds, and so completely mistook my case as to 
bind up my fractured jaw with a wooden splint, thereby 
driving all the splinters of the jaw-bone together with the 
pieces of the ball and teeth into the lacerated flesh. The 
pain was so exquisite, that before I reached my quarters, J 
I tore off and threw away the whole of the dressing. 

' Sir Arthur gave me carte-blanche to go home via Lis- 
bon, or to go to Seville, where Marquis Wellesley had just 
arrived as British Ambassador. I should have preferred 
remaining with Sir Arthur as one of his aides-de-camp, but 
he thought that I should be more useful with the Spanish 
army, as major-general, to which rank I had been pro- 

* Then Lord Macduff, and who succeeded his father on 17th April, 1811, 
as Earl of Fife. 

f Afterwards Earl of Westmoreland. 

\ It would appear (vide Preface) that Lord Macduff took him off the field 
and tended him at Talavera. 


moted for my services at Talavera [by the Supreme 

But we are anticipating, and, leaving the ( Recollec- 
tions ' for the present, must return to the correspondence 
of the period : — 

Colonel Roche* to R. E. Davis, Esq. M.P. 

i Talavera, 30th July, 1809. 

' My dear Sir, — The 28th July will for ever remain 
memorable for the glory of England and the British arms. 
The French to the number of 50,000 arrived on the even- 
ing of the 27th upon the Alberche, and immediately 
commenced attacking our outposts, upon which occasion 
there was some loss on both sides. The following morn- 
ing the whole line of defence was formed ; the British, with 
their left resting upon a targe of hills, crowned with bat- 
teries, and extending across a plain, where it was joined 
by the left of the Spanish line, which had its right upon 
the Tagus. The battle, one of the most bloody and 
obstinate which was ever fought, commenced at five 
o'clock on the morning of the 28th. The attack was 
made with the whole French force upon the British, and 
lasted until half-past eight at night ; and, notwithstanding 
we had not 17,000 men,! the enemy were defeated in all 
attacks and forced to retreat with immense loss. 

6 We have lost 5,000 men in killed and wounded, and, I 
am sorry to say, my excellent friend Whittingham is among 
the latter. His wound is however — I am happy to tell — 
in the most favourable way, and of no consequence. His 

* Colonel Roche (afterwards Sir Philip Keating Roche) was a military v ' 
agent like Whittingham. He was then Major in the British and Colonel in 
the Spanish service, and the senior officer of the two, and remained so till 
1814, when Whittingham was made full Colonel in the British army. 

t Colonel Roche alludes to the British numbers only, which was hardly 
fair to the Spaniards, to whom Sir Arthur Wellesley himself did justice, 
both in his dispatch home, and also in his letter to Mr. Hookham Frere. 


escape, however, was miraculous. A musket ball entered 
his mouth, and came out at his left ear, without injuring 
or touching a bone or a tooth. * (?) 

' He is in the same house with Loi'd Macduff and my- 
self, and wants for nothing ; and, in short, we expect he will 
will be on his horse in a week or ten days. He met with 
his wound as he was bringing up a Spanish battalion] in 
the most gallant manner, and I sincerely congratulate you 
and his family on the distinguished part he has taken in 
[the] most arduous and glorious day England ever saw. 
Excuse this hasty scrawl, which I could not deny myself 
the pleasure of writing, as well from my own inclination, 
as at the desire of my friend about whom you may be 
perfectly at rest. He is at this moment at my side, in 
high spirits. 

4 Believe, me, &c, 

c K. Boche.' 

[P.S.] 'I forbear all details, as you will see the whole 
by the dispatches. 

Extract from Sir A. Wellesleys Dispatch to Viscount Castle- 
7*eagh, dated Talavera de la Reyna, July 29, 1809. 

6 At the same time he ' [the enemy] ( directed an attack 
upon Brigadier-General Campbell's position in the centre 
of the combined armies, and on the right of the British. 
This attack was most successfully repulsed by Brigadier- 
General Campbell, supported by the King's regiment of 
Spanish cavalry, and two battalions of Spanish infantry, 
and Brigadier-General Campbell took the enemy's cannon. 

' I also received much assistance from Colonel O'Lalor, 
of the Spanish service, and from Brigadier-General Whit- 

* The wound would have been more miraculous than the escape, if it had 
really done no more injury than Colonel Roche at first supposed, deceived by 
the patient endurance of the wounded man. 

f Colonel Roche should have writteu — two Spanish battalions. 


tingham., who was wounded in bringing up the two Spanish 
battalions to the assistance of Brigadier-General Camp- 
bell. ' 

This last sentence was the concluding one of Sir Arthur 
Wellesley's dispatch, and, therefore, very conspicuous. 

On July 29, Sir Arthur writes to Mr. Hookham 
Frere : — 

' I was well satisfied with the conduct of the Spanish 
troops who had an opportunity of assisting us.' And he 
gives the Minister some details in proof. However, as 
Cnesta still left the British troops without supplies, Sir 
Arthur was compelled to retreat, though that retreat did 
not take place immediately. 

Lord Wellesley arrived on the 1st of August, but Mr. 
Hookham Frere continued to transact business for some 
days longer ; and the first official letter addressed by Sir 
A. Wellesley to his elder brother is dated the 8th of 
August, 1809. The arrival of the Marquis was an event 
of some importance to the subject of this Memoir, already 
known to his Lordship by report, and soon destined to 
make his personal acquaintance, as will be seen in the next 

After considering that extract from the duke's dis- 
patch given above in italics, and also reading the letter of 
Colonel Eoche on the gallantry of Whittingham — both 
the Commander-in-chief and the Colonel reporting his 
wound as well as his gallant action — the candid reader 
will understand how, at a later period, the utter silence of 
Napier's too partial history excited very natural indigna- 
tion in the mind of the injured party. 

That which was deemed worthy of especial mention in 
the brief dispatch of the victorious General, was surely 
entitled, in common fairness, to a place in a voluminous 
history, going into details far more extended than dis- 
patches can ever admit of when written by victors from 
the field of battle. 





wellesley — don pedro de creus y ximenes, intendant of the 
spanish army — affectionate letter to colonel cadogan — lord 
wellesley's character — cadogan's present to whittingham — a 
judge of wine — whittingham major-general in spain — incon- 
venience of marquis wellesley's ambassadorship — sir arthur 
wellesley's candid confession of error — a secretary of legation's 
jealousy — whittingham and frere deemed too partial to albur- 
querque — a justified preference — lord wellington's aristocratic 
prejudices — close of lord wellesley's brief embassy — the marquis' 
eulogistic farewell letter — genial shade of aristocracy — lord 
Wellington's esteem for alava and whittlngham — lord macduff 
— lord Wellington's letter to general whittlngham — castanos 
appoints him general of division — employed in isla de leon — 
organizes a select body of horse —importance of the balearic 
islands — general whittingham 's promotion to major in the 
english army — alburquerque relieves cadiz — his resignation — 
proceeds to london as ambassador — dundas translated into spanish 

mr. avellesley and general graham recommend whittingham's 

promotion — invitation to his nephew — colonel campbell of the 
majorca division — general graham's voluntary testimony — mr. 
wellesley's official praise — marquis wellesley's kind letter to 
general whittingham. 

Brigadier-General Whittingham found his wound a 
more serious and tedious affair than he had at first anti- 
cipated ; and he proceeded to Seville for change of air 
and completeness of cure. We return to his 'Kecol- 
lections ': — 

'My journey to Seville was performed on horseback 
with pain and fatigue, for it was the height of summer, 
and I lived entirely by suction. At that time, and for six 


months afterwards, I could take nothing; but tea and 
soaked bread. 

6 On my arrival at Seville, the Marquis [Wellesley] at- 
tached me to his embassy, for the time that I should 
remain there ; and he wrote to the Admiral at Cadiz to 
request that he would send to Seville one of his best sur- 
geons. Kennedy came ; and, after examining the jaw, 
and hearing the account of what had been done, he 
laughed at the ignorance which had been displayed, and 
that very evening extracted seven pieces of bone, one of 
which was upwards of an inch long. Ten years after- 
wards he extracted, at Madrid, a piece of the ball twisted 
like a corkscrew, which had remained in the jaw-bone all 
that time. 

' During my stay at Seville, I lived as one of Lord 
Wellesley's family ; and there I formed my first acquaint- 
ance with that excellent man, Sir William Knighton. Our 
morning rides were a source of happiness to us both,- and 
our friendship only ended with his life.' 

In his first official letter, 8th August, 1809, to Marquis 
Wellesley, as Ambassador, Sir Arthur Wellesley writes : 
c The plan of operations which I should recommend to the 
Spanish nation is one generally of defence. They should 
avoid general actions, but should take advantage of the 
strong points in their country to defend themselves and 
to harass the enemy.' This was good advice ; but long 
before the hero of the Peninsula entered Spain, the sub- 
ject of this memoir had (as has been shown) repeatedly 
urged the same advice. Well would it have been for 
Spain if it had been acted on from the beginning, and 
mere brainless fighters like Cuesta earlier removed from 
high command. 

However, on the 13th of August, that stupid and in- 
fatuated old General sent in his resignation ; and General 
Esruia succeeded to the command. But General Cuesta 
will, alas ! re-appear again ; no longer, indeed, to torment 


the great English chief, but to worry almost beyond en- 
durance, the subject of this Memoir. 

But the change of commanders not bringing supplies 
to the English soldiers, Sir A. Wellesley retreated from 

Brigadier-General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Seville, 22nd August, 1800. 

4 My dear Davis, — The fracture which has taken place 
in my jaw-bone will, I fear, protract very considerably the 
cure of my wound. I have lost all the back teeth on the 
left side of my face. But I am still gaily disposed, and 
only anxious to get quickly well, in order to take the 
field aerain. 

' You will have been astonished at our retreat after 
our glorious victory of the 28th [July] ; all owing to that 
old fool, Cuesta, who has done everything in his power to 
ruin his country. I thank God that he is at last removed ; 
and if the Command-in-Chief be given to Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, things will yet go well. 

' Lord Wellesley exceeds even the high idea that I had 
formed of him ! The people here look up to him as their 

c Venegas has fallen back upon the Carolina. There 
will probably be some change in the position of our 
armies upon the Tagus, of which I shall take care to in- 
form you.' 

To the Same. 

1 Seville, 2nd September, 1809. 

c My dear Davis, — You will, I know, be happy to hear 
that Lord Wellesley has attached me to his service for the 
present in the most confidential manner ; and, as the state 
of my wound would not allow of my retaking the field 
for some time, I cannot be more profitably or more agree- 


ably employed. As the first thing Lord Wellesley has 
encharged to me is the most profound secrecy, I feel my- 
self called upon to be silent upon everything but simple 
matter of fact, even with you, the beloved friend of my 

1 It is currently reported that the French are retiring, 
and even about to abandon Madrid. But I confess that I 
have strong doubts on this head. The British army ap- 
pears to be taking up a strong position on the Portuguese 
frontier near Yelvas, where it will effectually cover the 
approaches to Seville, and at the same time refit and re- 
cover from its fatigues. 

' My wound is going on very well. It will be a long 
time before my cure is completed; but my mind is at ease 
since his Lordship has been pleased to consider that my 
services may yet be useful/- 

At this time there was living at Seville, a Spanish 
gentleman named Don Pedro de Creus y Ximenes, an 
Intendant of the Spanish Eoyal armies. His family, 
originally from Catalonia,* had possessed property in 
Minorca ever since his ancestor, James de Creus, had, 
A.D. 1285, accompanied King James of Aragon to the 
conquest of the Balearic Islands, f Don Pedro was a 
widower, with two twin daughters, both remarkable for 
wit and accomplishments, and the elder distinguished by 
beauty and grace. Here the English Captain, become a 
Spanish General, lost his heart to the elder, Donna Mag- 
clalena; and some years later the younger, Donna Barbara, 
made a conquest of Mr. Bartlemy Frere, brother of Mr. 
Hookham Frere, and attached to the Embassy in Spain. 

* The north-easternmost point of Spain, Cape Creus, gave its name to the 
family, say the Spanish genealogists. 

t All this is duly certified by the Madrid heralds. Don Pedro's father, 
Don Francisco Creus, married a lady of the ancient family of Ximenes ; thus 
the formal style of the military intendant was Don Pedro de Creus y 



To Lieutenant-Colonel the lion. Henry Cadogan. 

1 Seville, 12th September, 1809. 

' My clear Cadogan, — Had I not to plead illness as an 
excuse for not having sooner answered your truly affec- 
tionate letters of the 15th and 22nd July,* I should be 
ashamed to address a friend whose good opinion I esteem 
more, infinitely more, than I can express. I was, as you 
will have heard, wounded on the evening of the 28th July, 
at the battle of Talavera. I did not quit the field for up- 
wards of two hours afterwards ; and, as I remained during 
that time on the Hill with Sir Arthur Wellesley and his 
Staff, I suppose that this led to the conclusion that my 
wound was slight. It was, however, severe, which I only 
mention, in order to convince my friend that no trifling 
cause had prevented my writing to him sooner. The ball 
entered my mouth, carried off four teeth, broke the jaw- 
bone and took its exit behind the ear. Of the battle, I 
shall only say that Sir Arthur Wellesley surpassed every- 
thing that even my romantic fancy had formed him ca- 
pable of In the retreat to the position of the 27th, his 
timely presence and admirable dispositions saved General 
Mackenzie's division from utter destruction. Yet Sir 
Arthur, with a modesty unequalled, attributes the merit 
of the retreat to that unfortunate General, and from his 
dispatch, you would not know even that he was present. 

'Lord Wellesley has displayed in his negotiations with 
this country such great talents, such a wonderful know- 
ledge of men and things, that whenever his proceedings 
are made public, his character, high as it now stands, will 
rise much higher in the opinion of his countrymen. If it 

* None of the letters written by Colonel Cadogan to General Whitting- 
ham have reached the Editor's hands. It is uncertain whether they "were 
lost in the Peninsula, or returned to his friends after his heroic death on the 
field of victory at Vittoria in 1813. 


be possible to save this unfortunate country, he will save 
it.* If he fails, all is lost 

' Knowing, as you do, how much and how truly I par- 
ticipate in all your joys and all your sorrows, I am not 
afraid to say that no event of my life has given me more 
pleasure than your 's being placed under your protec- 
tion. May God grant you both as large a portion of hap- 
piness as my heart's best wishes would insure you.' 

6 A thousand thanks for your little box. It is a de- 
lightful present ; and every time I open and shut it — 
which is veiy often daily — it brings recollections to my 
mind, which, I trust, I shall ever cherish as I ought to, 
and as I now do. Mr. Duff has promised me that your 
wines shall be of the very best quality that he can pro- 
cure; the pale sherry, and Paxarete.f I trust that they 
have already sailed, but I shall write to him to-morrow on 
the subject. 

' As Lord Wellesley's dispatches will probably be very 
soon laid before Parliament, I shall say nothing upon 
the unfortunate causes of our retreat after the battle of 
Talavera. The whole blame, however, rests with the 
Spaniards. Would that I could say that they had taken 
proper steps since that period to remedy the evils which 
arrested Sir Arthur's steps in his brilliant course of vic- 
tory. But enough of this subject. You will see it ably, 
indeed, discussed by the pen of Lord Wellesley. You 
will, I know, be pleased at hearing that I am honoured by 

* The Marquis had fully adopted General VVhittingharu's opinion of 
Alburquerque, as compared with other Spanish generals. On the 21st 
August, 1809, his Lordship wrote to Mr. Canning, then Secretary of State 
for Foreign affairs : — ' The most proper person for the command in Estre- 
madura would be the Duke of Alburquerque, who has been distinguished 
by several acts of gallantry and spirit in the last campaign. He is, however, 
an object of jealousy to the junta, and if he should be appointed to the com- 
mand in Estremadura, attempts will be made to reduce the strength of that 
division of the Spanish army.' 

f The subject of this Memoir was always— though a very moderate liver 
himself— noted for the excellence of his wines. 

h 2 


his Lordship's confidence. I consider this distinction as 
the finest feather in my cap. Have I not used a French 
expression ? Adieu, my dear friend. My wound is getting 
well fast. Several bones have been extracted. But I 
cannot open my mouth; and I live like a woodcock — 
upon suction. In consequence of the battle of Talavera, 
the Spanish Government has been pleased to make me a 
Major-General.* I enclose the Spanish account of the 
battle of Talavera. 

c Believe me, ever yours most truly, 

4 Samford Whittingham/ 

Mr, Frere had only been Minister, but the Marquis of 
Wellesley had come out as Ambassador Extraordinary. 
At that period only ambassadors had the title of c excel- 
lency ;' and, at all times, an ambassador is the only di- 
plomatist who enjoys full and complete royal honours. 
But it was not only his superior rank, but also his fame 
and great abilities, that rendered Lord Wellesley 's au- 
thority and position in Spain far higher than that of his 
predecessor, Mr. Hookham Frere. The latter had, how- 
ever, evidently suited well with Sir Arthur Wellesley ; 
and no candid reader of the dispatches, can fail to per- 
ceive that the great General was uneasy at his brother's 
advent into Spain. It was indispensable that one Eng- 
lishman should have the preponderating authority of his 
country in Spain, and Sir Arthur alone could unite the 
civil and military power in the same hands. It was ne- 
cessary, therefore, that the ambassador or minister should 
play a secondary part; and yet it could hardly be expected 
that the Marquis of Wellesley in such a situation, would 
entirely defer to the opinions of his younger brother, and 
late Indian subordinate. 

The British agents attached to Spanish Generals (re- 

* His commission as Mariscal de Campo (as Major-Generals are styled in 
Spain) was dated 12th August, 1809. Vide Appendix D. 


porting previously to Mr. Frere) had been placed under 
the orders of Sir Arthur Wellesley. But Lord Welles- 
ley brought out orders that these important and useful, 
though subordinate, officers should make their reports 
to His Excellency the Ambassador ; which, as depriving 
Sir Arthur of the complete control, could not but be dis- 
pleasing to him. One of the results of this unsatisfactory 
state of things, which, fortunately, was only temporary, 
was a series of snubbings to the military agents, both 
direct and indirect. The following extract, however, is 
quoted rather as a proof of the magnanimity of Sir 
Arthur, who could acknowledge an error most grace- 
fully :_ 

Sir Arthur Wellesley to Marquis Wellesley, KB. 


' Badajos, 17 th September, 1809. 

' My Lord, — I have the honour to enclose the extract 
of a letter which I have received from Colonel Eoche, 
giving an account of the state of the Spanish army, which, 
I am sorry to say is, I believe, too well founded. In jus- 
tice to Colonel Eoche, I must add that, before I joined 
Cuesta's army, he wrote to me an account of its state, to 
which I was not inclined to pay any attention at that time, 
but which I afterwards found to be a true account in 
every respect.' * 

Thus Colonel Eoche, at a later period, had confirmed, in 
letters to Sir Arthur Wellesley, the accounts which the 
then Colonel Whittingham had, months before, sent to the 
Minister, Mr. Hookham Frere. Even the greatest of 
mortals is liable to occasional errors. Sir Arthur had 
been somewhat too tardy, by his own confession, in ap- 
preciating the full demerits of Cuesta's command. Now, 
Cuesta was the jealous enemy of the gallant Duke of Al- 

* Wellington Dispatches, vol. v. p. 362. 


burquerque, and may for a time have injured the latter 
in the British Commander's opinion, and caused him to 
disparage the Spanish Duke to the newly arrived British 
Ambassador. Mr. Hookham Frere and General Whit- 
tingham both sympathized with Alburquerque, as against 
old Cuesta and the Junta of Cadiz ; and the subsequent 
miserable conduct of Cuesta, and the gallant relief of 
Cadiz by Alburquerque fully justified this preference. 
But Cuesta and the Junta had then their partisans, and 
amongst these was evidently Mr. Charles Vaughan, the 
Secretary of Legation at Cadiz, who appears to have been 
at that time jealous of the influence which General Whit- 
tingham had with Mr. Frere, the Minister,* as well as with 
Alburquerque. Mr. Vaughan was, nevertheless, destined, 
a few years later, when Minister himself, officially to re- 
cord his gratitude to General Whittingham for the aid of 
his influence. 

On the 21st of September, 1809, Lord Wellington 
finishes a letter to Marquis Wellesley with this sentence : 
' Although the Duke of Alburquerque is prone by many, 
amongst others by Whittingham and Frere, and is feared 
by the Junta, you will find him out.' f 

It is certain that nothing worse was ever found in the 
gallant Duke of Alburquerque than a too sensitive mind, 
and that defective education which was then common to 
the Spanish nobility. His vigour, valour, and energy, as 
will be seen hereafter, astonished Lord Wellington himself 
some months later. How he was persecuted to death by 
the Junta is touchingly recorded in the pages of the honest 
and truthful Southey ; one of the rare cases of a man 

* The strong animosity of Napier to Frere has immistakeably extended 
itself to his friend Whittingham ; and he eagerly makes use of an expres- 
sion of the Secretary to disparage the j udgment of the Minister and of the 
Military Agent. 

t If the reader refer to the note at page 84, he will see that some influ- 
ence (probably that of General Cuesta) must have been used to change 
Lord Wellington's former good opinion of Alburquerque. 

lord Wellington's aristocratic prejudices. 103 

almost literally dying of a broken heart. Such sensitive- 
ness was not, however, it must be confessed, calculated to 
win the confidence of that cold calm hero, who afterwards 
acquired the epithet of the Iron Duke. The confidence 
of Marquis Wellesley in General Whittingham continued, 
as will be seen, unshaken. 

Lord Wellesley wished to assemble the Cortes. Lord 
Wellington acknowledged that he had ' a great dislike to 
a new popular assembly.'* 

The liberal spirit of the Marquis was ready, not only to 
detect, but also to patronize merit wherever he found it 
united to integrity. Whereas, even a year later, in spite 
of the continuance of a bloody war, we find the illustrious, 
but too aristocratic hero of the age, urging upon that truly 
royal ' Soldier's Friend,' the Duke of York, the propriety 
of more speedily promoting ' officers of family, fortune, 
and influence in the country.' f — As if aristocratic officers 
were neglected in those days ! But these remarks are 
wholly of the present age. No such thoughts occurred 
to the subject of this Memoir, then almost equally the 
devoted humble admirer of the two illustrious brothers ; 
the younger not having as yet entirely eclipsed the elder, 
and the elder being decidedly the more amiable as well as 
the more liberal of the two. 

General Whittingham passed a happy time in the house 
of the noble and genial Ambassador at Seville, and in 
visiting his future father-in-law, who then resided in that 
town. But the stay of Lord Wellesley in Spain was to 
be very brief, and ere long he was about to exchange his 
not very satisfactory position in the Peninsula for the 
higher post of a Cabinet Minister in England. But brief 
as his sojourn in Spain had been, it had been long enough 
to fully appreciate the merits of that English captain of 

* Lord Wellington's letter to Marquis Wellesley of 22nd September, 

t Vol. vi. page 325, of the Wellington Dispatches. 


dragoons, who was now serving as major-general in the 
Spanish service. 

Major-General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Seville, 4th November, 1809. 

' I have been so long without writing to you, that I aui 
almost ashamed to take up my pen. I wish that I could 
give you a good account of my wound ; but it is very 
troublesome. Bones are continually extracting, and 
matter has repeatedly formed under my skin. There is, 
however, nothing in it, I believe, dangerous ; and patience, 
the best of all remedies, must be mv doctor. 

c This morning we have accompanied Lord Wellesley to 
his audience of leave, and to the presentations of Lord 
Wellington and Mr. Bartlemy Frere. Lord Wellesley 
goes to-morrow to Cadiz, whither I should accompany 
him, if my health permitted. He exceeds every idea that 
I had formed of him. I think that the Marquis as a poli- 
tician, and Lord Wellington as a general, will save Europe. 
It will give you great satisfaction to know that Lord 
Wellesley has treated me with the most marked attention 
during his residence at Seville, and is, I have reason to 
believe, well satisfied with me. Nothing connected with 
this mission has given me more heart-felt pleasure than the 
friendship which I have formed with Dr. Knighton,* the 
physician and confidential friend of Marquis Wellesley. 
I recommend him to you, my dear Davis, in the strongest 
manner. You will thank me for it hereafter ; and I love 
to hope that I shall have laid the foundation of a lasting 
and mutually interesting friendship.^ I have requested 
Dr. Knighton, who will deliver to you this letter, to in- 
troduce you to Sydenham. He was secretary to Lord 
Wellesley during his government in India, possesses his 

* Afterwards Sir William Knighton, the well-known private secretary 
and confidential friend of George IV. 
t And so it, literally, was the case. 


confidence most completely, and well, indeed, deserves it. 
I have known few such men ! You will thus become in- 
timately acquainted with Lord Wellesley's character. He 
is the greatest man I ever knew, in the best sense of the 
expression. He has a power of attaching men to him 
that must be felt, for it cannot be described without ap- 
parent exaggeration. Notwithstanding, living with Lord 
Wellesley is more like living with an amiable monarch 
than with a private person. His good breeding is perfect; 
and so nice is his sensibility on this point, that the slightest 
deviation shocks and offends him. In short, you will, I 
hope, become acquainted with him, and form your own 
opinion upon this most wonderful man. 

'I am at present translating our cavalry tactics into 
Spanish. So soon as my wound is well, I shall apply for 
the command of a division of [Spanish] cavalry.' 

Here follows Lord Wellesley's official acknowledgement 
of General Whittingham's services ; a portion of which is 
placed in italics by the Editor : — 

Marquis Wellesley to Major-General Wliittingham. 

1 Cadiz, lO^A November, 1809. 

' Sir, — I have the honour to inform you that, having 
obtained His Majesty's leave of absence from Spain, the 
charge of the embassy has devolved on Mr. Bartholomew* 
Frere, with whom I request you to continue your corre- 
spondence, according to the directions which you have 
received from Lord Castlereagh. 

6 I have great pleasure in availing myself of this oppor- 
tunity to communicate to you my sincere acknowledge- 
ments for the valuable information received from you 
since my residence in Spain. On every occasion, your 

* Thus written in the original. Mr. Frere was so christened j though 
usually called Bartlemy or Bartle for the sake of brevity. 


public conduct has been distinguished by the greatest zeal, 
ability, and integrity ; and I discharge a most grateful 
public duty, in signifying to you my entire approbation of 
the satisfactory manner in which you have been employed 
both by the British and Spanish Governments in Spain. 
With great respect and esteem, I have the honour to be, 

' Your faithful and obedient servant, 

' Wellesley.' 

To serve under Marquis Wellesley might certainly 
be called serving under the shade of the aristocracy ; 
not, indeed, winter's ' cold shade,' but the genial and 
refreshing shade of summer. Only three months had 
General Whittingham served under him, and yet how 
warmly and ungrudgingly had that amiable and all 
accomplished nobleman acknowledged his services and 
his merits. 

In a letter to Mr. B. Frere, written a few days after 
Lord Wellesley 's departure, and dated 17th November, 
1809, Lord Wellington strongly, though indirectly, ac- 
knowledged the military talents of the officer, whose 
ability in civil matters his brother had so lately recorded. 
It must be premised that General Alava was already the 
friend of Lord Wellington, and afterwards served on his 
personal staff. The hero wrote : ' I do not understand 
the Duque's* retreat from his position. He never ap- 
prized me of it. It is very desirable that Alava and 
Whittingham — as soon as he is able, — should be sent to 
the Duque de AJburquerque, who, although he does not 
want spirit, is deficient in other qualifications for a com- 
mander, which his confidence in those officers can alone 
supply.' f 

A sentence of the same letter reminds the Editor of one 

* The Duke of Alburquerque. 

t Vol. v., page 292, of the Wellington Dispatches. 


of the most gallant of British nobles, who was a true and 
staunch friend to General Whittingham, namely, Lord 
Macduff, afterwards Earl of Fife. Lord Wellington 
wrote : ' I am most anxious about Areyzaga's corps, the 
fate of which must be decided before this time. If he 
should fail, the situation of the Duque del Parque will 
become critical.' Lord Macduff was fighting under the 
orders of General Areyzaga, whose army of La Mancha was 
totally defeated at Ocafia on the 19th November, 1809. 
Lord Macduff exhibited his wonted valour, and exerted 
himself in vain to retrieve the fortunes of the day. 
Though without a commission in the British, his Lordship 
eventually became major-general in the Spanish army. It 
does not appear, however, though so stated in the Peerage, 
that he really was wounded at Talavera. 

The original of the letter addressed by Lord Welling- 
ton to Major-General Whittingham, and dated Badajoz, 
22nd December, 1809, is not in the Editor's possession ; 
and, from want of space, it is not copied at length from 
Gurwood's Dispatches.* An extract will suffice for this 
Memoir : — 

To Major-General Whittingham. 

1 Badajos, 22nd December, 1809. 

c My dear Sir, — I am concerned to hear that the state 
of your wound has obliged you to go to Gibraltar ; but I 
wish that while you are in that part of the Peninsula, you 
would take an opportunity of seeing or writing to General 
Venegas on the subject of the defence of Cadiz.' [Then 
his Lordship enters into details of the military preparations 
required, &c, at great length, and the letter thus termi- 
nates] : ' These are the points to which, in particular, I 
would draw the attention of General Venegas if I were 
likely to see him ; but as that is not probable, I beg you 

* Vol. v., page 386. 


either to see or write to him the sentiments which I have 
above written to you. 

* Believe me, &c. 

' Wellington. 

' Major-General Whittingham.'* 

Thus Lord Wellington, in 1809, recognized Whitting- 
ham's rank in Spain as that of a general officer, and never 
wrote to him nor of him under a lower title till peace was 
concluded, and he reverted to his humbler position in the 
British Army. How ignorant of these facts must have 
been that historian who describes the major-general of 
1809 as only a colonel of cavalry in 1811 ! To be sure, 
the Duke's dispatches generally were not then all available 
to the historian when he wrote as Colonel Napier, but 
those announcing victories had at least appeared in the 
c Gazette.' As early as 1809, in Lord Wellington's dis- 
patch of Talavera, that hero had called Whittingham 
brigadier-general, the Spanish rank taking full effect in 
the Peninsular War. But Napier's natural disgust against 
the Spaniards extended itself, apparently, even to the 
English who served with them, and his misstatements 
must be compared (by all lovers of impartiality) with the 
more correct statements of Southey, and especially with 
the facts narrated in the Wellington Dispatches. 

But it is necessary to revert here to General Whitting- 
ham's private correspondence : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

< San FtOQUE ; t 8th January, 1810. 

c I love to hope, before I sail for the new world,$ to 
pass a few months with you and my dear Mrs. D. ; and I 

* In a note to this letter, Gurwood represents Whittingham as then a 
Lieut.- Colonel in the British Army, whereas he was only a Captain, and 
gazetted a Major only on the 12th March, 1810. Gurwood was misled, 
perhaps, by Napier's history. (See Appendix D.) 

| Near Gibraltar. 

X There was at that time a plan for sending an expedition to South 
America, to recover the revolted colonies for Spain. 


have now a double interest in this wish, as it will give me 
an opportunity of introducing my dear Mrs. W., to whom 
I was married on Friday last at Gibraltar. General 
Castanos gave her away. We are now at San Eoque, 
and as soon as my wound, which is still very trouble- 
some, will permit, I shall go to Cadiz, where I have some 
very interesting affairs to canvass with the Governor, 
General Yenegas, by the express desire of Lord Wel- 

' I pay the greatest attention to my papers. I keep 
copies and originals, as circumstances permit, and when 
I have the happiness of seeing you, I shall deposit the 
whole in your hands.* I have never had so delicate a 
part to play as at this moment. I am consulted by the 
leaders of the different parties, and they trust me with 
their secret views and intentions. I communicate every- 
thing to Lord Wellesley, and I am now anxiously waiting 
his orders.f The Spanish Government will employ me 
as major-general the moment I return to Seville. I have 
received a very pressing letter on the subject. But in the 
present situation of their army, I will not risk the little 
fame that I may have acquired by taking the command 
of a division of cavalry. But I will request to be em- 
ployed as a major-general attached to the staff of the 
army of the Duke of Alburquerque. This will, in fact, 
make me second in command, at the same time that I 
avoid the dreadful responsibility of directly commanding 
ill-disciplined and disheartened troops.' 

To the Same. 

i Gibraltar, 22nd January, 1810. 

' General Castanos is appointed Captain-General of 
Andalusia, which gives him, in fact, the supreme com- 

* Thouoh much of his correspondence has been lost, yet a great deal has 
been preserved, which would fill volumes. 

t Lord Wellesley was now Minister for Foreign Affairs. 


mand. He takes me with him as one of his generals of 
division. We leave this place to-morrow. Mrs. W. will 
remain at Cadiz, and I shall immediately take the field 
with the General. The French are about to attack the 
Sierra Morena on three points. I think that their grand 
attack will be by the road of Almadin de la Plata. I fear 
that Andalusia will be lost. But the Isla de Leon may 
be occupied in great force, and will protect the advances 
to Cadiz, and give time for any combined operations in 
the rear of the French army. I pray you don't lose sight 
of my Majority.* 

c The Junta retire to the Isla de Leon, and the Junta of 
Seville are entrusted with the defence of the kingdom of 
Andalusia. My wound is, I hope, well.' 

On the 2nd February, 1810, after a very rapid march 
of 260 English miles, Alburquerque entered the Isla de 
Leon with 8,000 men, and thus saved Cadiz. He was 
afterwards made Governor of the City and President of 
the Junta. On the 7th of same month,f Lord Welling- 
ton writes from Mafra to the Hon. General Stewart : 
' I cannot sufficiently recommend you to endeavour to 
keep up a good understanding with the Spanish officers. 
You will find General Castaiios, who is at present at the 
head of the Regency, and General Venegas, who is 
Governor of Cadiz, highly deserving your confidence ; as 
well as General Whittingham, who is an English officer, 
and who is, I understand, at present at Cadiz. 'J 

* He had applied to be promoted to be Major in the British army, being 
still only a Captain. 

t Wellington Dispatches, vol. v. p. 489. 

X Two days later, Lord Wellington wrote to Lord Liverpool: ( I have 
received intelligence, which I believe to be true, that the Duque d'Albur- 
querque's corps which had been at Carmona on the 24th January, and was 
supposed to have retired across the Guadalquivir, had retired upon Cadiz, 
and actually arrived at Xeres on the 1st instant.' Vol. v. p. 404. 


To his Brother-in-law. 

'Isla de Leon, 1st March, 1810. 

c I am occupied from morning till night. The Eegency 
place an unlimited confidence in me. The Duke [of 
Alburquerque] consults me upon everything, and has 
honoured me by the command of the cavalry, with full 
powers to organize as I may think proper. I have trans- 
lated Dundas, and formed a corps of carabineers chosen 
from the different regiments for instruction. The officers 
assemble every evening at my house, and the practice of 
the day is rendered familiar and easy by the theory clearly 
explained at night. The Duke wishes me to take the 
employment of Chef de VEtat Major. I have no objec- 
tion to it. It is the next [post] to the Commander-in- 

General Whittingham, it is plain, commanded all the 
Spanish cavalry at Isla de Leon, although he there chiefly 
dedicated himself to the organization of a select number. 
He did not thereby (as some have apparently ignorantly 
imagined) become again a simple colonel of cavalry. 

In the beginning of March, the Eight Hon. Henry 
Wellesley arrived at Cadiz, as His Majesty's Minister in 
Spain, and from this time it was with him that General 
Whittingham habitually corresponded. 

In a letter from Lord Wellington to Mr. Wellesley, 
dated Viseu, 27th March, 1810, there are two sentences 
that bear connection with the future proceedings of General 
Whittingham in Spain, and are, therefore, here inserted. 

' Whether the fleet is, or is not sent to Minorca, the 
security of the Balearic Islands is a consideration of the 
utmost importance, which must not be lost sight of. You 
and I (I probably more than you) will be considered re- 

* The rest of the letter is filled with military speculations and projects 
regarding the future campaigns. 


sponsible for everything that occurs, although we have no 
means in our power, and no power to enforce the execu- 
tion of what is necessary. 

' It is desirable that we should advert to everything, 
and should recommend to the consideration of the Spanish 
Government those measures which appear to us to be 
necessary. Accordingly, I suggest to you to pass a note 
to the Regency, recommending to their serious attention 
the security of the Balearic Islands, Minorca particularly ; 
they should send there, in the first instance, the Viscomte 
de Gand's corps which is now in Algarve ; they should, 
besides, endeavour to raise men in Cadiz, where, by proper 
measures, they could get thousands.' 

Venegas's politics were considered of a doubtful cha- 
racter, but he was junior to the Duke of Alburquerque, 
and therefore Lord Wellington writes in February that he 
considered his opinions immaterial, ' particularly recol- 
lecting a letter which I wrote to General Whittino-ham in 
December upon this subject, which I know was shown to 
Venegas, and which was certainly calculated to inspire 
confidence rather than mistrust of our designs in regard 
to Cadiz.' 

On the 12th March, 1810, Samford Whittingham's name 
appeared in the " London Gazette,' as promoted from 
Captain in the loth Light Dragoons, to be Major of 
Infantry on half pay. In a letter dated Isla de Leon, 
1st April, 1810, he writes, introducing Mr.* B. Frere, 
then about to proceed to England to his brother-in-law, 
Mr Davis. 

To the Same. 

i Isla de Leon, 8th April, 1810. 

c I believe that I mentioned to you, that the Duke of 
Alburquerque has resigned the command of this army, 
and is going as ambassador to England. The Eegency 
wished me to have accompanied liim, and proposed giving 


me a special commission for the arms and accoutrements 
of the cavalry; but this plan was objected to by Mr. 
Wellesley and General Graham, who were pleased to con- 
sider my presence here as absolutely necessary ! 

* I have, you know, undertaken to introduce a new 
system of tactics in the Spanish cavalry. My day is at 
present thus divided: From eight in the morning till 
eleven, I exercise three squadrons on foot, which I have 
selected for the purpose of instruction. From twelve to 
three, I am occupied in correcting the translation of 
Dundas on " Cavalry Movements.' ' From three to five, 
exercise of a troop on horseback. From seven to nine, 
academy of all the officers of the three squadrons of in- 
struction at my house, where the principles of cavalry 
movements are explained to them. Add to all this the 
visits that I have to make to the Commander-in-Chief, 
General Castanos, and the various conferences with Mr, 
Wellesley and General Graham, and you will, I think, 
agree with me, that my time is tolerably well taken up. 

' On Sunday next, the Eegency, the Minister of War, 
Generals Graham and Stuart, General Giron, and all the 
officers of high rank in the island are to be present at the 
review of the regiment which I have formed on the new 
system. The regiment will go through all the principal 
manoeuvres, and the Government will determine whether 
the new system is to be adopted or not ! Notwithstand- 
ing the acknowledged necessity of a system of tactics for 
the cavalry, and the beauty and goodness of that pro- 
posed, I am by no means confident of success. The In- 
spector-General of the cavalry is the declared enemy of 
my undertaking, and as all recommendations for promo- 
tion are made through him, almost all the officers of 
cavalry follow his opinion. Whatever be the result, I 
have done my duty; and I am perfectly satisfied that, 
unless a change of system takes place, dishonour and dis- 
grace will ever attend the Spanish cavalry. 



' In losing the protection of the Duke [of Alburquerque], 
I have, I fear, lost a great support ; but be it as it may, 
nothing would induce me to retain the command of the 
Spanish cavalry, unless I should be permitted to give it 
that degree of mobility absolutely necessary for its success 
in the day of action. 

' I have entered more into detail than may appear 
necessary, because if the system of reform be not adopted, 
I shall request General Castanos to relieve me from this 
command, and to make me Inspector-General of the troops 
of the Balearic Islands. 

6 1 pray of you to wait upon the Duke of Alburquerque 
as soon as he comes to town. One of his aides-de-camp 
speaks English very well. I am sure I need not say that 
anything you can do to serve or to amuse the Duke will 
infinitely oblige me ; for no one is better acquainted than 
yourself with the favours he has conferred on me. 

' The Duke has left the command of this army in 
consequence of a dispute with the Junta of Cadiz. It 
was proposed to him by the Eegency (when the Duke 
determined to resign his command here) to make him 
Captain-General of the Balearic Islands ! I was to have 
gone with him as head of his staff. This idea was highly 
approved of by Mr. Wellesley. The Duke was to have 
full powers to recruit in Spain for the army which he 
was to form at Majorca and Minorca ; and I have no 
doubt that in less than four months we should have 
collected 20,000 men. In my humble opinion, this, 
of all others, was the situation for the Duke. At first he 
thought so himself, but the advice of light and interested 
men altered his mind, and he determined not to accept it. 
The embassy was then thought of. It pleased him, and 
everything was forthwith fixed. The Duke has com- 
mitted a capital error, and of this he will sooner or later 
be convinced.'* 

* Southey has recorded the sad death of Alburquerque at the Spanish 
Embassy in London. 


To the Same. 

'Isla de Leon, 26th May, 1810. 

c As Mr. Wellesley and General Graham have both 
written to request that I may be made Lieutenant- 
Colonel in Spain, I am in hopes, notwithstanding the 
difficulties which at first appear, that the affair may be 
carried through.'* 

' It was settled for me to accompany the Duke on his 
embassy to England; but Mr. Wellesley and General 
Graham objected to it so strongly, that I was obliged to 
request General Castanos to state to the Duke that it 
could not be. I still remain in command of the cavalry, 
and I have every reason to believe that I shall have the 
honour of introducing a complete new system of tactics 
for the cavalry of this country. It is incredible the 
opposition that I have met with, but, thanks to the steady 
friendship of the Duke in the first instance, and subse- 
quently of General Castanos, I am in a fair way of con- 
quering all difficulties. Nothing would enable me to do 
the Spanish cavalry so much good as clothing, arming, 
and equipping one corps in the English style. Mr. 
Wellesley would send out a complete equipment for 400 
hussars, which compose the corps d'elite that I have 
taken from the whole of the cavalry. This corps would 
serve as a model for clothing, arms, and furniture, and 
would, I am convinced, induce the Spanish Government 
to make further contracts in England for the future 
clothing and arming of their troops.' 

Jo the Same. 

' Isla de Leon, 28th July, 1810. 

c The enclosed letter for Torrens, I will thank you 
to seal and forward as soon as you have read it. You 

*He was not promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy till the autumn of 
1811, but the Lieutenant-Colonelcywas afterwards dated back to 30th May, 




will see by its contents my opinion of the present state 
of affairs. Be assured (but this is entirely entre nous) 
that unless the work at Santi Petri is finished in a proper 
manner before the French can attack us in force, the 
island will be lost, and if this unfortunate event should 
take place, Cadiz must at last fall ! 

c For my oivn part, as soon as the clothing complete 
arrives, I shall present the regiment of cavalry that I have 
formed to the Government ; and I may venture to assert 
that Spain has hitherto possessed no such corps. I have 
laboured day and night, and I flatter myself that I have 
succeeded. But as the scale of cavalry in this island is 
infinitely small, it is my intention to propose to Govern- 
ment to raise a corps of two thousand cavalry in Majorca ; 
and I shall endeavour to have the clothing, arms, &c., 
from Mr. Wellesley.' 

[After using much persuasion to induce Mr. Davis to 
let his son visit him in the Isla de Leon, he adds : — ] 

' He will in me find not only an affectionate uncle, but 
his father's oldest and best friend. Mrs. W. joins with 
me in this wish ; and I really do think that a few months 
so employed might be of the greatest utility in his future 
career.* He might come here with Major Armstrong, 
who is about to return, and there can be no danger 
of a warlike nature at present, as it is totally impossible 
for Buonaparte to attempt anything against this place till 
he has driven Lord Wellington out of Portugal — an event 
his Lordship conceives to be far distant.' 

On the 25th September he writes again to his brother 
in-law to express his delight at learning that his nephew 
is coming out, and promises that he shall not enter the 
service, and also to take good care of him. 

* As a member of Parliament. 


To the Same. 

'Isla. de Leon, 10th November, 1810. 

c This letter will be delivered to you by Colonel 
Campbell, who goes to England on the subject of the 
clothing and appointments of the force to be disciplined, 
organized, &c. &c. in Majorca by me. I am to have the 
sole direction of the corps, and to be general, head of the 
staff, and inspector. It is a great undertaking. Every- 
thing is to be created anew ; but I trust in God and in 
my good fortune. 

4 Colonel Campbell is one of my most intimate friends. 
We have long been in the habit of the greatest intimacy, 
and I can safely and cordially recommend him to your 
warmest attentions. I am delighted that Hart is coming.* 
Pray would you choose that he should accompany us to 
Majorca? I think he might pass a month there pleasantly. 
He cannot fail to learn Spanish with us. English is 
hardly ever talked at our house, and Mrs. W. will be 
happy to give him lessons in her native tongue. He 
will find an old and intimate friend of his here attached 
to the Embassy, I mean Mr. Clive.' 

At the Isla de Leon occurred the first trial of Spanish 
military organization on a very small scale. How he 
laboured at this work, limited as it was to 400 cavalry 
(officers and men) has been shown in his correspondence 
with Mr. Davis, his brother-in-law. As to its results, the 
two subjoined letters will testify : — 

* Mr. Hart Davis, junior, General Whittingliam's nephew, remained a 
few years in Parliament, and eventually became Deputy Chairman of the 
Board of Excise, in which post he established the reputation of great ability 
and unwearied industry in the public service. 


Lieut.-Genei^al Graham* to Major-General Whittingham. 

'Isla de Leon, 1st December j 1810. 

'My clear General, — Having just heard that you are 
soon to leave this on an important commission to the 
Balearic Islands, I am anxious to take this opportunity of 
testifying my sincere satisfaction at the complete success 
which has attended your exertions here. I am free to 
confess that the task appeared to me to be so difficult a 
one that I much doubted that even your perseverance 
and skill would have produced the desired effect. For I 
should have considered it less arduous to have begun 
with recruits than to instruct on an improved system 
officers and men who at first probably imagined they 
required no instruction. 

' But the readiness and precision with which these 
squadrons executed every formation, and performed every 
evolution that can possibly be required of cavalry, con- 
vinced me that you had been able to overcome all pre- 
judice, and to bring these squadrons in a very short 
time into a high state of discipline, that cannot fail to 
make them a valuable corps. The principle of good 
instruction and practice is common to both infantry and 
cavalry ; and the advantages resulting from that unifor- 
mity must strike forcibly the mind of all military men 
who give themselves the trouble of thinking on pro- 
fessional points. But cavalry, above all, requires such a 
variety of attention that the system of the greatest sim- 
plicity must be the best ; according to the state of 
discipline, this arm is formidable to their enemy or 
dangerous to their friends ; and till cavalry has acquired 
confidence in itself by a thorough knowledge of its powers, 
by being capable of acting without confusion, one would 
rather go into action without it. 

* Afterwards Lord Lynedoch. 


1 But I forget myself ; for least of all to you can it be 
necessary to make such reflections. 

4 I am happy to think that you will now have it in 
your power to exert your talents on a more extensive 
scale for the benefit of a country and a cause in which 
our hearts are so warmly engaged. Do not think me 
vain for thus offering you my tribute of applause. I 
am merely doing justice to my own feelings. Believe 
me ever, my dear General, 

6 Most truly and obediently yours, 

' Thomas Graham.'* 

The Right Hon. Henry Wellesley to Major-General 


i Isla de Leon, 16th November, 1810. 

' Sir, — I cannot avoid expressing to you the satisfac- 
tion [which] I felt at witnessing, this morning, the com- 
plete success of your exertions to bring into the field a 
corps of Spanish cavalry, formed upon the model of a 
British regiment, and in a perfect state of discipline and 
efficiency. You may reasonably take to yourself the 
credit of having introduced into the Spanish cavalry a 
system of discipline, which, if adopted by the other 
corps, cannot fail to render them equal, if not superior 
to the cavalry of the enemy. 

' The steadiness and temper with which you have 
resisted all the attempts to defeat this object, and the 
perseverance and skill which you have manifested in 
bringing it to perfection, are highly creditable to you, 
and justify a confident expectation that your efforts 
will be equally successful in the attainment of a still 
more important object, which, with a view to the im- 

* In the British Service, Graham was then a Major-General, and 
Whittingham only a Major, a fact which renders the tone of deference 
and respect employed in this letter equally honourable to the modesty of 
the superior, and to the merits of the subordinate officer. 


provement of the Spanish army, you are now about to 
undertake. — I have the honour to be, Sir, 

' Your most obedient, humble servant, 

' H. Wellesley.' 

The expectations of Mr. Wellesley were destined to 
be realized in due time ; but in the meantime a great 
mortification was being prepared by destiny for General 
Whittingham. But this year closes with a friendly 
letter from the head of the house of Wellesley : — 

Marquis Wellesley to Major-General Whittingham. 


i Apslet Hoijse, 9th December, 1810. 

' My dear Sir, — I am apprehensive that my silence may 
have inclined you to suppose that I have not remembered, 
with sufficient attention, your valuable services at Seville, 
and my estimation of your talents and character. But I 
flatter myself that when you reflect on the sudden manner 
in which I was cast on the turbulent flood of politics in 
this country, and on the nature of the crisis in which I 
have been required to act, your indulgence will furnish 
some excuse for my apparent negligence. 

6 You may be assured that I have used every endeavour 
to forward every point connected with your most useful 
plan for raising a corps in Spain, although, from some 
accident, I have not yet seen Colonel Campbell. 

c I shall always feel a deep interest in whatever regards 
your welfare and honour. I hope that you will apprize 
me at the earliest moment of your wishes on all subjects 
of importance ; and that you will continue to afford me 
the advantage of your correspondence, and to believe me 
to be, my dear Sir, 

' Your faithful friend and obliged humble servant, 

' Wellesley.' 







In casting in his lot with the Spanish army, the great 
difficulty of General Whittingham had ever been to find 
good opportunities for distinguishing himself, whilst serv- 
ing with raw and undisciplined troops under more or less 
incompetent generals. These premises duly weighed, it 
may perhaps be considered fortunate that only on one 
day of his long career has his military conduct been made 
the subject of hostile criticism, and this not by any official 
superior — either English or Spanish — but by the pen of 
an able, eloquent, and gallant, but also prejudiced and 
partial historian, who himself held a very subordinate 
position in the Peninsular War, and whose bias against 
the Spaniards, and against Englishmen who were employed 
with them, appears to have been indiscriminate and un- 

The battle of Barrosa, fought on March 5, 1811, was 
certainly an unfortunate day for General Whittingham ; 


but few officers who have seen much service have wholly 
escaped such days. Even the great hero of the age had 
had his Seringapatam and his retreat from Burgos. The 
hero of Barrosa, Graham, also, was not always, though 
very generally fortunate ; but that excellent officer never 
himself attributed any blame to General Whittinghain, 
much as he found fault with the Commander-in-Chief, La 

The reader must be reminded, that to this day the 
battle of Barrosa is a difficult and complex question to 
all who take the trouble impartially to study its details 
in the works of the various historians who have under- 
taken to describe them. Putting the Spaniards aside, do 
Frenchmen and Englishmen agree? Is Napier corrobo- 
rated by Marshal Victor's dispatch, or by Thiers's history 
of the French empire ? But, what is still more important, 
do the English themselves agree together? Is not the 
account of the patient and pains-taking civilian, Southey, 
diametrically opposed to that of his impetuous military 
rival? If few persons of judgment will deny that the 
work of the military historian is a far more brilliant pro- 
duction than that of the civilian ; yet on the other hand 
few will maintain that Napier was as impartial or as 
desirous to do justice to all parties and to all nations as 
was the historian Southey. The latter neither felt per- 
sonal hatred against the Spaniards, nor could be jealous 
of those military agents attached to the Spaniards, who 
obtained higher, but temporary and local rank. This 
temporary rank they obtained in return for the sacrifice 
of serving with wretched and undisciplined troops, instead 
of fighting by the side of those British soldiers who so 
often, by their valour and stubbornness, more than make 
up for the ignorance and incompetency of their leaders. 

General Graham won the battle of Barrosa by suddenly 
taking the command, and setting aside the Spanish Com- 
mander-in-Chief under whom he had himself agreed to 


serve. The partial success — as to results at all events — 
that followed the battle, and the prestige of a victory 
(then much wanted, after the retreat of the army to 
Portugal), caused the military insubordination of Graham 
to be converted into a patriotic virtue. But General 
Whittingham was on that day in a different position from 
that of Graham, who was only temporarily under La 
Pena's command, and that by his own desire. Whitting- 
ham was under the immediate orders of La Peiia as a 
Spanish general officer, and he was also acting as a British 
military agent, whose business it was to keep on good 
terms with the Spanish Commander-in-Chief. By every 
principle of duty and policy, and conscience, therefore, 
he was bound to obey La Peiia, as his own Commander, 
as well as the Commander of the allied armies. On the 
other hand, he had every reason to love and respect 
Graham, who had lately recommended him for promotion, 
and praised his military talents in a most flattering letter. 

General Whittingham ever maintained that he was, 
and very naturally so, most anxious to be allowed, and 
had requested in the first instance, to join himself to, 
Graham's division ; but he was refused. But what im- 
partial person could blame La Pena for not consenting to 
deprive himself of the immediate aid of those 400 Spanish 
horsemen, who had been trained to unusual excellence of 
drill and discipline, by the voluntary confession of Graham 

Certainly, it was most unfortunate, that the chief com- 
mand had not originally been invested in General 
Graham. But La Peiia was the senior, and would not 
waive his rights ; for it had been agreed between Lord 
Wellington and the Spanish Government that when 
English and Spanish forces were united, the senior officer 
of either nation should command the whole army. 

From the false statements of the French Marshal 
Victor (as narrated by Southey) that the English had 


purposely exposed the Spaniards to the first attack, it 
does not necessarily follow that the first demonstration 
of the French was not directed at La Pena's advanced 
guard. Victor may have been right in his facts, though 
wrong as to the motives he suggested. 

General Graham imputed no blame to ' General 
Whittingham,' whom he in his dispatch correctly names by 
his Spanish rank ; and who, whilst reserving for La Peiia 
the official report of his proceedings as commander of the 
Spanish advanced guard, appears to have communicated 
verbally to Graham after the action the reason why he 
had been prevented joining him in time with his cavalry. 
In his dispatch to Lord Wellington, General Graham 
writes : c I understand, too, from General Whittingham, 
that with three squadrons of cavalry, he kept in check a 
corps of infantry and cavalry that attempted to turn the 
Barrosa height by the sea. One squadron of the 2nd 
Hussars, King's German Legion, under Captain Busche, 
and directed by Lieutenant-Colonel Ponsonby (both had 
been attached to the Spanish cavalry), joined in time to 
make a brilliant and most successful charge against a 
squadron of French dragoons, which were entirely routed.' 

Unfortunately, General Whittingham, not being under 
General Graham's orders, did not send him a copy of his 
dispatch to General La Peiia. If he had done so, Graham 
would have seen that the Spanish advanced guard, which 
checked the threatened attack of the French on the right, 
consisted of infantry as well as cavalry, and that 
General Whittingham was not that day a simple com- 
mander of cavalry. To explain to General Graham 
why the Spanish cavalry had not joined him, was 
of course the only object of General Whittingham 's 
communication to that officer. It was to his own 
General, the Commander-in-Chief, that he had to send 
the full details of his proceedings. This report he wrote 
in Spanish with the usual forms employed by Spanish 


officers. Of this document he, fortunately (the day after 
writing it), sent a copy in the original language to his 
beloved brother-in-law, who was himself a good Spanish 
scholar. Finally, this document only a few months back 
(with the rest of Sir Samford Whittingharn's long packed- 
away papers), reached the Editor's hands. It had never 
been seen by Sir Samford since March 8th, 1811, when 
he dispatched it to his brother-in-law, and consequently, 
when twenty-two years later he found himself, whilst in 
India, unexpectedly attacked in Napier's history, he had 
only his memory to rely on for his defence. That 
memory, ordinarily good, the inscrutable wisdom of pro- 
vidence permitted on this occasion to be materially, to 
his own great discomfiture, defective ; the sad conse- 
quence of which was that the injured veteran was deprived 
of his invulnerable arms — like Patrocles in his combat 
with Hector. The box of papers, left at the bottom of 
a cellar in the public offices of London, was not avail- 
able to refresh the memory of the veteran wearing away 
his life in a tropical chmate, in the unceasing service of 
his country ! 

The following is a translation of Major- General Wliit- 
tinghams Official Report to the Commander-in-Chief 
La Pena, of his share in the battle of Barrosa :* — 

4 Excellency, — At two o'clock p.m. of the 5th instant 
I received orders from your Excellency to take post, with 
three squadrons, and two troops of cavalry, and 1,350 
infantry^ commanded by Brigadier Don Antonia Begines 
de los Eios, at the camp of the Cerro del Puerco. Con- 
sequently, I was proceeding to take up my position by 
joining the infantry, when Colonel Don Louis Michelena 

* Vide Ajipendix A for the original Spanish copy of the Report, as sent 

to Mr. Davis. 

t The Editor has placed in italics those portions of the Report to which 
he desires to draw the special attention of the reader. 


informed me that troops were in sight, which appeared 
to be enemies, by their marching towards us. I hastened 
the junction ' [with the infantry], ' and reconnoitred the 
enemy, who marched in two strong columns ; having with 
them a battalion of light infantry, which formed their 
vanguard. The one marched directly on my position ; 
the other extending itself to its left for the purpose of 
outflanking us. I ordered the infantry to form in squares, 
and placed the cavalry on the left in echelon, to maintain 
the position. At this moment I received your Excellency's 
order to fall back on the main body of the army ; and I 
discovered, besides the two hostile columns already men- 
tioned, another stronger one approaching rapidly on my 
left to occupy the pine wood, between my camp and that 
of the main army, the only passage by which I could 
accomplish your Excellency's latest instruction to fallback. 
The enemy's force was at least quadruple that which I 
had with me. I determined, in conformity with the said 
order, that the infantry should commence a retreat 
covered by the cavalry. The English battalion under the 
command of Colonel Brown opened the march, followed 
by the Spanish troops. I took the detachment of Eoyal 
carabineers, and one troop of English hussars* with me, 
to cover the right flank of the line of march in the 
retreat — interposed between the right flank and the 
enemy — continuing the retreat up to taking possession of 
the wood, where I immediately posted Don Juan de la 
Cruz ; ordering him to cover the right flank of the posi- 
tion, which the enemy were already endeavouring to sur- 
round. In compliance with my orders, Major Busche with 
the English hussars, Lieutenant-Colonels Don Francisco 
Eamonet, and Don Francisco Serrano with a squadron 
of grenadiers, and, of the same rank, Don Santiago Wall 
with two troops under his command, and some guerilla 

* These were hussars of the German Legion, in the pay of England. 


infantry, maintained themselves till the retreat of the infantry 
was accomplished, of all the baggage of the army, and of the 
two pieces of artillery ; * which up to the last moment of 
being sharply attacked, had maintained unflinchingly a 
very well-directed and vigorous fire upon the enemy. 

6 The cavalry covered the retreat perfectly and in good 
order, notwithstanding the continued skirmishing, which 
the enemy's cavalry kept up, throughout the whole of 
their advance, closing their ranks as they debouched, and 
stronger by one-third, against ours, separated at that time 
at several points.' 

c At this moment, I perceived the corps of General 
Graham issuing out of the wood, and moving towards 
their former position on the heights now occupied by the 
enemy. It would be difficult to give a just idea of the 
impetuosity with which the common enemy was driven 
back from all the heights by the English bayonets ; the 
same enemy who had charged us with such insolence 
and confidence as if he had already gained the victory. 
His force was double that of the English ; but the victory, 
though costly, was complete, and decided by the point of 
the bayonet. The fruits of this distinguished day would 
have been gathered beyond the principal object, if the 
enemy — who in their precipitate retreat abandoned their 
wounded of all ranks and descriptions, three guns and two 
ammunition waggons — had been charged in flank and 
threatened in the rear.f 

* To represent as a mere Colonel of a small body of horse a General, who 
had infantry, artillery, and baggage under his orders as well as cavalry, was 
assuredly a wonderful specimen of ignorance in the popular historian. If, 
denying him the Spanish rank in which he was then employed, the historian 
intended to call him by his English rank, he was equally wrong. Whit- 
tino-ham was not even Lieutenant-Colonel, but only Major, at the battle of 
Barrosa, yet Napier styles him ' Colonel.' 

t The officer who ever considered obedience as the first and last duty 
of a soldier, could, nevertheless, not resist on this occasion hinting to the 
Commander-in-Chief how, instead of ordering his advanced-guard to retire, 
he might have advanced himself with the main body and completed the 


' A squadron of English hussars, which were under my 
command attacked the guard of Marshal Victor, routed 
and dispersed it. This squadron of English hussars, jointly 
with the one already mentioned of the Spanish grenadiers, 
under the" command of Baron Carondelet, and the two 
troops of Don Santiago Wall, covered the right wing ; and 
supported by the troops of brigadiers Don Antonio 
Begines, and Don Juan de la Cruz, prevented the enemy, 
by their gallant conduct and manoeuvres, from surround- 
ing us along the shore, as they had twice attempted to do. 
These two troops behaved with gallantry ; retiring from 
and advancing upon the enemy, at the right moment, as 
equally did the detachment of the Eoyal carabineers. All 
the cavalry in short brilliantly fulfilled their duty. 

4 The enemy, after finding himself repulsed from the 
heights, commenced his retreat in an orderly manner, 
covered by his cavalry. This was the moment in which 
I proposed to myself to collect together and act on the 
offensive with my 400 horse, which I had under my 
orders.* With this view I had desired Eamonet and 
Serrano, in union with Wall, to observe and to co-operate 
with the movements of the English hussars and the Eoyal 
carabineers, which I kept with me ; when, upon the right 
of the whole line, there appeared a column of infantry of 
about 500 men, preceded by a party of horse, and moving 
as if to turn our flank. It was indispensable to manoeuvre 
so as to keep them under observation, whilst a sergeant 
and six men of the squadron of carabineers reconnoitred 
them ; and the opportunity thus escaped me of charging, 
with the whole of my disposable cavalry, the enemy who 
was retiring rapidly. At the head of the English hussars 

* This corps, which he had himself trained and organized, to the admira- 
tion of General Graham and Mr. Wellesley, was under his special orders) 
though as General (as his dispatch clearly proves) he on that day com- 
manded, under La Pen a, the whole Spanish advanced-guard — amounting, 
apparently, to about 2,500 of all ranks — a small force against such an 
enemy j but still no Cahners command. 


I followed them, resolving to attack a body of cavalry, 
posted at the side of a lake, which covered their left flank. 
But on my advance, I discovered that the whole of the 
enemy's infantry were collected on their right, supported by 
the artillery, and covered by the pine wood ; a situation 
which did not allow of a partial or isolated movement 
against the above mentioned force, so well protected. In 
this situation, two pieces of artillery were placed in position 
by General Graham which by a well directed fire obliged 
the enemy to continue his retreat between the lake and 
the pine wood in the direction of Chiclava. 

; I cannot do less than entreat your Excellency to make 
known to their Serene Highnesses,* the particular merit 
evinced in all circumstances, by the commanders, officers, 
and troops in this action, without being able to select or 
individualize any to your Excellency, where all have 
emulously and honourably fulfilled their duty, on this 
happy occasion thus offered to them, of showing them- 
selves to the nation as its defenders. 

' God preserve your Excellency. 

'His Excellency [Major-General] Senor Don Santiago 
Whittinghani, to his Excellency [Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral] Senor Don Manuel de la Pefia, General-in- 

1 Camp op Cerro del Puerco, 7th March, 1811.' 

This dispatch demonstrates that notwithstanding La 
Pena's orders to retire, it was simply an accident over 
which he had no control, that delayed the advance of 
General Whittingham, after the successful charge of the 
British under General Graham. 

That some of these details, as well as those regarding 
his rank and position, should have escaped his recollec- 
tion after about a quarter of a century had elapsed— a 
period passed in nearly ceaseless laborious duties and 
occupations — is less extraordinary than that an historian 

* The Regency of Spain. 


sitting at home at ease should have made so many mis- 
takes, and egregiously misrepresented the proceedings of 
that small part of La Pena's army which took part in the 
battle of Barrosa. 

As usual, so on this occasion, General Wliittingham 
was with the advanced guard of the Spanish army. The 
fatiguing marches which the Spaniards had undergone, 
may have palliated the tardiness of La Pena, who had 
also perhaps a just right to complain of the disobedience 
of his subordinate General Graham. But certainly La 
Pena was not in sight of the action that day, aud inter- 
fered only to order the retreat of his advanced guard, 
on to the main body. 

It may be that Southey is too severe on Graham, under 
the circumstances ; but at least he appears to have dis- 
cussed the question with studied calmness and impar- 
tiality, as well as with a fullness of details, which may 
have exhausted the patience of some of his readers. Bat 
most assuredly if truth and accuracy are the most impor- 
tant points in a history, in that respect Southey has borne 
the palm from his military rival, even though it is pro- 
bable that some errors also exist in his pains-taking 
accounts of Barrosa. 

The painful uncertainty of history, of which many ex- 
amples have been furnished in the present century, was 
never more patent than in the conflicting testimonies, re- 
garding that battle, in acting in which, General Wliitting- 
ham appears to have done his duty under most trying 
circumstances. That he was indignant with the Spanish 
Commander-in-Chief, and that all his sympathies were 
with General Graham, is proved by the following private 
letter written three days after the action, more plainly 
than etiquette would admit of in the official dispatch : — 


Major-General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

'Isla de Leon, Sth March, 1811. 

6 My dear Davis, — The time is so short, that I have 
scarcely time to send you a copy of my report * to the 
Commander-in-Chief La Pena of the part I had in the 
action of the 5th. If the English had been supported 
by an advance movement of the Spaniards in the wood, 
the siege of Cadiz must have been raised, and the whole 
business would have been most glorious. As it is, the 
British army gained a most complete victory against double 
the number of French, and covered themselves with im- 
mortal honour. 

' The loss of the English exceeds 1,200 men, and after 
such a specimen of Spanish generalship, it is not to be 
believed that General Graham will again engage in offen- 
sive operations, unless he has the command-in-chief. The 
Spaniards still keep the bridge of boats upon the river, 
and talk of undertaking offensive operations alone. As 
everything relative to my expedition to Majorca is settled, 
I shall give up [my command] here, as soon as they may 
choose to take away the bridge of Santi Petri. Colonel 
Macdonald will do me the favour to deliver this letter. 
He is Adjutant-General of the British forces here, and I 
beg to recommend him to your particular attentions. My 
best love to Mrs. Davis and all the family, as well as to 
James [Whittingham] and his family, and believe me, 

6 Ever yours most affectionately, 

6 Samford Whittingham.' 

If Napier had delayed his history till after the publi- 
cation of the ' Wellington Dispatches ' (since the Duke 
refused him access to them), he would probably have done 
more justice to General Whittingham, of whom so much 

* He means, scarcely time to do more than send a copy of his report. 

k 2 


honourable mention is therein made. Above all he would 
have read the Duke's all-comprehensive testimony to the 
merits and services of Sir Samford Whittingham, from the 
commencement to the close of the Peninsular war. Three 
years after Barrosa the Duke wrote in favour of the sub- 
ject of this Memoir that he had ' served most zealously 
and gallantly , from the commencement of the war in the 
Peninsula, and I have had every reason to be satisfied 
with his conduct, in every situation in which he has been 

Let the reader mark the two everys employed by one 
who weighed his words ; and was not Barrosa one of the 
situations in which the subject of this Memoir had been 
placed ? 

A month later the Premier, Mr. Perceval, thanked Mr. 
Davis for a copy of General Whittingham' s translation of 
Dundas's Cavalry Tactics, and expressed the ' most san- 
guine hopes of the benefit the Spanish cause will derive 
from his being entrusted with the formation of a consider- 
able body of their army.' 

But the following letter must have given General 
Whittingham greater pleasure than all the other acknow- 
ledgements he received of the copies of his military 
Spanish publication : — 

E.R.H. the Duke of Kent to R. H. Davis, Esq. M.P. 

'Kensington Palace, 16th April, 1811. 

' The Duke of Kent does himself the honour of ac- 
knowledging Mr. Hart Davis's polite note of yesterday, 
enclosing a copy of General Wliittingham's translation of 
Dundas's Cavalry Tactics into Spanish ; and the Duke 
begs to assure Mr. Davis that he values most highly the 
General's attention, as well as the very handsome manner 
in which Mr. Davis has become the instrument of impart- 

ing it. 

* This letter will appear in its proper place. 


' The Duke cannot resist, upon this opportunity, paying 
what he considers a just tribute to the merits of General 
Whittingham, by observing that he views him as a high 
ornament to the British service, and a most efficient aid in 
the prosecution of the Spanish cause* 

'Hart Davis, Esq.' 

At this time, as the ' Wellington Dispatches ' testify, 
General Castafios, who had been appointed a member of 
the Eegency, as well as Commander-in-chief, was fast 
gaining the confidence and friendship of Lord Wellington, 
to the great delight of his former aide-de-camp, who was 
now starting to undertake the very difficult task of raising 
and organizing a large Spanish division, with at first one 
only other British officer to assist him, and to the very 
last obtaining little aid from any but Spanish officers 
trained by himself. 

* The Editor deems such spontaneous praise from the excellent father of 
Her gracious Majesty, worthy of being 1 placed in italics. 



181 1 — continued. 










The arduous task undertaken by General Whittingharn — 
to raise, organize, pay, clothe, feed, drill, and instruct a 
large division of Spanish troops in Majorca, is now partly 
represented by a large manuscript folio volume, contain- 
ing the written copies of the correspondence which such 
an Herculean task necessarily occasioned. The word 
partly is used advisedly, as much of his personal active 
military exertions were never represented on paper. His 
financial duties especially weighed on his mind ; no 
English paymaster having been appointed to assist him, 
whilst in the Spanish paymasters he could not feel com- 
plete confidence. Colonel Patrick Campbell, indeed, of 
the Majorca division, acted voluntarily as his deputy pay- 
master ; but the entire responsibility rested with himself, 
and became the greatest, as it was the most unjustifiable, 
of the burdens he had to bear in the island. 

The chief advantage of having a deputy arose from the 


fact that the actual money did not pass through the 
General's hands, though disbursed by his orders ; and this 
arrangement, without lessening the legal, of course dimi- 
nished his moral responsibility ; which rested chiefly with 
Colonel Campbell, who had charge of the monies. 

It is of course but a small fraction of his voluminous 
Majorcan correspondence, that will now be laid before the 
reader ; but sufficient to show the nature and extent of 
his task. 

The Right Hon. Heiiry Wellesley to Major-General 


1 Cadiz, 8th June, 1811. 

' Sir, — Upon your arrival at Gibraltar, you are to con- 
sider this letter as sufficient authority for you to draw 
from that place, on His Majesty's Treasury in London, for 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

' I am, with much respect, Sir, your most obedient and 
humble servant, 

'Henry Wellesley.' 

On June loth, 1811, General Whittingham landed at 
Gibraltar. When three years earlier he had first landed 
on the rock, as Captain Whittingham, kind and cour- 
teously had he been received by Sir Hew Dalrymple. 
This time it was different. The pompous Governor was 
difficult of access, and the new arrival was anxious to 
arrange without loss of time, the cashing of his Treasury 
order, and to proceed on his mission to Majorca. He, 
therefore, armed with the above-mentioned authority, pro- 
ceeded to negotiate with the merchants of Gibraltar ; Mr. 
Wellesley not having authorised him to consult anyone 
whatever, and having limited his powers as to rate of ex- 
change, so that the utmost secresy was necessary, in order 
to raise the money on the required terms. But the 


Governor discovering the negotiations, and more mindful 
of his own dignity than of the efficiency of the public 
service, flew into a violent passion, and commencing a 
most harsh correspondence with the unintentional offender, 
ended by ordering him to proceed ' on his mission with 
the least possible delay.' The matter was reported on 
both sides to their respective superiors, and entailed 
plenty of correspondence ; but apparently the various de- 
partments concerned never came to any positive under- 
standing on the matter. At all events it does not appear 
that it was ever satisfactorily settled. General Whitting- 
ham, however, effected his business in a few days. Before 
leaving Gibraltar he wrote to Mr. Wellesley and to Mar- 
quis Wellesley ; to the former, a justification of his con- 
duct, as his official superior, to the latter an account of 
the affair as to his friend and protector, and to his brother- 
in-law he of course explained everything. Assuredly this 
dispute was forced upon him, without any fault of his 
own ; as he was denied all opportunity for amicable ex- 
planation. The details of his financial proceedings at 
Gibraltar are recorded with the accuracy of a counting- 
house. He succeeded so well that Government made a 
better bargain than could have been made at Cadiz, all 
which he explained to Mr. Wellesley for the information 
of the Treasury. 

On the 28th June, he landed at Palma in Majorca, 
where he immediately hired a house for his stores, and 
commenced disembarking the clothing and arms which 
had arrived for the use of the army of reserve about to 
be raised in the island ; of all w T hich proceedings Mr. 
Wellesley and Admiral Sir Charles Cotton were duly in- 
formed in clear and ample details. Long letters follow 
on the statistical state of the island and of its intricate 
politics, and regarding the French leanings of some of the 

A serious danger was the number of French prisoners 


in the Balearic Islands, whom, especially the officers, it 
was difficult to keep from intriguing with the inhabitants, 
on whose loyalty the retreat of Lord Wellington to Portugal 
had had a bad effect. Many of the first families in Majorca 
were more than suspected of conspiring with the French 
officers on parole with a view to a revolution in the inte- 
rest of Napoleon. In communicating these and other facts 
to Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, Bart.,* on the 14th July, 
1811, General Whittingham adds, amongst his postscripts, 
this curious sentence : c I should think it would be highly 
advisable to remove the French officers, at least, from this 
place to Mahon for the present, and that without losing a 
moment's time. My information comes from the Church, 
through means which they alone possess, and therefore can- 
not be doubted.' 

Amongst the prisoners were some Germans, who had 
only reluctantly served with the French, and these after 
some correspondence, General Whittingham was allowed 
to enlist into his Majorca division ; and they were found 
to be a valuable acquisition. 

On the 13th July he reported his arrival and proceed- 
ings to Marquis Wellesley, who it appears had used his 
influence with Ministers in England to cause the adoption 
of General Whittingham's plans of raising troops in 
Majorca. With the Spanish authorities he corresponded 
in their own language, as his Majorca letter-book testifies. 

But of all his worries and misfortunes in Majorca (and 
their name was legion) the greatest was undoubtedly the 
fact that Don Gregorio Cuesta (the man whose stupid 
obstinacy, dislike of the English, and utter incompetency, 
General Whittingham had exposed and denounced to 
Mr. Hookham Frere, before the arrival in Spain of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley) was at this time, Captain-General of 
the Balearic Islands, with full and unlimited powers! 

* Afterwards the celebrated Viscount Exmouth. 


Now that he could no longer worry the hero of the age 
he vented his malice on the British officer now serving as 
a Major-General in the province he commanded as Cap- 
tain-General. It is very probable, also, that he was not 
wholly unaware of how the friend of Alburquerque had 
formerly thought, spoken, and written of Cuesta's jealousies 
and incapacity, and that he was glad of an opportunity of 
revenging himself. But of Cuesta more hereafter. 

Major-General Whittingham to Colonel Torrens* 

'Palma, UhJuly, 1811. 

' My dear Torrens, — I hasten to inform you of my 
arrival here, and to assure you that I shall lose no oppor- 
tunity of giving you an exact account of everything that 
occurs, and particularly relative to this army of reserve. 
In the meantime I must inform you that your friend, 
Captain Clarke, having gone as a volunteer with General 
Blake to Estremadura, it was not in my power to take 
him with me when I left Cadiz ; but I sent him a message 
by Lord William Kussell,f desiring him to join me as soon 
as possible, and offering him a troop of Hussars. . . . 

' The unfortunate loss of Tarragona has deprived me of 
200 Catalans, who were upon the point of being sent here; 
but the number will be easily made up in Valencia and 
Murcia. I am extremely anxious to organize a few 
battalions, as the force at present on the island is so very 
small that we cannot by any means be considered in a 
state of security. We have in the island of Cabrera, 4,000 
prisoners ; a considerable part of them Germans from 
Westphalia and Hesse Cassel, and consequently good 
soldiers, and not attached to French principles. If I had 

* Military Secretary to H.R.H. the Duke of York, afterwards Sir Henry 
Torrens, who died as Adjutant-General at the Horse-Guards in 1828. 

t Elder brother of Earl Russell, afterwards Major-General, and in 1836 
Envoy at Berlin. 


the power of selecting, I could get some excellent recruits. 
There are also eighty officers prisoners, belonging to these 
men in this island, and it certainly would be very much 
for the good of the service that they should be removed 
elsewhere without loss of time, as they are daily forming 
to themselves an interest with the inhabitants. 

' I remain, &c, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

Major-General Whittingham to the Right Hon. He7iry 



' Palma, 1st August, 1811. 

' I have the honour to enclose a copy of my letter of 
this day's date to Mr. Bardaxi,* being also a copy of that 
which I have written to the Minister of War, relative to 
certain points of service, which if they are not finally and 
satisfactorily settled, must lead to the most unpleasant 
disputes between myself and General Cuesta. You will 
have the goodness to observe that I rest my argument 
upon the Spanish ordenanza, which provide, that whenever 
a reunion of troops be ordered in any province of the 
monarchy, and a General appointed to command them, 
all military command of these troops is vested in him, and 
the Captain-General of the province has only to direct with 
regard to the civil jurisdiction, destination of quarters, &c. 

' I have already experienced a sufficient degree of oppo- 
sition from General Cuesta to alarm me at least for the 
future ; and I am, therefore, extremely anxious, that by a 
complete and total separation of command, every possible 
disagreement should be avoided. . . 

' The conscription and war contribution may meet with 

* A member of the Junta, well-disposed to the English. The enclosures 
are all in Spanish, in which language he carried on his correspondence with 
all the Spanish authorities ever since his arrival in the country, as he wrote 
and spoke it as fluently as English. 


those obstacles which originate in intrigue ; but I am 
satisfied that they may, as far as concerns the people, be 
carried into effect without difficulty or danger. 

' I beg to call your attention in the most earnest man- 
ner to the settling of the points of service mentioned in 
the enclosed letter ; as I am convinced that there can be 
no other way of avoiding disputes which must inevitably 

in the end ruin the plan altogether.' 

To prove what difficulties General Whittingham 
had to contend with in his dealings with General Cuesta, 
Lord Wellington's remark to Mr. Wellesley in his dispatch 
of the 29th August, 1811, is worthy of record ; viz. 'lam 
quite convinced that the majority of the officers of the 
Spanish army would prefer submitting to the French, to 
allowing us to have anything to say to their troops.'* 

On the 23rd August, 1811, General Whittingham dis- 
patched a letter, containing four foolscap pages, to Mr. 
Wellesley ; sending on the same day a similar letter to 
Marquis Wellesley in London, and a copy besides to his 
brother-in-law. It was a brief treatise on the Island of 
Majorca, under three distinct points of view. First, as to 
its intrinsic value. Secondly, as to the security it affords 
Port Mahon. Thirdly, as to the best means of deriving 
from it every advantage, with the least possible expense. 
At that time, as we have seen, Lord Wellington attached 
great importance to the possession of the Balearic Islands. 
But the interest of this subject having wholly passed away, 
it is unnecessary to make any extracts from this docu- 

On the 20th September, in a friendly letter to the naval 
officer then at Palma, the Honourable Captain Blackwood, 
he rejoices at the departure of the French prisoners, whose 
presence and machinations had given him so much trouble; 
adding, ' The friends of the good cause hold up their heads 

* Wellington Dispatches, vol. viii, p. 244. 


and begin to fancy themselves out of danger ; and, on the 
other hand, the French party are become circumspect 
and silent/ After alluding to some consular intrigues, he 
adds : 'lam sorry to inform you that the Captain-General 
Cuesta] has taken possession, for his own riding, of the 
iorse which I intended for you. I am not surprised, 
though the enemy was, at your having taken up an 
anchorage at Hare's Bay. Sir Edward [Pellewjs cha- 
racter is too well known to allow of a supposition that he 
would leave anything undone which could be done.' . . . 

On the 20th September he writes to Admiral Sir Edward 
Pellew, amongst other matters, as follows : ' I cannot help 
expressing how much service it would be rendering the 
division, if you could possibly allow the " Gnadalope" or 
any other small vessel, to go to Oran, to take the money 
for the purchase of the barley, and to bring the vessel 
loaded with that grain.* The Junta superior of this 
island has positively refused to provide me either with 
barley or straw. And, although I conceive that their 
conduct will not be sanctioned by the Eegency, yet, as it 
is impossible to wait in these cases for distant decision, I 
have directed a person of confidence at Oran to buy, for 
the use of this army, 7,000 fanegas of barley. But I am 
totally without the means of bringing barley here, or of 
sending him the money which he must have advanced for 
the purpose. I enclose a fresh return of the force under 
my command, which you will see is gradually increasing.' 

It is quite impossible to give in this work an adequate 
idea of the labours and difficulties which General Whit- 
tingham had to contend with in Majorca. Their contem- 
plation fills the Editor's mind with astonishment, that such 
a burden of responsibility, care, labour, and ceaseless 
annoyance, should have been not only endured with 
temper and patience, but carried out to a triumphant con- 

* Thus he acted as the commissary, as well as the paymaster of the 
division which he had to raise, organize, discipline, instruct, and command. 


elusion, by an almost solitary Englishman in the midst of 
half-civilized Spaniards. 

Colonel Torrens, Military Secretary, to Mr. Davis.* 


' House-Guards, 22nd September, 1811. 

< My dear Davis, — I return you the interesting papers 
enclosed to me in your letter of the 20th instant; and I 
am most thankful to you for the perusal of them.' [After 
alluding to the interesting command now held by Whit- 
tingham, he adds], c He will have many difficulties to 
encounter ; but I know no person so well calculated to 
overcome them.' 

On the 1st October, General Whittingham wrote a 
long letter to Lieutenant- Colonel Torrens, detailing his 
proceedings in the raising and organization of his Divi- 
sion ; a few extracts from which may be interesting : — 

' I expect, in a short time, 300 horses from the coast 
of Africa. The requisition in this island will give me at 
least 200 more ; and the officer employed on that service 
in Sardinia, informs me that he can purchase for me on 
this island from 600 to 700 more, as soon as I furnish him 
with the pecuniary means. So that, as to mounting my 
two regiments of cavalry, I am under no alarm, and you 
may be assured that they shall not be wanting as to disci- 
pline. Still, however, there is always a shade of doubt 
upon my mind ; inasmuch as they will be wholly com- 
posed of new levies, and, consequently, at first they must 
be incapable of comprehending the full extent of their 
own powers. Even the oldest and best of the Spanish 
troops never fight [by themselves] as they do in the pre- 
sence of the British. How much stronger, therefore, must 

* This letter is written on the back of the docket enclosing the returned 


this necessity be, when the troops in question have never 
been under fire ! ' The concluding sentence of this letter 
refers to a most gallant Irishman, doomed to an early but 
glorious death. ' If it be possible, I should much wish 
that Captain O'Eeilly, of the 13th Foot, should be sent 
to me with leave to serve in the Spanish army, I knew 
him well at [High] Wycombe, and he would be parti- 
cularly useful to me in the Quarter-m aster-General's 

On the same day (the 1st October) General Whitting- 
ham describes to his brother-in-law, his joy at the news of 
his promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel, which had evidently 
taken place only in August ; but was afterwards back- 
dated to 30th May, 1811. 

On the 7th October, General Whittingham writes to 
Mr. Davis a long letter regarding the struggles carried on 
in Majorca, between the patriotic party, anxious in order 
to further the organization of the Division of troops, to 
increase General Whittingham's powers, by causing him 
to be made Governor of Majorca; and the opposite fac- 
tion, which from jealousy of the Englishman, and from 
love of intrigue, violently opposed the project. To his 
brother-in-law the General writes : — ' In respect to the 
Government of Majorca, it is to me a matter of perfect 
indifference, although the person actually holding that 
employment is certainly a very improper man [to hold it], 
from his too well-known attachment to French principles. 
But I should wish to be acquainted with the sentiments 
of His Majesty's Ministers on that head, in case General 
Valcles, who is now appointed Captain-General of the 
Balearic Islands*, instead of Cuesta, should press the 
employment upon me.' 

Enclosed in this letter to Mr. Davis was a copy of the 
Eeport of a certain very intelligent Captain of the Spanish 

* Either this was a false report, or the appointment was afterwards 


Eoyal Navy, who had been sent by General Whittingham, 
on a special mission, to Cadiz, to defend his interest and 
the good of the cause, with Mr. Wellesley and the Spanish 
Junta. As a graphic description of some of the difficulties 
in the way of carrying out the Majorca scheme, and also as 
a picture of Spanish intrigue, it may amuse some readers, 
and is therefore inserted here : — 

c Remarks and Occurrences, in a Voyage from Majorca 
to. Cadiz and back, by A. Briarly, Captain Spanish 
Navy, 1811.' 


1 General Whittingham observed to me on the 22nd 
July, that a foul plot or conspiracy has been entered into 
by a French party in this island, for the purpose of giving 
it up to the French ; and that they were in communication 
with the French officers, [who were] prisoners in the 
Castle of Belver. He at the same time urged the neces- 
sity of my going to Cadiz with the dispatches ; as the 
Junta had applied to him for an officer of confidence. 
He also observed that there were many things of great 
consequence, necessary for the use of his Division, which 
I could at the same time apply for. I consented to go ; 
but there was no vessel of any kind except a schooner 
of eight guns, which had been taken [whilst] smuggling a 
cargo of tobacco. This vessel lay empty at the Quay ; and 
was offered to me, provided that I would man and victual 
her ; as they were not able. This I consented to do ; 
and on the morning of the 27th July I sailed from Palma 
with thirty-six seamen on board. 

' I arrived at Cadiz, on the 7th August, and imme- 
diately waited upon the Eegency with my dispatches ; 
next upon the Secretary of War, Heredia ; and, finally 
upon the British Minister, Mr. Wellesley, who promised 
me that he would do everything in his power to have me 


dispatched as soon as possible ; and that he would see 
about having the prisoners removed from Cabrera, and, 
at all events, the officers from the island of Majorca 

' The Secretary of State [for War] assured me that he 
would do everything in his power for the safety of the 
island ; and that all General Whittingham's wants should 
be paid attention to immediately. At the end of the first 
week, however, I found that the only thing done to 
forward me was the taking the schooner from me, in con- 
sequence of a requisition made by the British Admiral 
and [the British] Minister. 

' I found that the promises, which I had obtained from 
every part of the Government, were nothing more than 
words of course. For at the end of August, although I 
had not missed a single day without paying a visit to 
every one of the Ministers upon the subject of my 
dispatches, I was just where I started. The Bishop of 
Majorca, Llaneres, and the two deputies in the Cortes for 
the island, exerted themselves as much as possible also, 
and were it not for their interference nothing would have 
been accomplished. 

' Mr. Welleslev observed to me, that General Whittine;- 
ham must not purchase provisions of any kind with the 
money given to hint ; as when that should be expended 
he would not give him any more. He also desired me 
to tell General Whittingham, that he was not to interfere, 
in any way whatever, with the Government of the island, 
nor in any of their political discussions ; that lie was 
solely to organize his division ; and not to have anything, 
directly or indirectly, to do with anything that did not 
concern it. This last observation was stated, no doubt, in 
consequence of the dispatches of the Cortes for the 
island having insisted on both the Captain-General [of the 
Balearic Islands], and the Governor of Palma being re- 


moved ; and the Bishop of Majorca and the others* 
wishing to put in Admiral Valdes as Captain-General ; 
and I am sure that it was, and is their intention still, to 
have General Whittingham appointed Governor of 
Palina.f And there can be little doubt of their succeed- 
ing in their wishes, when they have got Valdes appointed 
Captain-General . J 

' On the 2nd September I called upon the British Vice 
Consul, Mr. Archdeacon, to inquire if any of the trans- 
ports loaded with clothing for General Whittingham had 
[arrived], or were likely to arrive. On looking over his 
books he told me, that there was a transport the 
" Wellington" loaded with clothing for the General, 
which had arrived and been in Cadiz for two months : and 
that Mr. Wellesley had been informed of it on that 
vessel's arrival. I went and told Mr. Wellesley, and he 
observed that I might take her up to Majorca if I would 
get a convoy for her. I applied to the agent of transports, 
who wrote to the Admiral, he bein^ out cruising off the 
Gulf of Gibraltar ; and finally on the 10th [September] a 
convoy was appointed.' Captain Briarly arrived in Palma 
Avith his supplies on the 28th September, to the great joy 
of his General, as may be well supposed. 

General Whittingham was often applied to by half-pay 
British officers, and even by civilians, who wanted com- 
missions in some regiment of his division. Some of them 
came out strongly recommended. But as he had only a 
few posts reserved for Englishmen (for fear of giving 
great and impolitic offence to the Spaniards), so he was 
generally compelled to decline such applications ; and 
thus unintentionally to multiply his enemies, and to aug- 

* The two deputies from Majorca. 

t He means of Majorca, of which Palma is the capital. 

\ Valdes never was appointed Captain-General, and so the well-meant 
scheme of the good Bishop and of the patriotic island deputies to increase 
the powers of the English General, and thereby facilitate the formation of 
the division, was frustrated. 


merit the feelings of jealousy to which his high position in 
the Spanish army often exposed him. But he kept his 
temper, and continued with patient perseverance to fulfil 
his onerous duties to the best of his power and judgment. 

On the 29th of October, 1811, General Whittingham 
pointed out to Mr. Wellesley in a long dispatch the 
breach of faith on the part of the Junta, and especially 
of the war minister, in regard to the stipulations origi- 
nally made as to the recruiting and organization of the 
Majorca division ; one sentence in which is interesting, 
from certain circumstances which eventually caused the 
interference of Lord Wellington himself. ' By the 
enclosed copy of a letter from General Valcarcel of the 
24th September, you will see an attempt made to take 
the inspection, and consequently the proposal of officers 
out of my hands. For if all my propuestas* are to be 
submitted to the opinion of the Inspectors in Cadiz, it is 
a perfect joke to decorate me with the title of Inspector- 
General of this division. 7 

The jealousy of General Whittingham imbibed by some 
of the Spanish ministers, vented itself in various annoying 
ways, on which there is no space to dwell. 

No wonder that at last, the patience which Mr. Wellesley 
had admired, when displayed in the lighter work at Isla 
de Leon, was nearly exhausted by the heavy burden 
at Majorca, and that to his brother-in-law he began to 
display his half-formed wish to retire from the Spanish 

On the 2nd November, after passing nearly five months 
on the Island, he pours out all his feelings on the conduct 
of those ' whose dearest interest it should be to protect 
the formation of a division, which might lay the founda- 
tion of the salvation of the Spanish monarchy ; but which, 
at all events must ensure the safety of the Balearic Islands. 

* Proposals or recommendations for promotions and appointments. 

L 2 


The Minister of War is at the head of the whole intrigue ; * 
and not a day passes without orders being given directly 
contrary to the basis of the agreement between Mr. 
Wellesley and the Spanish Government ; and tending only 
to a repetition of insults to induce me to throw up the 
command, and leave the island. 

' Had I only to do with the Spanish Government, I 
should not have hesitated a moment ; but I am now 
held by other ties to me ten thousand times more strong. 
I am compromised with the British Government, and 
therefore whatever may happen, I shall not take a single 
step without its being first sanctioned by its appro- 

On the 10th, 11th, and 12th November, three more 
letters, long and full, are dispatched to Mr. Wellesley, 
exposing the conduct of the Spanish authorities and the 
defenceless state in which they had left Majorca and the 
injurious treatment which he had met at their hands. 
The letter of the 12th commences thus: 'Every day 
brings fresh proofs of the decided enmity borne by General 
Cuesta to everything English, and of his particular hosti- 
lity to me.' The letter continues : 

c Conceiving it of importance to forward my dispatches 
to you of the 11th and 10th of this month, by a safe 
conveyance, I sent an officer of my staff to General 
Cuesta's secretary's office to ask for a passport to Cadiz, 
for Lieutenant Niel Macdoudel of His Majesty's 75th 
Eegiment of infantry. The reception which this officer 
met with is too scandalous to be related. The Captain- 
General made use of language to him, which ought only 
to be used by porters ; — asked liim who had constituted 
him the defender of Englishmen, and threatened him 
with punishment if he again interfered in such like com- 

* This was the man who scrupled not officially to worry and insult Lord 
Wellington himself. 


' Aware that this behaviour, on the part of the Captain- 
General could only proceed from a desire to irritate me, 
and, by throwing me off my guard, induce me to commit 
myself by some act of violence, I abstained from seeing 
him on the subject, and contented myself with sending; him 
an official letter requesting a passport for a British officer 
to 20 to Gibraltar. 

6 The passport, which Lieutenant Macdoudel, who is 
nephew to Colonel Campbell, will have the honour to 
show you, was the answer. I beg leave once more to 
state, that my stay here cannot but lead to the worst 
consequences, unless the Captain-General be removed, 
and unless the independence of my command be fully and 
decidedly established.' 

On the 13th and 25th November he again impresses on 
the Minister the state of his relations with the Spanish 
officials, and the difficulties he has to encounter in obtain- 
ing necessary supplies for men and horses. In that of 
the 25th, he reports on the enlisting of some Germans 
into his division : ' Baron Halberg, an Austrian officer in 
the service, was sent by me to Cabrera to choose out the 
Germans only, and not even to take Italians or Poles. 
He in consequence brought with him 133 men, all Ger- 
mans, and who have since conducted themselves with the 
greatest propriety.' 

In a letter dated 7th September, 1811, Mr. Wellesley 
writes : 4 1 am informed by M. de Bardaxi that the Junta 
has consented that your troops should be supplied with 
rations from the island ; that the necessary buildings will 
be allotted for their accommodation, and that you are to 
be allowed to recruit from the German prisoners at Ca- 
brera to the extent of GOO men.' 

On the 20th December General Whittingham congra- 
tulates Mr. Wellesley upon his appointment, from simple 
minister and envoy, to the post of ambassador extraordi- 


naiy, but accidentally omits entirely the title ' excellency * 
which was now Mr. Wellesley's due. One sentence in 
this letter, without comment of any kind, records a fact, 
which must nevertheless, have afforded unspeakable relief 
to the writer : ' I have only now to communicate the news 
of the death of the Captain-General Don Gregorio de la 








One of the great disadvantages under which General 
Whittinghain laboured was that the unpopularity of the 
Spaniards with the English army abroad, and with Eng- 
lishmen at home, extended itself to the English officers 
employed in the Spanish service. The extra army rank 
of these agents, though for the most part only local and 
temporary yet, perhaps not unnaturally, excited the jea- 
lousy of the regimental officers. Lord Wellington, how- 
ever, very early in the war, recorded his opinion that 
no officers more deserved their promotion than the British 
agents with the Spanish army; whose duties, indeed, 
were arduous and hazardous, and required much exertion 
and intelligence to perform them efficiently. Lord 
Wellington was not always satisfied with all of them, but 
all the readers of his dispatches knew that he recorded 


his complete satisfaction at the close of the war, with the 
conduct of General Whittingham, who, whilst only a 
Captain in the British army, had been addressed by his 
Lordship as a Spanish Major-General. Nevertheless the 
year 1811 had not on the whole been a fortunate one to 
the Major-General. But 1812 opened more cheerfully; 
the death of General Cuesta having removed one great 
enemy to the raising of the Majorca division under the 
command of an Englishman. 

Major-General Whittingham to the Right Hon. 

Henry Wellesley. 


1 Palm A, Gth January, 1812. 

' Enclosed I have the honour to send yo\\ a return of 
the force under my command, by which you will see its 
gradual increase. The state of discipline of this small 
corps is so far advanced, that they manoeuvre in line 
without difficulty, and the interior of regiments will bear 
the minutest inspection. 

c I beg leave to submit to your better judgment the 
good effect that would be produced by the naming Briga- 
dier Marquis cle Vivot my second in command. He was 
wounded in Catalonia, but he is now well enough to 
mount on horseback. The Marquis is the head of the 
nobility of this island, has very considerable estates here, 
and is particularly attached to the English. It is at his 
express desire that I take the liberty of soliciting this 

About the 24th of Januaiy General Whittingham em- 
barked for Minorca on some military business, returning 
to Palma in fifteen days. The following is the translation 

* Mr. Wellesley's answer is not extant, but there can be little doubt that 
the request here made was complied with. 


of an official letter written to him by his Chief of the 
Staff during his absence.* It proves how necessary to 
the peace and security of Majorca was the presence of the 
energetic English commander : — 

Colonel Francisco Serrano to Major-General 

. Whittingham. 

1 Palma, 6th February, 1812. 

c General, — From circumstances, which have occurred 
here during the thirteen days of your absence, I am 
very anxious for your return ; and have determined to 
dispatch Captain Dominguez to you with this letter, 
giving a detail of the events most deserving your at- 

6 Shortly after your departure reports were circulated 
of a rising and assembling of the people ; and some 
attempts were made to seduce the soldiers of the division, 
who immediately communicated the fact to their officers ; 
and from other circumstances that occurred, I conceived 
it prudent to assemble the commanding officers. I issued 
out ammunition ; secretly reinforced the guards ; and 
pointed out their alarm-posts to the different corps, in 
such a manner that, at the least commotion, they should 
assemble and occupy the most important posts, to support 
the public authorities, and to quell any tumult which 
might arise. 

'I conceived it prudent to take these necessary 

measures of precaution, as the alarm had been very 

general, and had extended itself to all the constituted 

authorities. The commanding officers of corps have 

behaved as you could wish, and may be fully depended 

upon in case of need. 

'I have, &c, 

' Francisco Serrano.' 

* It appears that the letter was written only two days before the return 
of the General from Minorca, and was probably delivered to him on 



The following letter speaks for itself: — 

To Vice- Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, Bart. 

1 Palma, 14=th February, 1812. 

4 Sir, — I have the honour to enclose the prospectus 
and regulations of a college for the officers and cadets 
of the division under my command, which I have 
established in this town. 

6 From the entire neglect of education in Spain, 
during the last twenty years, and more particularly since 
the Revolution, most of the young men commencing 
their military careers as cadets scarcely know how to 
read and write. The expense of the establishment at 
the present moment would have been a serious objec- 
tion, had it not been done away with by the zeal and 
patriotism of various individuals. 

' The Bishop of Majorca [Llaneres] — independently of 
a donation of 20,000 reals vellon* — has given up a 
house for the academy. The masters have all under- 
taken their employments gratis ; and as the officers and 
cadets all belong to the division, I have the satisfaction 
of seeing my ideas realized, without the smallest expense, 
either to the British or Spanish Government. 

' I have, &c, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

Major-General Whittingham to the Right Hon. 

H. Wellesley. 


' Palma ; 18th February, 1812. 

< Sir, — I have the honour to inform you of the arrival 
of Colonel Campbell on the 8th instant, and beg leave 
to offer you my warmest thanks for your very zealous 

* .€200. So generous and liberal-minded a bishop in Spain was truly a 
wonderful phenomenon. 


interference and support in obviating the many diffi- 
culties under which I have hitherto laboured ; the result 
of which will, I feel assured, prove highly beneficial to 
this division. 

"I beg leave to enclose for your information the 
following papers : — 

6 No. 1. The translation of my exposition to the 
Junta ; which I felt n^self imperiously called upon to 
make, from the critical position this island is placed in, 
owing to the late success of the enemy on the opposite 

" No. 2. My letter to the Admiral. 

u No. 3. Copy of a letter to me from the Chief of my 
Staff during my absence. 

"No. 4. General return of the strength of the division.* 

" No. 5. Translation of my observations on Puerto Pi, 
a small port in the Bay of Palma ; and the advantages 
which might be derived from employing the French 
prisoners in its enlargement/ ' 

' I found it necessary to go to Minorca, for the pur- 
pose of personal communication with the Admiral, 
relative to the prisoners here, and other important 
points, and my absence was prolonged by contrary 
winds to fifteen days. 

" The Admiral was pleased to express his unqualified 
approbation and concurrence in the proposed system 
of pontoons ; and offered to fit them out, and equip 
them completely, and to send a frigate and brig to 
guard them. He also expressed his earnest desire that 
I should establish the telegraphs as soon as possible. 

'The excellent disposition and the zealous support 
which I have experienced from the [acting] Captain 
General Gregory will make me regret the loss of one 

* No copy of this return has reached the Editor's hands. 


so every way qualified for this important command ; as 
lie combines discernment and judgment with energy, 
and decision, and has given me his most decided support 
in everything relative to the division, and, as you will 
see, by No. 3, we require here one of his firm and de- 
termined character. 

'A levy of all the idle strangers takes place to-mor- 
row ; and the Alistamento Generale immediately fol- 
lows. The volunteers of Colonel Campbell's battalion, 
not having presented themselves within the period 
allotted, the privilege of limited service is done away 
with, and no exceptions are to be permitted in the con- 

' On referring to No. 3, you will perceive that the 
disaffected party here were in movement during my 
absence ; tampering with the troops, posting placards, 
&c. But their attempts were rendered abortive by the 
excellent disposition of the officers, whose conduct it 
is impossible to praise more forcibly, than by stating 
that they obeyed the orders of the Chief of my Staff, 
(although there were several of superior rank) with the 
same zeal and promptitude as though I had been pre- 
sent. The same excellent dispositions were manifested 
by the soldiers of the division. 

' I must beg leave to call to your attention our finan- 
cial necessities, and to submit to your better judgment 
the importance of the Balearic Islands, whose safety, at 
this critical moment, may be confidently said to de- 
pend on the existence of this division, the resources 
of which must entirely depend on your countenance and 

' Convinced that nothing is so much wanting among 
Spanish officers as the means of the acquiring military 
information — and satisfied of the necessity of giving to 
the cadets a military education, — I have established a 
college here on the basis of the enclosed prospectus. 


It was opened yesterday, in the presence of the Captain 
General, several Bishops, and all the principal officers 
and people of rank in the Island. 

'It is not a trifling consideration, at the present mo- 
ment, to be able to say that the establishment will be 
of no expense. The generosity of the Bishop has fur- 
nished us with a house, and 20,000 rs. vn. to purchase 
books, &c, and as all the masters attend gratis, and the 
officers and cadets belong to the division, no disburse- 
ment of any kind will be necessary/ 

The safety of the Balearic Islands was considered of 
great importance at that time by Lord Wellington ; and 
General Whittingham was in constant correspondence 
with the Admiral and Ambassador, upon the defence of 
the Islands, and upon plans for future aggressions against 
the enemy on the main-land. These letters display a 
consummate military knowledge both in theory and in 
detail ; but the extracts must here be limited to a few of 
the most interesting particulars. 

To the Right Hon. H. Wellesley. 


'PALMA, 2lst February, 1812. 

'The force at present under my command is only 2,200 
men ;* but if I may judge from the firm measures adopted 
by General Gregory, this number will be more than 
doubled in less than two months : and nothing would 
give me so much pleasure as to be employed in any plan 
of attack which might merit Sir Edward [Pellewjs ap- 

* Hitherto the comparatively slow growth of the division had been 
caused mainly by the hostilities of old General Cuesta, and by the jealousy 
of the Minister of War, and the neglect of provincial Juntas to fulfil their 


4 As the difficulties we have hitherto met with will pro- 
bably cease now that a Eegency is appointed, so every 
way deserving of the national confidence, and which 
appears so completely to merit your approbation, I 
have not the smallest doubt that a few months will en- 
able me to repay the confidence with which you have 
honoured me, by efficient co-operation [on my part], with 
the Admiral in his plans of attack ; at the same time that 
I may be able to answer for the safety of these valuable 

' However, the finances of Majorca are in such confusion, 
as to make it wholly out of its power to meet the expense 
of paying the troops ; and indeed, to such a state are they 
reduced that the officers of the 2nd and 3rd battalions of 
Cordova and Burgos are literally begging charity ; and a 
feio days ago, one of them fainted away in the coffee-room 
from absolute leant* Foreseeing, as I must of necessity 
do, the situation in which I shall see myself, with the 
troops under my command, should my pecuniary re- 
sources entirely fail, I take the liberty of earnestly en- 
treating you — not only as British Ambassador, but as a 
friend, to whose kindness I have been indebted for many 
favours, — that, should the British Government consider 
the existence of a division of 4,000 or 5,000 men in the 
Island of Majorca, as not necessary either for co-operation 
in the plans of attack of Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, or 
for the defence and security of the Balearic Islands, — and 
should therefore determine to lend it no further assistance 
— you will have the goodness to obtain an order to have 
all these troops sent immediately to any part of the con- 
tinent that may be judged proper ; and, at the same time 
to give m my resignation to the Spanish Government, in 
order that I may proceed without loss of time to join the 

* In the original the words (judging by the book into which the letter 
was copied) do not appear to have been underlined, but the Editor deems 
them worthy of italics. 


British army in Portugal. It will be the last time, my 
dear sir, that I shall be troublesome to you ; but I do most 
earnestly beg and entreat, that you will add this favour to 
the very long list, and enable me to avoid the wretchedness 
of witnessing the misery of those we esteem, without 
[having] the power of applying any remedy.' 

In a letter from Lord Wellington to Sir Henry Wellesley, 
KB., dated 'Badajoz, 11th April, 1812,' there occurs this 
sentence, ' Fourthly ; that 3,000 men of General Eoche's 
division at Alicante, and 3,000 men of General Whittino;- 
ham's division at Majorca, should be prepared to be em- 
barked early in June, in order to join and co-operate on 
the eastern coast, with the troops under Lord William 
Bentinck, which will come from Sicily.' In another letter 
from the same to the same, dated 17th May, Lord Wel- 
lington appears to have rightly estimated the future 
strength of the Majorca division, which (after the death 
of General Cuesta and the change of Eegency in Spain) 
had already considerably augmented in numbers. 'There 
are other points for consideration, ' (writes Lord Welling- 
ton), ' First ; how many men is it expedient to leave in 
Majorca for the defence of the Island, of the 7,000 of 
which it is supposed General Whittingham's division will 
consist ? Secondly, General Whittingham's division will 
have been newly raised, excepting 3,000 men. How many 
of the 7,000 men would it be expedient to leave behind, 
as being recruits and unfit for service ? ' 

On that same date (and the day following) General 
Whittingham was corresponding with the Admiral and 
the Ambassador, on the details of the expedition, embar- 
kation, &c. 

He had also to correspond semi-officially with his 
father-in-law, who was military intendant of Majorca in 
the service of the King of Spain : — 


Major- Gene ml Whittingham to Don Pedro Creus. 

< Palma ; 18th May, 1812. 

c My dear Sir, — The extreme distress in which I have 
found this island at my return from Cadiz, in spite of 
every effort of the Marquis of Compigny * to provide 
against the growing difficulties, makes me particularly 
anxious to call your attention to this important point, in 
the hopes that you will use your best endeavours with Sir 
Edward Pellew, to induce him to aid and assist us in our 
manifold wants. 

1 The Marquis is ready to give me 2,000 conscripts im- 
mediately, which will complete the division to 5,000 men. 
But as even for the existing force it is almost impossible 
to find bread, he will, I much fear, be induced to delay 
the levies of men till after the harvest, which would be 
too late to be of any service to the division. If it were 
possible for Sir Edward Pellew to furnish me with a suffi- 
cient quantity of Hour to supply the rations of 5,000 men 
at one and a half pound of bread [per day] for one month, 
the harvest would be got in, and our difficulties would be 
at an end. But without this assistance I am too well con- 
vinced that I shall not be able to effect the organization 
of the proposed division as speedily as I would wish, and 
as the service I know will require. 

' Should it be in Sir Edward's power to furnish us with 
the proposed supply, the 4,000 conscripts will be given 
me immediately ; and the Marquis will give bills on the 
Spanish Government for the supply. Have the goodness 
to state the extreme necessity of our case to Sir Edward ; 
and believe me to be, &c, 

' Samford Whittingham/ 

He wrote also direct to Sir Edward, on the same 

* Now Captain-General of the Balearic Islands. 


subject, and estimated the force he proposed to embark, 
including some expected troops from Alicante, at up- 
wards of 4,200 men. 

The following letter is worthy of record, for it con- 
tains a prophecy which was destined to be no idle or 
sanguine boast, but a fact established on undeniable 
testimonies : — 

To Vice- Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, Bart 

i Palma, 2Uh May, 1812. 

1 My dear Sir, — The extreme anxiety which I feel to 
get the division in a perfect state to meet your's and 
Lord William [BentinckJ's wishes by the end of next 
month, makes me, I fear, very troublesome. But your 
well-known zeal for the service will plead my best 

' For God's sake press Compigny not to lose a moment's 
time ; and you may rest assured that the troops of this 
small and gallant division will prove themselves worthy of 
fighting by the side of Englishmen. 

'I have, &c, 

4 Samford Whittingham.' 

On the 28th May he sends to Sir Henry Wellesley his 
accounts of expenditure and receipts, and trusts that by 
the end of June his division will amount to 4,000 effective 
muskets, exclusive of cavalry and artillery ; and he repeats 
the promise of their future effectiveness in the field in 
nearly the same words as he had lately addressed to the 

To the Bight Hon. Sir H. Wellesley *, K.B. 

< Palma, 20th June, 1812. 

< Sir, — The division being now paid by the British 
Government, according to the existing agreement between 



the allied courts, I beg to submit to your Excellency's con- 
sideration the necessity of appointing a British paymaster- 
general, or other officer, who will be responsible for, and 
charged with the accounts of the division. 

'Hitherto those accounts have been kept by persons 
appointed by the Spanish Government for that purpose ; 
and I have taken the precaution to have them regularly 
examined, and made out in triplicates. But it is utterly 
impossible that in the midst of active duties, I can remain 
charged with such a weight of responsibility, and with ac- 
counts of so complicated a nature. 

' I trust that you will perceive the necessity of calling 
the attention of His Majesty's Government to this im- 
portant object ; and that until a person so authorized can 
come from England, you will be pleased to send an 
officer of the Paymaster's department to take charge of 
the accounts of this division, which will be more satisfac- 
tory to your Excellency. Besides, should any accident 
happen to me, the presence of such a person would ob- 
viate every difficulty, which would otherwise arise. And 
I trust that your Excellency will pardon my pressing this 
subject, and urging the speedy departure of the person 
you may appoint, when you consider the very great re- 
sponsibility attached to the families of persons entrusted 
with public monies. 

'I have, &c, 

c Samford Whittingham.' 

On the 24th July, 1812, the Majorca division embarked 
at Palma : the infantry portion of which consisted of 159 
officers, 3 chaplains, 8 surgeons and 4,180 non-commis- 
sioned officers and men.* 

From, ' on board the " Eomulus " at sea off Alicant ' on 
the '8th August,' General Whittingham, amongst other 

* Of the cavalry and artillery that embarked, no returns are extant. 


matters, again urges the affair of the paymastership on Sir 
Henry Wellesley. What led him the day following to 
send in his resignation of his Spanish command can only 
be surmized, as Sir Henry's letter which induced the re- 
signation is not forthcoming. 

Major-General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

' Muchamiel, %\d September } 1812. 

' By the enclosed letter for Colonel Gordon, you will 
see the state of the force which I brought with me ; [of 
that [which] I left at Palma, and Mahon ; and the tota" 
strength of the division. The detail of our military opera- 
tions is also enclosed. 

' The troops under my command have conducted them- 
selves with so much order and discipline, and have made 
their marches in so military a manner, that they have 
merited the approbation of everybody ; and I have not the 
smallest doubt, that whenever we come into action, they 
will do themselves much honour. But unless things are 
put upon another footing, it is impossible for me to 
continue in this command.' [He then repeats his pay- 
mastership grievances and adds] '* I have repeatedly written 
to Sir Henry Wellesley requesting to have a paymaster of 
the division appointed, but without effect. And I have 
finally written to him to say that as soon as a general 
action will allow me to retire with credit, I shall give up 
the command of the division and return to England. I am 
sure that you will see the extreme necessity for taking a 
speedy determination.' 

However, Sir Henry Wellesley was in no hurry to ac- 
cept of the resignation of such an officer : — 

M 2 


Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. to Major- General 



' Cadiz, Qih September, 1812. 

6 1 have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 9th August, winch only reached me last 

c I can hardly bring myself to believe that the contents 
of my letter of the 25th July can have given rise to the 
resolution which you have announced to me of resigning 
your present command. There was nothing in that letter 
which was intended to hurt your feelings, and if you will 
recollect that I am personally responsible for every shilling 
of public money placed at my disposal in the service of 
Spain, you cannot be surprised that I should have adverted 
to the expenses of your corps, and the necessity of con- 
lining these expenses within certain limits. 

4 If your resolution to resign was occasioned by the con- 
tents of my letter of the 27 th July, I hope that this ex- 
planation will satisfy you that it was written in the mere 
performance of my duty, and that it was not intended in 
any way to reflect on you personally. 

c 1 believe that I might venture to add, that from the 
moment of my arrival in Spain, I have given you all the 
assistance and support in my power, and I am sincerely 
disposed to continue them to you, as long as the means of 
doing so shall be entrusted to me. I cannot therefore but 
hope that you will be induced to relinquish your intention 
of resigning.' 

No doubt the fact of his being still left without the as- 
sistance of a paymaster had, in the confinement of a ship, 
preyed with additional force upon the mind of General 
Whittingham, and caused him to feel acutely those criti- 
cisms as to his official expenditure, to which all officers in 


command are liable. Perhaps also his anxious desire to 
provide for the comfort of his officers and men inclined 
him to greater liberality than governments are usually 
prepared to sanction. 

On the 21st September General Whittingham writes a 
long and grateful letter to Captain General O'Donnell the 
hero of Catalonia, who had written to him a very com- 
plimentary epistle on the state of the Majorca division. 

Major-General Whittingham to Sir Henry Wellesley. 


' Muchamiel, 3rd October, 1812. 

4 Dear Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter of the 6th September ; and I beg 
leave to return you my most grateful thanks for this 
fresh proof of your kindness and attention. I should 
be the most ungrateful man alive were I even for a 
moment to forget the many and great favours which I 
have received at your hands ; and it will ever be the 
first wish of my heart to acknowledge publicly and 
privately my sentiments of gratitude and respect to- 
wards you. It is quite sufficient for me to know that 
you wish me to continue in the command of this di- 
vision, to do away with every idea of giving it up. But 
at the same time I wish with all respect to call to your 
mind the delicacy of my situation. The only thing that 
I ever had a dread of was to become a public accountant ! 
As long, however, as the troops were in garrison I con- 
ceived, that by the greatest care and attention, and with 
the assistance of Colonel Campbell, I might have every 
account, with all the requisite receipts, arranged monthly, 
and thus be always in a state to meet examination. But 
now that the troops are in campaign, and that I am un- 
avoidably exposed to lose my papers by any of the very 
many accidents that so often occur in war, I tremble at a 


responsibility that may not only ruin ray own private 
fortune, but, what is infinitely worse, compromise my 
good name and place my honour in doubt in the public 
opinion. Allow me to say, my dear sir, with the freedom 
which your friendship entitles me to use, that you are not 
in the same situation. It is true that you are answerable 
for the public monies entrusted to your charge : but there 
can be no difficulty in showing the sums that you have 
entrusted to me ; and for the expenditure I alone am 
answerable. I have ever been of opinion that it is not 
sufficient for a man to be most honourable in all the 
transactions of life, [but that] it is indispensable that he 
should never be stained by even the shadow of a doubt. 
Having said thus much, I shall forbear in future to return 
to this unpleasant subject.' 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Muchamiel, 20th October, 1812. 

' The Majorca division has the honour of occupying all 
the outposts of the army. I am just returned from them, 
and avail myself of the opportunity of a vessel going to 
Cadiz to let you know what is going on. We have had 
since our arrival a great number of affairs of posts, in all 
of which my troops have been successful ; and have in 
consequence begun to form a character which I hope and 
trust will soon be established. My force at present is 
rather more than 6,000 men ; but I expect another bat- 
talion from Minorca in a few days, which will complete 
my force to 7,000 men.* I have besides two strong bat- 
talions in Majorca clothed and formed by me, which the 
Captain-General, Marquis de Compigny, has refused to 
send to me. But I have written to Sir Henry Wellesley 

* He was only a Lieutenant-Colonel in the British service then, and in 
that capacity could not have expected a command of more than six or eight 
hundred men. 


and the Spanish Government on the subject, and daily- 
expect their positive order to bring them here. 

' On the 18th, the French of the army of Suchet fell 
back from Sax, Villena, and Biar, upon Fuente la Higuera; 
and from Alcoy upon Concentayna, Albayda, and San 
Felipe. In consequence of this movement, my advanced 
posts are now at Sax, Biar, and Alcoy. 

c If you should be able to procure me a good strong 
hunter, and send him out to me at Cadiz, or at Alicante, 
you would do me the greatest favour. I have several good 
horses, but not one of right good confidence for a long day's 
action. Hart would, I dare say, undertake the commis- 
sion. I wish you both joy of your success. I have read 
Hart's maiden speech with delight.' 

Mr. E. H. Davis had just been returned for the first 
time as member for Bristol, and been succeeded at Col- 
chester by his eldest son, whose very great abilities gave 
promise of a brilliant parliamentary career, which was too 
soon frustrated, by the state of his health compelling him 
to retire from parliament. 

General Whittingham soon afterwards cancelled the 
commission for another horse, as finding the expenses of 
a General of Division were already beyond his means, both 
public and private. 

To the Same. 

' Muchamiel, 18th Decanber, 1812. 

C I advanced a few days since with the whole of my 
division on Alcoy, to make a diversion in favour of Gene- 
ral Elio, who was to have attacked Eequena. His move- 
ment did not take place ; and, after occupying Alcoy 
some days, I received orders to break up, and to rcoccupy 
my former cantonments. My troops have in charge the 
whole of the outposts of the army.' 


To the Same. 

1 Mtjchamiel, 29th December, 1812. 

' As Sir Henry Wellesley has not engaged to supply me 
for the present with more than 35,000 dollars monthly — 
which I understand he gives me out of the money at his 
disposal for the service of Spain — I much fear that 
nothing will be done in regard to the paymaster, unless 
the British Government should agree to take a certain 
number of battalions and regiments of cavalry into their 
pay ; and this, I should suppose, they would not do 
without consulting Lord Wellington. I am not aware 
that Sir Henry has ever officially desired that a paymaster 
should be appointed to this division. I should think that 
he had not. But as far as I am concerned, I should pre- 
fer very much giving up the command altogether to the 
continuing a responsibility which sooner or later will in 
all probability reduce me to beggary ! You well know 
the money I have spent in Spain.* . . . Thus, 
whilst others have been making fortunes, I have been 
spending more than I could afford, without any security 
that, at the winding-up of the peace, the complication of 
long and difficult accounts may not ruin my character 
and my fortune.' 

On the 30th December, he states that he had forwarded 
to Mr. Wellesley an application for the paymastership of 
the division from Captain Foley, and a prospect of relief 
from an unjust and intolerable burden closed the year 

* Out of his private fortune he means, having got into debt, besides 
spending all his private income, in the country. He had afterwards to sell 
out some of his original capital. 

lokd Wellington's instructions. 169 



lord Wellington's instructions — lord Wellington refuses tiie 
inspectorship to general whittingham — the french attempt to 
surprise x1gona — treachery of an italian regtment — colonel 
walker and officers of h.m.'s 58th regiment — lord wellington 
grants the previously refused inspectorship — his reluctance 
to the measure — different style adopted to another agent — 
gallant conduct of the spanish captain ruti — generous con- 
duct of the french captors — a successful ruse — a brave spanish 
lieutenant — the french driven by general whittingham 
through the pass of albayda — general murray's two general 
orders — lord wellington's dispatch — general whittingham 7 s 
report to the ambassador — concentayna combat — sir henry 
wellesley's congratulations — lord wellington's proof of con- 
fidence — third general order praising whittingham's division 
— general whittingham's report to sir john murray — battle 
of castalla — slr john murray's dispatch to lord wellington — 
at castalla spaniards rivalled the british — anecdote from 
the ' recollections.' 

In the 10th volume of the ' Wellington Dispatches ' there 
is a long letter from Lord Wellington to Major-General 
Whittingham, dated Cadiz, 8th January, 1813. Amongst 
Sir Samforcl Whittingham's papers there was found a kind 
of condensed extract from this letter (probably made 
with the view of translating it for the benefit of the offi- 
cers of his now considerable division) comprising all that 
he thought necessary to publish, and which will doubtless 
also be sufficient for the reader. Lord Wellington was a 
Spanish grandee,* and Commander-in-Chief at this time, 
of the Spanish, as well as of the British, army :— 

* He had been created Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo. 


Copy of the Order of His Excellency the Duke of Ciudad 
Rodrigo to General Whittingham, dated Cadiz, 8th 
January, 1813. 

c The corps of troops under your command in the 
Peninsula is one of those which I am desirous should be 
paid out of the funds set apart by Great Britain for the 
support of the Spanish cause. The clothing, arms, and 
furniture of the corps under your orders being for the 
account of Great Britain, the said funds must by no means 
be applied to the liquidation of those charges. Nor 
must they be expended in provisions, hospitals, or means 
of transport, as these branches are to be provided for by 
the Spanish Government, in the same manner as for the 
other Spanish troops. The pay of absent officers and 
privates must likewise be for the account of the Spanish 
Government ; for it is my intention that nothing be paid 
out of the said funds to any officer or private not ap- 
pearing on the monthly returns to be in the actual dis- 
charge of his duty. The pay of the general and other 
officers and privates of your division present, and in the 
actual exercise of their duty, is all that should be supplied 
out of those funds. 

'You will send on the 20th of every month to His 
Excellency Sir Henry Wellesley, an estimate of the money 
wanted for the payment of the officers and privates under 
your command for that month, on the principles before 
expressed ; and on the receipt of the month's pay, whether 
the produce of bills or otherwise, you will distribute it in 
the proper proportions to the individuals entitled thereto, 
taking their receipts, which will be your discharge for 
the amount received. You will, however, adopt all 
necessary means to ensure the just application of these 
allowances to officers and privates, according to the regu- 
lations of the Spanish service. 

lord Wellington's instructions. 171 

• 'You will appoint Patrick Foley, Esq.,* to be Pay- 
master-General of your division. He will take the detail 
of this service under his direction and responsibility ; and 
as all payments are to be made one month in arrear, you 
will take care that the money be distributed as soon as 
received, as beforesaid. 

'I do not wish the division under your orders to 
exceed 6,000 effective men in the field. In order to 
keep up this, you must establish a depot at Alicante ; 
and I will take care that you shall receive the pay of 
7,000 men, inclusively of such as are in hospital ; for 
whom, as I said before, the Spanish Government must 

The appointment of Captain Foley was a truly great 
relief, for which General Whittingham felt grateful. But 
a few days later he received a letter from Lord Welling- 
ton which caused him much vexation, as threatening to 
nullify that independence of subordinate Spanish author- 
ities, which from the incompetency of the latter, he 
considered to be indispensable to the efficiency of his 
division : — 

The Marquis of Wellington to Major-General 


' Fkeneda, 19th February, 1813. 

< Sir, — Sir Henry Wellesley has transmitted to me 
your letter of the 3rd January, in regard to your holding 
the office of inspector of the division of Spanish troops 
under your command, and to the abuses and inconve- 
niences to which your troops would be liable in case your 
expectations in this respect were disappointed ; and 
having conversed with the Chief of the staff, and with 
the Inspectors-General of cavalry and infantry on this 

* It would appear that Captain Foley was no longer in the regular army, 
when he obtained his new appointment. 


subject, I have been informed by each of those officers 
that it was particularly settled with you, that when the 
troops under your command should serve in the Penin- 
sula,* they were to come under the control of the In- 
spector's office, and were to have [Deputy] Inspectors 
attached to them in the same manner as other [Spanish] 

' This being the case, it remains to be considered 
whether, adverting to the inconveniences to which you 
refer, it is proper I should now exempt the troops under 
your command from this control. Upon this point I have 
to observe, first, that I hope to be able to prevent the 
abuses of which you complain, as well as of others; 
secondly, that even if I should not succeed entirely, it is 
not worth while to enter into the disputes and complaints 
which a partial departure from a system long established 
in the Spanish army would occasion. 

'I have therefore desired the Inspectors-General of 
infantry and cavalry to appoint Deputy-Inspectors for 
your division, and I beg you to submit to their control. 'f 

; I have the honour to be, &c, 

' Wellington. 

' Major-General Whittingham.' 

This letter was a truly discouraging one to General 
Whittingham, but, as will be seen, it was soon rescinded. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' San Juan, 22nd February, 1813. 

'Your truly amiable and excellent friend General 
Clinton remained only a very short time in command 
here. Major-General Campbell, Adjutant-General to the 

* In Majorca he had had the full powers and offices of Inspector, both of 
cavalry and infantry, according to previous agreement. 

t These orders were given by Lord Wellington, as Commander-in-Chief 
of the Spanish armies. 


army in Sicily, arrived soon after him and being his senior, 
the command, of course, devolved upon him. 

c In respect to the operations of the ensuing campaigns, 
in my humble opinion, Lord Wellington himself must 
open it before this army can do anything of consequence. 
I beg leave to call your attention to the judicious position 
taken up by Soult at Toledo, where he has his head- 
quarters. He is in the centre of Lord Wellington's two 
lines of operations ; and as his force is extended over La 
Mancha, he would, in case of our moving forward upon 
Valencia, be upon our left flank and rear before any as- 
sistance could be received from Lord Wellington ! It is 
therefore my opinion that his Lordship must open the 
campaign himself, and, by drawing towards him the mass 
of the French force enable us to make a brilliant and de- 
cisive attack upon what remains. 

' The French attempted a few nights since to surprise 
Xigona, which is one of our outposts. One of the Italian 
regiments raised by Lord William Bentinck in Sicily, and 
composed from deserters from all parts of the world, 
formed part of the garrison of Xigona. In the course of 
forty-eight hours upwards of 86 men from this regiment 
had passed over to the French ; and Colonel Grant 
assured me that it was his opinion, and that of all his 
officers, that none of the men could be depended on ; 
and that it was his and their opinion that if they were 
ordered to march to Alicante, the greater part of them 
would desert on the road. The last party [of deserters] 
had taken their officer with them ; and had spared his 
life only in consequence of the intercession of one of the 

' All circumstances considered, I determined to send 
off an orderly dragoon to General Campbell, requesting 
his instructions how to proceed. The general came in 
the course of the morning to Xigona, and directed me 
to disarm the regiment, and to send them as prisoners to 


Alicante. The garrison of Xigona consisted of my bat- 
talion of grenadiers and of this Italian regiment. On the 
first alarm I had directed the battalion of Murcia to march 
to Xigona ; and General Campbell had ordered the 1st 
battalion 27 th [Eegiment] to follow them, together with 
a squadron of the 20th Dragoons. About half-past five 
p.m. the British troops came up. The Italian regiment 
was marched into an open space, and disarmed without 
the smallest difficulty, and immediately afterwards 
marched off to Alicante, escorted by the 27th [Eegiment], 
the squadron of dragoons, and my battalion of Murcia. 
On their arrival at Alicante they were all sent on board 

4 I remained at Xigona with my battalion of grenadiers ; 
and about eight p.m. the 1st battalion of the 58th [British 
Eegiment] marched in by Palomos, by General Campbell's 
orders, to strengthen the post. The French (who were 
undoubtedly in concert with the Italians, but who knew 
nothing of what had passed) determined upon attacking 
Xigona that night ; and at seven p.m. Generals Hubert 
and Gudin marched from Alcoy with 1,500 infantry and 
150 cavalry. 

' At half-past two a.m. the firing of the outposts 
began. The troops, both Spanish and English, were 
under arms with admirable celerity ; and every disposi- 
tion was taken to make it impossible for the enemy to 
force the post. Our outposts were after some time 
driven in, and the French descended to the ravine ; which 
they could not, however, pass from the briskness of our 
fire. They then extended themselves by their left to en- 
deavour to open a communication with the Italian bar- 
racks' [which they still believed to be occupied by their 

' Upon the first glimpse of day we crossed the ravine 
with the light companies ; and, upon ascending the hill 
on the other side, we discovered the French columns more 


than half-way up the mountain, and their light troops 
covering their rear. They had probably discovered the 
change which had taken place in the troops, and in con- 
sequence [had] begun their retreat an hour before day- 
light, leaving only a few light troops on the borders of 
the ravine, being well assured that we should not quit the 
strong position we occupied to attack them till daylight 
should enable us to examine their force, and make our 
dispositions in consequence. I had the satisfaction of 
being told by Lieut-Colonel [David] Walker and the 

officers of the 58th 
be at all times most 

Eegiment] that he and they should 
lappy to serve under my orders, and 
that they were all satisfied and delighted with the dis- 
positions that I had made that night.* We took six 
prisoners, and thus ended an affair which I should not 
have thought worth relating to you, but for the provi- 
dential escape we all had, in consequence of having re- 
moved the battalion of Italians that day.f For, had the 
French been aided, as they expected, by these people, the 
battalion of grenadiers and I [myself] must have been 
sacrificed without the possibility of avoiding it. The 
worst of all would have been the moral effect which it 
would have produced in the country ; where it would 
have been generally believed that a British battalion (for, 
being dressed in scarlet, they would have been supposed 
to be British) had fired upon the Spaniards and joined the 

* What enhances this compliment is the fact that Col. Walker was 
considerably the senior in rank in the British service, and so continued. 

t In the Recollections } it is said that l Major Bourke, an Irish Austrian 
officer of twenty-five years' service/ commanded the first battalion of 
Italians in General Whittingham's division, and that i his tact and judgment 
made him the glory and pride of his men.' The main cause on the other 
hand, of the infamous behaviour — as recorded in the text — of the 2nd 
battalion of Italians, was attributed to ( Grant's want of those qualities,' 
which ' induced him to adopt all the minute worry of the old British school, 
and made him cordially detested by all the men of his regiment.' Unfortu- 
nately the second regiment and not the first had garrisoned Xigona, on this 


French. To do away such an impression would have been 
a work of time and difficulty.' 

How admirably the details of the Majorca division 
were carried on in active service is shown by eight docu- 
ments in the Editor's possession. Of these Spanish 
returns, six are dated Concentayna, 31st August, and the 
other two dated 12th August, 1813. All appear to be 
monthly returns, and are made out with a neatness and 
precision that could not be exceeded by the orderly 
room of the smartest British regiment at the present day. 

Colonel Serrano, General Whittingham's able and 
trusted chief of the staff, was dispatched to Freneda, 
with a packet of letters, to undertake the by no means 
easy task of persuading the victorious chief of the 
British and Spanish armies to rescind the order which 
he had given that the Majorca division was to submit 
to Spanish deputy-inspectors ; and thus to transfer to 
these officers from the hands of General Whittingham 
not only the power of rewarding and censuring officers 
and men, but also of recommending them for promotion 
in, or appointments to, regiments both of cavalry and 

The copy of the c duplicate ' original of Lord Welling- 
ton's reply is now before the Editor. It is written in a 
fair clerk's hand ; and though an important letter (revers- 
ing a previous decision), is merely signed by Lord Wel- 
lington, though doubtless he either wrote out the original 
draft, or at least dictated every word of it :* — 

* Some readers will consider this explanation unnecessary. But the 
writer has met with civilians of intelligence who have believed that all the 
correspondence Lord Wellington signed was sent in his own handwriting; 
a task which would have put to shame all the labours of Hercules ! 


The Marquis of Wellington to Major-General 



< Frenada, 1st March, 1813. 

c Sir, — I have had the honour of receiving your several 
letters to the 1st February, by the Chief of the Staff of 
your division, who arrived here yesterday. 

' In answer to your letter of the 26 th January, I have 
to inform you that Captain Grey being employed on the 
eastern coast of Spain, on the service of the regiment to 
which he belongs, I cannot allow him to serve in the 
Spanish army. 

' I have settled with the inspectors-general of cavalry 
and infantry, that you shall be appointed the inspector of 
both arms in the division of troops under your command ; 
and you will carry out that duty according to the orders 
and regulations of the Spanish Government. 

' I have settled with the inspectors of the cavalry to draft 
the Hussars of Aragon and the regiment of Cuen£a into 
the regiment of Almanza and Olivenza. This draft will 
make those regiments over complete in men ; but you 
will dispose of the horses as you may think proper among 
the trained men of the regiment as already formed ; and 
the others you will have trained either in Spain or Ma- 
jorca, until I shall send orders for the disposal of them. 
— I have the honour to be, Sir, 

6 Your most obedient servant, 

' Wellington. 

' Major-General Whittingham.' 

Lord Wellington, who, as their Commander-in-Chief, 
naturally studied to please the Spaniards, gave the above 
consent most reluctantly, and afterwards refused permis- 
sion to act on it as a precedent in the case of others, to 
Lord William Bentinck, on his Lordship's application for 

* Wellington Dispatches, vol. x. p. 153. j 



that purpose. Could Lord Wellington have given a 
greater proof of the confidence and esteem which he en- 
tertained for General Whittingham ? 

The manner in which Lord Wellington yielded on this 
occasion, was the more remarkable from the impatience 
with which he received the suggestions and remonstrances 
of another British Agent, who was senior in rank to 
General Whittingham. To the officer in question he 
wrote a few days later as follows : — 

' If you dislike your situation, or make any further 
difficulties about obeying the orders you receive, or 
fail to carry on the service, you must either resign your 
command, or in the latter case, 1 shall recommend to 
the Government that another officer may be appointed 
to it.'* 

Sir Samford Whittingham's ' Eecollections ' contain a 
dramatic account of the surprise which the French at- 
tempted at Xigona. But there were some (though trifling) 
inaccuracies, chiefly of names of persons, which occasioned 
the preference which has been here given to the matter- 
of-fact letter, written at the period to his brother-in-law, 
over the more picturesque account written for the amuse- 
ment of the General's nieces. But the gallant action of 
one of his own trained Spanish officers is now given from 
the ' Eecollections,' in which alone it is recorded : — 

4 My head-quarters were at a place called Muchamiel, 
about three miles from Alicante. At Xigona I had a 
strong detachment : but the commander of the forces 
directed me to occupy Tibi, a village on the farther side 
of the mountain, and about ten miles in advance of Xigona. 
I obeyed much against my will. For Tibi was an in- 
sulated post, totally unconnected with my chain, and 
exposed to be attacked by two battalions of French 

" Vol. x. ? page 184, of the Wellington Dispatches. 


infantry at Onteniente on the right, and by 300 cavalry 
under the Baron de Lort on the left.* 

' I selected for the command of this dangerous post, 
Captain Euti, a young aide-de-camp of mine of great pro- 
mise, to whom I was much attached ; and I placed under 
his orders 200 infantry, and 50 hussars of his own regi- 
ment of Almanza. I went over the whole ground with 
Euti ; and pointed out to him the danger of his position, 
and the line of retreat that I wished him to follow, and 
the manner in which it should be conducted. 

4 Many nights had not elapsed when the infantry out- 
posts were driven in by a very superior force: But the 
retreat was conducted with great order and regularity to 
the plaza of Tibi, where Euti waited to receive them at 
the head of the troop of the Almanza Hussars. As had 
been previously arranged, the infantry then retired to the 
entrance of the pass in the mountains, which led to Xigona, 
where they halted and formed to cover the retreat of the 
cavalry through the defile. 

c In the meantime Euti had detached a subaltern and 
ten hussars on the road by which de Lort and his cavalry 
must come, with orders, on falling in with the enemy, to 
take ground to his left, to open a desultory fire to detain 
the movement, and to dispatch a trusty soldier to him 
(Euti) at Tibi. The order was perfect ; not so> the exe- 
cution ! The young subaltern in command of the party 
fell in with the enemy as expected, remembered to take 
ground to his left, but forgot everything else— for he sent 
no report to Euti, and he never halted till he arrived at 
Tibi, several miles distant. Euti, with the rest of his 
cavalry, forty hussars, remained formed in the Plaza till 
daylight ; when despairing of receiving any report from 
his detachment, he determined upon commencing his re- 

* Although on military grounds he considered the order unwise, yet he 
obeyed it without any expostulation. He always taught that the fird^ 
second, and third duty of a soldier was obedience ! 

* 2 


treat upon his infantry. Scarcely, however, had he cleared 
the village when he saw, drawn up across the only road 
he could take, four lines of the 24th French dragoons, to 
intercept his retreat upon Xigona. 

'Euti was a second Chevalier Bayard* He saw the 
extent of his danger, but he felt how greatly his honour 
would be compromised by suffering his post to be sur- 
prised, when he had been especially selected by the 
General, as peculiarly trustworthy. He did not hesitate, 
but, briefly addressing his men, told them of his deter- 
mination to charge, and asked them whether they would 
dare to follow him. They all shouted Santiago, y a ellos I 
[the Spanish war cry, " St. James, and have at them "" 
and Euti, at the head of his forty hussars, charged anc 
broke through the first line of French dragoons with little 
or no loss. The second line was broken through in a 
similar manner, but with considerable loss ; and in the 
charge against the third line, Euti fell covered with 
wounds. His head was dreadfully cut up ; and a sabre 
had passed through his body. Still the charge was con- 
tinued ; and ultimately eleven out of the party joined me 
at Xigona ! 

6 The French were so enchanted at the daring bravery 
displayed by Euti, that they carried him on a litter to 
Onteniente, the head-quarters of their commandant ; pro- 
cured for him the best medical aid ; and when miracu- 
lously cured of his wounds they sent him to my head- 
quarters. I returned the compliment by restoring to 
liberty two of their [the French's] comrades, who were in 
my power. For this action Euti was made a knight of 
the military order of San Fernando,f and shortly after- 
wards promoted to the rank of Brigadier of cavalry.' 

* That is, 'sans peur et sans reproche,' the very words applied to Sir 
Saniford Whittingham himself by an able reviewer. 

t This order consisted of Knights; Knights-Commanders; and Knights- 


The affair of Concentayna will next be given from the 
c Eecollections ': — 

c Not long after this splendid skirmish, a general advance 
took place ; and my head-quarters were stationed at Al- 
coy. Sir John Murray had now taken the command of 
the army at Alicante ; and a general reconnoissance to 
our front was determined on. I had with me at Alcoy 
five battalions of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and some 
mountain guns carried by mules ; and on the morning of 
the reconnoissance I assembled the five battalions, the 
squadron of cavalry (Cazadores de Olivencia) and two 
guns, in contiguous close columns, near to Alcoy : and 
gave verbally the necessary orders for the advance. 

' My advanced guard consisted of the whole of Colonel 
Campbell's regiment of light infantry 1,500 strong, a troop 
of cavalry, and two guns ; and was supported by three 
battalions of infantry, a troop of cavalry, and two moun- 
tain guns. 

' Before the day had well broken we fell in with the 
French advanced posts, which occupied a wood in front 
of Onteniente. They were immediately driven back, but 
rallied on their reserves. As I wished to ascertain the 
strength of the Frendi force before me, I determined to ap- 
pear to give way, and sounded the retreat. This brought 
the French on, hand over hand — and as the whole of 
Campbell's battalion was at the time in extended order 
supported by the three battalion columns, the length of 
the line was immense ; and the left being too much thrown 
forward was in some danger of being cut off, on the rapid 
and sudden advance of the French. 

4 To provide against this evil I directed the troop of 
Chasseurs under Lieutenant Fernandez to charge the 
centre of the French line, whilst my bugles sounded : 
Change front on the centre the left thrown bach This 
movement was executed as beautifully and correctly as it 
could have been done on parade, whilst the sabre of Fer- 


nandez almost divided in two a soldier who ventured to 
oppose him. Every little error being rectified we con- 
tinued our retreat to where the attack had commenced. 

4 Having thus led the French to show what their force 
really was, I determined to drive them from their present 
position and beyond the pass of Albayda. Accordingly 
we again advanced with the whole of the light infantry 
in extended order, supported as before stated ; and we 
drove the enemy at double quick [time], from tree to 
tree, till he was clear of the wood, at the extremity of 
which his line was formed. 

c A momentary halt, which I unavoidably made, to give 
orders as to the occupying a road on our right, which led 
to the head-quarters of General Abert, enabled one of the 
French sharpshooters to take good aim at my head and to 
hit me on the right side of my mouth. My former wound 
was on the left side. This last, however, was only a flesh 
wound, and I had no time to attend to it. Our advance 
through the wood was most brilliant and as soon as we 
had cleared it, our guns were instantly in position ; and 
the two first shots directed by Captain Arabin* plunged 
into the centre of the French line, and created consider- 
able confusion. I forthwith ordered a general advance 
of all the troops under my command ; nor was there any 
further check till we had conducted the French through 
the pass of Albayda. 

' [General] Abert's force and mine were nearly equal, 
each consisting of about 4,000 bayonets.' 

Here at last Spanish troops, unaided by British soldiers 
(except their English chief, and the Scotch Colonel), had 
under skilful guidance, proved more than a match for 
veteran French warriors. The disgusts and the labours 

* Captain Arabin died as Colonel Arabin, in command of the Royal 
Artillery at Bermuda, on the 17th August, 1843. On the 8th April, 1847, 
the eldest son of Sir Samford Whittingham, married Eliza, the eldest 
daughter of Colonel Arabin. 

I I • 


experienced at Majorca were here at last repaid by unde- 
niable fruits on the two occasions narrated ; and which 
were to be officially acknowledged without delay : 

4 General Order. 

1 Head Quarters, Alcoy, 8th March, 1813. 

6 In the attack which took place yesterday, Lieutenant- 
General Sir John Murray received particular satisfaction 
from observing the brilliant conduct of the Spanish troops 
engaged ; and he begs General Whittingham will make 
known his approbation in the strongest terms to the 
officers, and desire them to communicate his sentiments 
to the troops. 

6 Thomas Molloy, 

i Assistant Adjutant-General.' 

The above referred to the Xigona affair. That of Con- 
centayna, or the Puente de Albayda, deserved and received 
warmer acknowledgment : — 

' General Order. 

1 Head Quarters, Alicante, 17th March, 1813. 

' No. 2. — Lieutenant-General Sir John Murray has again 
to draw the attention of the army to the spirit and gal- 
lantry with which the Spanish division of Major-General 
Whittingham conducted itself on the 15th instant. 

' The attack on that side was much more serious ; but 
by the able dispositions of Major-General Whittingham, 
and the bravery with which he was supported, the enemy 
was driven from his positions, and pursued with great loss 
as far as the Major-General thought expedient. 

; Lieutenant-General Sir John Murray requests Major- 
General Whittingham to acquaint the corps engaged, 
how much their steadiness and general good conduct is 


4 G. A. Harzenbuhler, 

1 Assistant Adjutant-General/ 


The Marquis of Wellington to Earl Bathurst* 


1 Fkeneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' Since the movement made by Lieutenant-General Sir 
John Murray, of which I enclosed the report in my last 
dispatch, it appears that Marshal Suchet has collected his 
troops on the right of the Jucar, and has established his 
head-quarters at San Felipe de Xativa. General Whitting- 
ham's division of Spanish troops had driven the enemy's 
advanced guard beyond the Puente de Albayda/f 

As military agent General Whittingham wrote an offi- 
cial account of the action of Concentayna to the Ambas- 
sador : — 

His Excellency the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley^ K.B. 

' Alcoy, l&h March, 1813. 

4 Sir, — I have the honour to inform your Excellency 
that, in consequence of orders from Lieutenant-General 
Sir John Murray directing me to make a strong recon- 
naissance on the enemy's force near Concentayna, I ad- 
vanced from this at 3 o'clock yesterday morning, with the 
greater part of the division of Majorca. 

' I also directed Lieutenant-Colonel Bourke command- 
ing the 1st Italian Eegiment, which was in La Sarga, to 
occupy Alcoy with his battalion at daylight ; and having 
situated the regiments of Murcia and Cordova with two 
four-pounders, and a howitzer in a position previously 
marked out, about half a league beyond Alcoy on the 
Concentayna road, in front of a ravine (on which we had 
constructed some rough breastworks, and cut the bridge 
across it so as only to allow one man at a time to pass); 

* Wellington Dispatches, vol. x. p. 272. 

t Except an allusion to General Donkin's successful reconnoissance this 
little dispatch of the Duke's is all in honour of General Whittingham's two 
successful affairs previously to the battle of Castalla. 


I marched out with the remainder in the following 
order : * — 

Advanced Guard. 
3 companies of Cazadores de Mallorca 
Light company of Murcia 
Light company of Cordova 

1 Subaltern and 10 Dragoons of Olivencia 

5 companies of Cazadores de Mallorca 

2 English mountain four-pounders 
5th battalion of Grenadiers 
1 Cap. 1 Sub", and 25 Dragoons of Olivencia 

Commanding Office)*, 
Lieut-Colonel Mouet, of 
Cazadores de Mallorca. 


Commanding Officer, 
Colonel Campbell.f 

c On arriving near Concentayna, I posted the grenadier 
battalion on a rising ground commanding the entrance to 
the town ; the advanced guard entered it ; and Colonel 
Campbell formed the rest of his regiment in close column 
in the road leading into Concentayna. 

' Lieutenant-Colonel Mouet passed through the town, 
and proceeded on by the high road to Albayda ; and, a 
few minutes before sunrise, fell in with an advanced post 
of the enemy at the Cruz de Valencia, about half a mile 
from Concentayna. This advanced [French party] fell 
back on the next post, followed by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Mouet's skirmishers ; and the enemy, having sent forward 
reinforcements, there was a very warm fire kept up on 
both sides, during which Mouet drove the enemy before 
him for more than a mile ; when the French having con- 
siderably reinforced their skirmishers, and having drawn 
up, in position, a battalion of about 600 infantry and 150 
dragoons, I directed Lieutenant-Colonel Mouet to retire 
slowly towards Concentayna, in the hope of drawing the 
enemy from his position. 

c Colonel Campbell at the same time moved forward 
with the five companies of his regiment in close column 
and [with] one of the mountain four-pounders under the 

* Official military letters are apt to scorn full stops, and to prolong sen- 
tences into pages, that they may be both written and read with rapidity, 
f Patrick Campbell, then Colonel in the Spanish service. 


command of Captain Arabin of the British artillery. The 
dragoons of Olivencia, with some light infantry moved by 
the right flank along the road to Muro, and occupied 
Alcudieta ; where the commanding officer was informed 
that, as soon as the firing began, the [French] troops 
which were in Muro and the neighbourhood, had posted 
themselves at the bottom of the hill near the Puerto de 
Albayda.* The column having come up near the rear 
of the advance, Lieutenant-Colonel Mouet again drove 
the enemy before him, followed by the column, which, 
with the four-pounders, having arrived within five or six 
hundred yards of the enemy, halted ; when Captain Arabin 
opened a well-directed fire on the enemy's battalion, which, 
after a few rounds, retired towards the Puerto de Albayda. 
Having thus fulfilled Sir John Murray's instructions, I 
directed Colonel Campbell and Lieutenant-Colonel Mouet 
to fall back on their former position, which was done 
without the least molestation on the part of the enemy. 
The firing began about six in the morning, and lasted till 
half-past ten in the forenoon. 

4 The enemy's loss, as I understand from different de- 
serters who have since come in, is about sixty men, and 
two horses killed and wounded. We have counted four- 
teen dead bodies and two horses. On my part not a man 
killed,! [but] one captain and five privates of the Caza- 
dores de Mallorca, and two privates of the light company 
of Murcia are wounded ; and I have received a musket- 
shot in the right cheek. 

' I have every reason to be highly satisfied with the 
gallantry and coolness of the officers and soldiers of the 

* Puente de Albayda it is called in the Wellington Dispatches ; that is, 
bridge instead of gate. Gurwood took such trouble and pains in fixing the 
proper spelling, and general correctness of the Spanish words, that probably 
Puente is right. 

f No doubt the rapidity of the attack and pursuit (leaving the enemy 
little of the leisure and coolness necessary for good firing) was the cause 
that the victors suffered so little. But of the few wounded the General 
was one. 


division under my command ; who, on this as on every 
other occasion, have most completely acted up to my 
expectations, and fulfilled the duty [which] they owe [to] 
their country. 

' I have the honour to be, your Excellency's most 

* obedient and humble servant, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

To conclude the Concentayna affair, the Ambassador's 
reply is here inserted at once : — 

Sir Henry Wellesley to Major-General Whittingham. 

1 Cadiz, 1st April, 1813. 

' Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letters of the 16th and 19th ultimo, which reached 
me this morning ; and it is with the most sincere satisfac- 
tion that I now congratulate you upon the signal proofs 
afforded by the conduct of your corps in the several affairs 
in which it has been engaged, of the efficacy of your 
exertions to bring it to perfection. I shall not fail to 
transmit to Lord Wellington a copy of your letter to me, 
and another copy for information of the Government of 
His Eoyal Highness the Prince Eegent. 

6 I am very happy to learn that the wound which you 
have received is not of a nature to deprive the country of 
your services in the field for any considerable time. 

* I will endeavour to obtain an order to the Marquis 
of Compigny to the effect mentioned in your letter of the 
19th March.* I will also use my utmost endeavours to 
procure the confirmation of Colonel O'Eeilly in the com- 
mand of the 5th battalion of Grenadiers. 

4 1 have, &c, 

6 H. Wellesley.' 

* The letter of the 19th is one of many letters too numerous for inser- 
tion in this work. It complained that the Marquis, then Captain-General 
of the Balearic Islands, kept back in Majorca troops of General Whittiug- 
ham's division that should have "been sent to join the latter. 


' At page 297, vol. x., of the ' Wellington Dispatches/ 
there is a long memorandum written by his Lordship, 
(dated ' 14th April, 1813 '), regarding the coming opera- 
tions on the eastern coast, which frequently refers to the 
Majorca division : but of which only one sentence will 
here be quoted, namely — the last paragraph : — 

; If General Sir John Murray's allied British and Sicilian 
corps, and the whole or part of General Whittingham 's 
division should embark, General the Duque del Parque 
will direct the operations ordered in this memorandum to 
be carried on in the kingdom of Valencia ; but, in either 
case, the general officers commanding the first, second, 
and third armies, and General Whittingham, must com- 
mand each their separate corps.' 

This was putting a General of division on the footing 
of a General commanding an army, as subordinate only 
to the actual Commander of the Forces — a strong mark 
of confidence. This was written a fortnight before Lord 
Wellington received Sir John Murray's report of the battle 
of Castalla, which established yet higher the reputation of 
the Majorca division. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' Division, Majorca Head Quarters, Alcot, l§th March, 1813. 

c My dear Davis, — I enclose an account of an affair 
which took place on the 15th. You will see with plea- 
sure that the division has been twice thanked in General 

' As my wound is painful, though not in the least dan- 
gerous, pray send a copy of the enclosed to Colonel 
Torrens, and beg him to excuse my writing. 

' The French have fifteen battalions in my front, at Al- 
bayda and San Felipe. Our army is concentrating itself, 
and a few days will, I hope, bring on a general action, at 
which, I thank God, I shall still be able to play my part. 
' Best love to all, and believe me, ever yours, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 


The battle of Castalla was fought and won on the loth 
April, 1813, by the allied English and Spanish troops; 
but mainly by two corps of that army ; namely, one of 
Englishmen under Colonel Adam,* which gained the chief 
honours of the day ; and the other of Spaniards under 
Major-General Whittingham, who proved themselves 
worthy of fighting with British soldiers, and contributed 
largely to the successful result. 

But let the Commander-in-Chief on that day have, as 
is right, the first word : — 

' General Order. 

i Head Quarters, Castalla, \Uh April, 1813. 

c Lieutenant-General Sir John Murray congratulates the 
army he has the honour to command, on the result of the 
action which took place yesterday. Marshal Suchet col- 
lected his whole force, for the express purpose of de- 
stroying this army ; trusting to the good fortune which 
had hitherto attended his arms. He has been defeated, 
and forced to retreat, by a small portion of it. 

' The Lieutenant-General requests the officers and sol- 
diers of the corps engaged to accept his best thanks for 
their gallantry ; and assures them, that he will not fail to 
draw the attention of his Eoyal Highness the Prince 
Eegent, and of the Spanish Government, to the bravery, 
spirit, and discipline displayed. 

' As the reports from the officers commanding divisions, 
of what immediately passed under their direction, have 
not yet reached the Lieutenant-General, he is obliged to 
defer the just tribute of applause to those corps and in- 

* Colonel Adam, of the 21st Foot, (afterwards Sir Frederick Adam, 
K.C.B., G.C.M.G.,) was far senior in the British army to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Whittingham ; for on the same 4th of June, 1814, on which the latter was 
made a Colonel, the former was gazetted a Major-General. It was not till 
1825, that Whittingham became a Major-General in the British service. 
Sir F. Adam was the second Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian 


dividuals who have been fortunate enough to find an 
opportunity of distinguishing themselves. But, from 
Sir John Murray's own observation, he is fully autho- 
rized to hold up to every army in Europe the conduct 
of Colonel Adam and his brave corps, on the 12th and 
13th instant, as an example worthy of applause and 
imitation ; and he has the satisfaction of expressing a 
no less degree of approbation of the conduct of Major- 
General Whittingham and his gallant troops in the action 
of the 13th.* 

c The Lieutenant-General has much satisfaction in con- 
veying his approbation of the spirit displayed by every 
other part of the army on the 12th and 13th instant. They 
had not the fortunate lot of the advance, and of General 
Whittingham ; but it was evident that had the enemy 
waited the attack on the 13th, in the plains of Castalla, 
that he would have found the same spirit to have existed 
throughout the whole allied army. 

4 The Lieutenant-General has experienced, ever since 
he has held this honourable command, every support and 
assistance from the general officers and brigadiers f of the 
army ; and he is happy that an opportunity has been 
afforded him of expressing that gratitude which he deeply 
feels. Nor is he less indebted to the general staff of the 
army, for their cordial support, and the cheerful alacrity 
with which every part of the service is performed. In 
mentioning the general staff of the army Sir John Murray 
feels that he would be wanting in justice if he omitted 
the name of Major-General Donkin, to whom he is more 
particularly indebted. The Lieutenant-General has now 
only pointedly to express his approbation of the artillery 
corps engaged in every part, and to assure Captain Arabin 

* Thus three times in five weeks was the Majorca division praised in 
General Orders. 

t Colonel Adam appears to have been one of these Brigadiers, as he is 
described as commanding a body of troops. He was Lieut. -Colonel of the 
21st Regiment of Foot, the North British Fusiliers. 


that, so far from finding the slightest grounds of censure 
for the loss of the two mountain guns, he highly approved 
the spirit and motive which induced him to keep them in 
their position, till it became impossible, in their crippled 
state to remove them. 

4 Deeply as every soldier feels the loss of a brave com- 
rade who may fall, it is a consolation to think that the 
allied army has, in comparison with that of the enemy, 
suffered, in numbers at least, a trifling loss. 

'Thomas Kknagh, 

' Assistant Adjutant-General/ 

General Whittingham's official report was as follows : — 

To His Excellency the General-in-Chief of the Allied 


' Camp op Guerra, 14th April, 1813. 

'Sir, — Yesterday the 13th, in consequence of your 
Excellency's orders communicated to me by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Catinelli, I marched at mid-day by my left, from 
my position on the heights of Guerra, with the 5th bat- 
talion of Grenadiers, the 2nd of Murcia, and that of the 
Cazadores of Majorca, by the road of the Montana, which 
joins that of Sax ; prolonging the left of the line, and 
leaving in my position the 1st battalion of Cordova and 
the 2nd of Burgos, under Colonel Juan Eomero. 

c After marching about half an hour I received a mes- 
sage from Major Guerra (whom I had left with two com- 
panies covering the heights of Nadal) informing me that 
three columns of the enemy were forming at the foot of 
his position, and were preparing to attack him. I imme- 
diately ordered Colonel Serrano, chief of my staff, to march 
rapidly and place the 2nd Eegiment of Murcia [so as] to 
support Major Guerra ; giving positive orders to Colonel 
Casans that the post should be defended at whatever cost, 
and that he should proceed to the heights of Guerra, and 


acquaint me with the state of that point. The fire was 
already general along the line ; and observing that the 
enemy was possessing himself of the last height on the 
left — from whence he might flank those on the Nadal, I 
ordered Colonel Campbell, of the Majorca Cazadores, to 
obtain possession of that height with two companies ; 
which he accomplished most promptly at the point of the 
bayonet. Leaving the remainder of this corps on this 
part of the line, I hastened with the 5th Eegiment of 
Grenadiers back to the position on the heights of Guerra, 
which was now vigorously attacked. On my march I 
received a verbal communication from Colonel Serrano, 
informing me that it was absolutely necessary to strengthen 
that point with more troops, as Colonel Eomero, with the 
Cordova and Burgos Eegiments, was sorely pressed, and 
required support. The moment I arrived, I formed the 
grenadiers into two columns on the flat on the top of the 
heights of Guerra, fronting the two most accessible points, 
and against which the attacks were principally directed. 
A strong column of French grenadiers had taken the 
height of Sarratella, with another still stronger [column] 
of fusiliers on their right. I ordered the reserves to ad- 
vance, Eomero maintained himself on the first line with 
great firmness. After a very obstinate fight on both sides, 
the enemy determined to attack with the bayonet; his 
first column [advancing] by the crest of the mountain ; 
the second, lower down, by the opening of Palliser. 

' I immediately directed Lieutenant-Colonel Ochoa to 
advance with our reserve, and sustain the first point ; and 
Colonel Serrano took the other (commanded by Major 
Ontiveros) by his left to cover the opening of Palliser. 
The enemy advanced boldly to the edge of the position ; 
but the reserves immediately deployed, and advanced to 
the charge with so much spirit (supported by the troops 
of the first line) that the enemy was overthrown and put 
into the greatest confusion ; nor could he again form until 


he had returned to his position on the summit of the hill 
of Doncel. 

' Colonel Casans of the 2nd Eegiment of Murcia, to 
whom, as already mentioned, I had trusted the command 
of the left, was attacked by upwards of 800 men in strong 
skirmishing parties, supported by a column of grenadiers 
and chasseurs, and a numerous reserve. But this officer 
ordered his grenadiers and eazadores to advance and sup- 
port the Majorca Eegiment, which was warmly attacked ; 
and with that of Murcia, in the post of Olla Eedonda, the 
eazadores of the 5th Grenadiers, and the 1st of Guada- 
laxara kept up a steady fire ; which the enemy notwith- 
standing disregarded, [being] resolved to break the line. 
But Colonel Casans having brought out his reserves, and 
given the command of his right to Major Bascon, of his 
left to Lieutenant-Colonel M. Sas, and of his centre to 
Major Guerra, they kept up the fire till half-past four in 
the afternoon ; when, annoyed by the obstinacy of the 
enemy, Colonel Casans ordered the before mentioned 
troops, with four companies of the eazadores of Majorca, 
to charge with the bayonet ; which they did immediately 
with such a countenance that the French dared not await 
them, but fled shamefully, and with too much expedition 
to allow our men, who were much fatigued, to make many 

' I can assure your Excellency that the force with which 
the enemy attacked [us] was greatly superior to mine ; 
and that, after a most obstinate conflict of three hours and 
a half, he was repulsed at the same time on the whole 
line, leaving the field covered with his dead. 

' I subsequently received your Excellency's orders to 
move my line forward, in proportion as the other troops 
of the army should advance. As soon as I perceived 
the general movement, I left Colonel Casteras with the 
battalion of Burgos in the position, and advanced with the 



5th Grenadiers and the 1st of Cordova, covering my front 
with two companies of Majorca as skirmishers. 

c I marched in this order to the summit of Doncel, fol- 
lowing the first line of the English troops, on which my 
right leaned.* At the same time I sent by my left, by the 
Montana del Aquila, Colonel Casans with the regiments of 
Murcia and Majorca, strengthened by his Britannic Ma- 
jesty's 1st Italian battalion, with the view of flanking the 
enemy's right : which they accomplished by descending 
into the plain, and taking the direction of Monte de los 
Zerres. The skirmishers were charged at the foot of that 
hill by a detachment of the enemy's cavalry, which they 
succeeded in repulsing with loss, when the whole column 
halted, on the approach of night, and returned to its 
position, by your Excellency's orders. 

' To your Excellency I particularly recommend, in the 
strongest terms, Colonel Serrano, Chief of my Staff, to 
whose exertions, valour, and knowledge, is owing much 
of the success of this day. I also particularly recommend 
Lieutenant-Colonel Catanelli, who was in the whole of the 
action and gave much assistance. The second adjutant of 
the General Staff, and the assistants, Don Joseph Serrano 
and Don Samuel Alvares, Colonel Gelabert, quartermaster- 
general, Captain Montenegro, of the engineers, and my 
aide-de-camp, Don Antonio Euti, and the Baron de Hal- 
berg, completely fulfilled their duties and carried my orders 
with the greatest dispatch and precision. 

' The spirit and correctness of the officers of my division 
have been so distinguished, that I must in justice call your 
Excellency's attention to the conduct of Colonels Casans, 
Romero, Campbell, Casteras, and Lieutenant-Colonel Ochoa, 
and all the other commanders and officers. In one word, 
both men and officers have completely done their duty ; 
and having been all equally engaged, they are equally 

* It is meant that lie dressed his line by that of the English in its 


entitled to the gratitude of their country ; particularly the 
memory of those brave men, Lieutenant-Colonel Sudrez 
of the 5th Grenadiers, Lieutenant-Colonel Pizarro of [the 
regiment of] Burgos, and Lieutenant-Colonel Puerto of the 
Majorca, who fell in the action. Major Bascon received a 
contusion. Lieutenant Morales of the Cordova, Lieute- 
nant Castaneda of the Guadalaxara, and the sub-lieutenant 
of the Majorca, Serrano, were wounded ; with 66 rank and 
file killed, and 163 wounded ; which with the 29 men 
that the battalion [there engaged] lost on the 12th on the 
pass of Biar, make a total of 258 men. 

c I have, &c, 

6 Samford Whittingham.' 

It is proved by two dispatches of Lord Wellington, 
dated 5th May and 9th August, 1813, that the Spanish 
division of General Eoche was at Castalla very weak in 
the field, nearly all the men being at the depot. More- 
over, that division being on the right, was not actively 
engaged. The state and conduct of the Majorca division 
appear to have been achievements with Spanish troops 
quite unrivalled in the Peninsula. 

The following extracts from Sir John Murray's dispatch 
of the battle of Castalla to the Marquis of Wellington, 
refer to General Whittingham and his division : — 

' The position of the allied army was extensive. The 
left was posted on a strong range of hills, occupied by 
Major-General Whittingham's division of Spanish troops, 
and the advance of the allied army under Colonel Adam. 

' The skill, judgment, and gallantry displayed by Major- 
General Whittingham and his division of the Spanish 
army, rivals, though it cannot surpass, the conduct of 
Colonel Adam and the advance.' 

That the British General-in-Chief, should thus acknow- 
ledge that Spaniards had rivalled Britons in the battle 

o 2 


was assuredly a sufficient proof that the labours of the 
zealous organizer in Majorca had not been thrown away. 
General Murray also forwarded and endorsed the recom- 
mendations made by General Whittingham of his gallant 

On the 9th May, 1813, the great hero deigned to in- 
dite a paper of c Observations on General Whittingham 's 
memorandum of the 24th April, 1812, in regard to the 
draft of supplies from the country ' f ; and though he 
declared it to be ' impracticable to execute what is pro- 
posed,' he yet discussed it with respect and condemned 
the project solely on the ground of the inferiority to the 
French on certain points both of English and Spanish 
troops. Such measures experience indeed proved, owing 
to Lord Wellington's marvellous successes, to be unneces- 
sary. But it might have been otherwise, but for the in- 
vasion of Eussia ; and if Napoleon, abandoning that mad 
project, had reinforced his Peninsular army by 100,000 
more soldiers. In that case forced requisitions, or an 
abandonment of Spain would have been the only alter- 
natives to keep the army from starving. The retreat 
after Talavera was mainly caused by the absence of such 
requisitions, and by the indolence and ill-will of the 
Spanish authorities, who scrupled not themselves to take 
what was wanted for their own troops, though they took 
no trouble to supply the British. 

After the praise given to the Majorca division by Sir 
John Murray on so many occasions, it will surprise no one 
that the Spaniards were rendered almost wild with enthu- 
siasm by the accounts of the prowess of their countrymen 
against the detested invaders. In the ' Eedactor General' 
(a Spanish journal) of April 1813, there is a long and 

Though thrice honourably mentioned in General Orders, and again in 
the dispatch, no one would suppose from Napier's accounts of the Eastern 
Campaign, that either Whittingham or his Spanish division had done 
anything particular. The Bake knew better, 
f Vol. x. p. 366. 


glowing article on the Te Deunis and rejoicings on ac- 
count of the victory of Castalla, in the usual inflated style 
of warm southern imaginations. The translation of one 
of its paragraphs is sufficient on the present occasion : — 

6 General Whittingham, that chief so zealous in inspi- 
ring all warlike virtues into his beloved soldiers, must be 
superabundantly satisfied and recompensed in seeing his 
labours in the organizing of these never-sufficiently-to- 
be-praised Spaniards thus crowned with success.' 

The following incident of the battle of Castalla is taken 
from the ' Eecollections ' : — 

' I was directed to march upon Castalla with the whole 
of the force under my command, except two battalions 
which were to remain at Alcoy. On my arrival at Cas- 
talla, I occupied a range of heights on the left of the 
town. The British left and my right were contiguous. 
Suchet had advanced from Valencia with about 12,000 
men ; and had attacked some posts of General Elio, and 
taken a thousand prisoners. Our advanced guard under 
Brigadier Adam was driven through the pass of Biar upon 
our main body at Castalla. But the retreat was a beau- 
tiful field-day, by alternate battalions. The volleys were 
admirable, and the successive passage of several ravines 
conducted with perfect order and steadiness. From the 
heights occupied by my troops it was one of the most 
delightful panoramas that I ever beheld ! 

' About ten o'clock on the next morning, I received 
orders from Sir John Murray, through Lieutenant-Colonel 
Catanelli (an Italian officer on the staff of Lord William 
Bentinck) to take ground to my left till I should reach 
the head of a ravine in that direction, then to bring my 
left shoulder forwards, descending the valley, and form 
perpendicularly to the right of Suchet's line. 

' In the meantime Sir John was to advance with his 
whole force from Castalla, and attack Suchet in front. I 
told Catanelli that I should of course obey but that I did 


not believe in the correctness of his communication ; and 
Sir John Murray afterwards assured me that he had never 
given any order to Catanelli. Luckily, foreseeing that 
the heights which I occupied would probably be attacked 
as soon as my movement to the left should be perceived, 
I left all the advanced posts and their supports standing ; 
and passing by their rear in columns of companies left in 
front, I had hardly begun to descend the valley in single 
file, when a report was brought to me that the French 
were advancing to the attack of the heights of Castalla, 
and that the outposts were already warmly engaged. I 
instantly countermarched, and formed columns of com- 
panies at double quick, as the troops successively cleared 
the defile ; and I re-occupied my former position just in 
time to repel the final attack of the French.* Our loss 
did not exceed 300 men ; the French suffered severely, 
not having fewer than 3,000 men hors de combat. 

' Our advantage was not followed up, and Suchet was 
permitted to retire without further molestation, through 
the pass of Biar, by which he had advanced.' 

* This account of the mistake of Catanelli is confirmed by Southey. 
Indeed he probably received the particulars from General Whittingham, or 
found them at the Horse-Guards, in the letters of that officer. 



181 3 — continued. 



General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Alcoy, \Wi May, 1813. 

' Sucitet'S force has been reinforced since the action [of 
Castalla] by the junction of the division that he had in 
Aragon (about 5,000 men), and by the arrival of about 
2,000 conscripts. Ours had been lessened by 3,000 men 
lost by General Elio at Gerla and Biar, and by the de- 
tachment of three regiments sent to Sicily. We received 
yesterday the news that General Hill had entered Toledo, 
and that the Duke del Parque was at Almaraz. 

' The Spaniards are not in a state to act alone even a 
subordinate part ; and one of two things must result from 


sending Sir John Murray's army away. Either the army 
acts alone, entirely composed of Spanish troops, and under 
the command of the Duke del Parque, in which case it 
will be entirely destroyed in the first action in which it 
may be engaged ; or Lord Wellington will be obliged to 
detach General Hill with his corps d'armee to take the 
supreme command here ; and by so doing weaken con- 
siderably the effect of his great mass [of troops] ; had he 
been able to keep them concentrated in one sole line of 

'As to this unfortunate country I see it in a more 
deplorable point of view every day. Nine months have 
nearly passed away since the battle of Salamanca, two- 
thirds of Spain have been free during that period ; and 
yet the only increase to our army is about 12,000 men 
under O'Donnel, and the troops are neither better paid 
nor better fed than when Spain was reduced to Cadiz. 

' My little division has established a certain reputation* 
in the country, which is highly advantageous to the esprit 
de corps that I have always endeavoured to keep up. But 
as I have no means of recruiting my losses, a few months 
of active campaign will lead us fairly and softly to a natural 
death. I live in hopes, however, that in consequence of 
the battle of Castalla, I may receive some augmentations 
to my force.' 

The death of his dear friend the Honourable Henry 
Cadogan at Vittoria on the 21st June, 1813, must have 
been a grievous blow to the subject of this Memoir and 
deserves a passing allusion. Cadogan had been gazetted 
on the 4th June to the rank of Colonel, but he died before 
his promotion was known in the Peninsula. f Lord Wel- 

* More than lie was then aware of, since its commander had gained (as 
will be seen hereafter) the high esteem of the able Marshal Suchet, Duke of 

t Had Colonel Cadogan survived, he would have succeeded to the earldom 
of Cadogan in 1832, instead of his younger brother George. 


lington on the 22nd of June, in his dispatch to Earl 
Bathurst, writes, ' I am concerned to have to report that 
Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. H. Cadogan has died of a 
wound which he received. In him His Majesty has lost 
an officer of great merit and tried gallantry, who had al- 
ready acquired the respect and regard of the whole pro- 
fession, and of whom it might have been expected that, 
if he had lived, he would have rendered the most impor- 
tant services to his country.' 

On the 24th, Lord Wellington writes to his brother 
Sir Henry Wellesley, ' I know how much you will feel 
for the loss of poor Cadogan, which has distressed me 
exceedingly. He was so anxious respecting what was 
going on, that after he was wounded and knew that he 
was dying, he had himself carried to a place whence he 
could see all the operations.' 

Thus heroically died the beloved and loving friend of 
Samford Whittingham. 

On the 28th of May, Sir John Murray's army embarked 
for Catalonia, and sailed on the 31st ; disembarked on 
the 3rd June, and immediately invested Tarragona. The 
abandonment of that enterprise, owing to the advance, 
with a large force, of Marshal Suchet to the relief of the 
town, was effected in such haste as to cause a considerable 
loss of guns and military stores, and also eventually to 
bring before a court-martial the British Commander of 
the Forces. On the 17th June, Lord William Bentinck 
relieved Sir John Murray of his command, and then was 
renewed the acquaintance between that distinguished noble- 
man and General Whittingham, which quickly ripened into 
mutual esteem, and ended in durable friendship. We re- 
sume the ' Eecollections ': — 

'At the siege of Tarragona, my division of infantry 
occupied the left of the investment. Suchet had advanced 
to the relief with 10,000 men, but without artillery. I 
submitted to the consideration of Sir John Murray that 


[General] Copons, and the Spanish corps under his com- 
mand, should be left before Tarragona, and that he [him- 
self] should move upon Suchet with all his force. My 
opinion was not approved ; and a few days afterwards the 
siege was ordered to be raised, and with such precipita- 
tion that several guns were abandoned, and our honour 
unnecessarily compromized. Before our re-embarkation 
for Alicante Lord William Bentinck had arrived, and 
taken the command of the army. His Lordship forth- 
with advanced a second time upon Tarragona, but by 
land. Suchet, determined to save the place if possible, 
brought up all the disposable force under his command, 
to the amount of 30,000 men. 

4 Lord William's army consisted of the divisions of 
Sarsfield and Whittingham, about 6,000 men each, and 
of the force under the Duke del Parque of 12,000 men. 
The three Generals were directed to meet at Lord William's 
head-quarters, and a council of war was held on the ex- 
pediency of risking a general action with Suchet. It was 
determined in the negative ; and a general retreat being 
ordered, I was left to cover it with my division. 

4 The country which we then occupied was intersected 
by stone walls enclosing fields of a moderate size, and 
every road formed a small defile. Between my advanced 
post and the enemy there was a deep but very accessible 
ravine, at the head of which stood a village occupied by 
my troops. In rear of the village there was a large open 
space ; and beyond that a long wall of about four feet high, 
pierced through its centre by the common road. Besides 
the infantry, I had with me two eight-pounders, horse 
artillery, and nearly 2,000 cavalry. Having ascertained 
the proximate approach of the enemy, I sent the artillery 
and cavalry to the rear, excepting only fifty hussars, which, 
with two companies of grenadiers, I pushed across the 
ravine, as a check upon the too rapid advance of the 
French. I then lined the wall on the farther side of the 


common with Campbell's light infantry, and sent a staff- 
officer with all the battalions of the line, to form them on 
either side of the road at convenient distances successively, 
in order the better to secure our retreat. 

4 1 had scarcely made all these arrangements, when the 
troops on the farther side of the ravine were driven in at 
double quick ; and they had just commenced filing to the 
rear through the opening in the wall, when the French 
hussars came through the village at a gallop — formed to 
the front — and charged the troops entering the defile. 

' It was now my turn. The whole battalion of light 
infantry, which had been concealed behind the wall, stood 
up ; and commenced, from that rest,* a most destructive 
fire, which brought down a great number, and sent the 
remainder to the right-about as speedily as their horses' 
legs could carry them. A General of division should 
always be the first to advance and the last to retreat. That 
is invariably his post. I consequently retired with Camp- 
bell's battalion, and gradually and successively sent on 
the different battalions, as they came up in their echelons 
to more distant points in our rear. 

' The pursuit was warmly followed up till nightfall ; 

when having crossed a ravine at ,f we ascended the 

height on the opposite side, and took up our position for 
the night. In the village we found five thousand rations 
of bread, which had been prepared for the French. I 
ordered them to be distributed to our men, in spite of the 
reclamations of the civil authorities. I then proceeded 
to open communications through the walls in my rear for 
the passage of the troops, on their retreat in the morning ; 
and having detached on our right a subaltern and twenty 
hussars, to ascertain the security of that flank, I threw 
myself down on a bundle of straw, and in a moment was 

* Rest for their muskets on the wall ; ensuring steadiness of aim. 
t The name was left in blank, having slipped from the memory of the 

204 Memoir of sir s. f. whittingham. 

fast asleep ; for I do not recollect ever, in my whole life, 
to have been half so tired. At one o'clock a.m., my ser- 
vant awoke me to say that a dish of stewed partridge was 
ready ; and I certainly did eat, as most starved people are 
wont to do — like a hunter.* 

' I waited the next morning till near daylight, in the 
hope that my hussar patrol would make its appearance. 
But I was disappointed ; for it turned out that the young 
officer had disobeyed my orders not to dismount, much 
less to enter any house, and had in consequence been 
surprised and taken prisoner with the whole of his party. 
Our further retreat to Lord William's head-quarters was 
effected without loss. The distance was ten miles, and 
we marched it in two hours and a half 

Lord Wellington did not approve of the Spanish sys- 
tem of divisional inspectors, but as Commander-in-Chief 
of the Spanish armies he did not venture to abolish them 
generally : — 

The Marquis of Wellington to Lieutenant-General Lord 

William Be?iti?ick.f 


1 Irttrita, 8th July, 1813. 

' You will have seen that by the Constitution, all mili- 
tary regulation is in the hands of the Cortes, and they 
have a board of officers now sitting to consider of a mili- 
tary constitution for the army, which it is intended to 
republicanize. Any proposal for an alteration, therefore, 
is laid aside till the new military constitution shall be 
fixed. One of the defects in the constitution of the Spanish 
army, as now existing, is in the office and power of the 

* The critical reader must remember that these Recollections (as ex- 
plained in the Preface) were written for a beloved niece, and were never 
intended for publication. 

t Vol. x. page 516 ; edition of 1838, of Wellington Dispatches. 


inspectors of cavalry and infantry, in whose hands is 
the nomination of all officers to commission, and for 

' This cannot be altered, Whittingham, contrary to all 
rule, is both Commander and Inspector of his own division. 
I have not the power to make the same arrangement in 
favour of anybody else* 

'I have no objection to your allowing the Duque del 
Parque cavalry to act under the command of Whitting- 
ham for the moment ; but I beg you not to make any 
alteration in the existing organization of any of the 
Spanish armies. If you do, you will bring me into diffi- 

With Lord William Bentinck, as with every com- 
mander he successively served under, confidence in Ge- 
neral Whittingham seems to have been the invariable 
rule : but indeed it appears to have been equally so in 
the case of civilians, whether statesmen or diplomatists, 
with whom he came in contact ; always excepting that 
brief episode with the Governor of Gibraltar, where he 
had not the opportunity by personal intercourse of gain- 
ing the esteem of that over-punctilious functionary. 

The formation of the rival division of General Eoche 
appears to have been, comparatively speaking, a failure ; 
as on the 9th August, 1813, we find Lord Wellington 
writing to Lord William Bentinck : ' I shall not allow 
any pay in future for a division under General Eoche, as 
he has no such division serving in the field.' This clearly 
proves (and it is therefore quoted) the immense difficulty 
of the task which General Whittingham succeeded in 
accomplishing at Majorca. 

* The Editor ventures to place in italics a sentence so honourable to the 
subject of this Memoir. Not only the confidence of the illustrious Chief is 
here displayed, but the great popularity of General Whittingham in Spain 
is strikingly manifested. 


To his Brother-in-law. 

( Torrente, llth July, 1813. 

c At the request of Lord William Bentinck, of the Duke . . 
del Parque, and of General Elio, I have taken the com- 
mand of the cavalry of the 2nd and 3rd army, which, 
added to that of my division, makes about 2,500 horse. 
I have accepted this command because I have been 
ordered to do so ; but I have declared to them all that. I 
cannot be answerable for the consequences. If I had 
them for some months, they might be formed into good 
soldiers. But at present there is no time for instruction ; 
and in the present condition of the Spanish cavalry, there 
is not a single regiment in a state to fight the French, 
with the most distant chance of success. 

' In the year which has elapsed since the battle of 
Salamanca, the Spanish army has not been increased 
by 20,000 men ; nor do I see the least hope of a change 
of system. Lord Wellington has been doing wonders ; 
but England, as I have repeated again and again, can 
never save Spain if Spain will do nothing for herself. 

4 In short, my dear Davis, I am tired of a scene where 
my mind is continually harassed, and where it is not 
in my power to do the least good ; and I entreat you 
to obtain an order for me to return home, and get my 
accounts with Government passed. They are long and 
voluminous, and, if not settled during my life, they will 
probably be the cause of infinite vexation and loss to my 

' No man has considered the Spanish Revolution with 
greater impartiality than myself. When w 7 e were re- 
duced to Cadiz and the Balearic Islands, my spirits were 
high, and I trusted that a day of reaction would arrive 
which would place the Spaniards in the situation of the 
French in the year '94. That day has arrived. Lord 
Wellington's memorable battle of Salamanca put the 


Spaniards in possession of the best part of their country, 
and gave them the means of forming great and powerful 
armies ! 

' Have they taken advantage of these circumstances ? 
Have they done anything for their own salvation ? Their 
whole time has been occupied in the forming of a cursed 
Constitution, and their army has been forgotten and neg- 
lected ! We have not, I again repeat, increased our 
army 20,000 men in the last year, nor is there in my 
opinion any hopes of amendment. 

' About four months ago General Freyre, with 3,500 
cavalry, was sent to Seville by order of Lord Wellington, 
to clothe, arm, equip, and instruct the corps. I saw a 
letter from General Freyre, about a fortnight since, in 
which he states that he had received nothing ; and that 
he was not able to exercise his cavalry for want of money 
to pay for the horses shoes I 

4 You must be satisfied that a year's reflection is suf- 
ficient. That time has elapsed since I first wrote to you 
on the subject. Get me recalled, and allow me to pass 
some years at least of happiness with you and yours.' 

In a letter marked private, and dated Torrente, 17th 
July, 1813, he gives to his brother-in-law a detail of the 
advice he had given to Sir John Murray at the camp of 
Tarragona, which, as it is embodied in Southey's history; 
need not be here detailed. 

To Colonel Torrens, Military Secretary. 

1 Torrente, 17th July, 1813. 

' My dear Friend, — I beg leave to recommend to 
your attentions and civilities, my aide-de-camp, Baron 
Halberg, who passes through London on his way to 
Germany. He is a gentleman I much esteem as an 
officer, and a friend ; and as he has been with me for 



two years, he can give you a good account of the state of 
the troops which I have the honour to command. 

' I remain, my dear Friend, 
4 Yours most truly, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

Although General Whittingham was exceedingly po- 
pular with the Spaniards with whom he came in contact, 
or rather, perhaps, on that very account, high-placed 
Spanish officials were often very jealous of the English- 
man, who by his zeal and energy appeared to put to 
shame their own lack of such qualities. These officials 
gratified their malice by all kinds of slights and insults, 
and amongst the worst of them were the Ministers of 
War and Finance. At last matters were carried to such 
a length, that patience was exhausted. On the 5th August, 
1813, General Whittingham sent in his resignation to 
the Eegency ; and on the day following he sent it also to 
Lord Wellington, who was not only the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Spanish army, but to whom the Ambas- 
sador, Sir Henry Wellesley, had yielded the chief control 
over the British military agents. 

Thus, in the course of a year, the two brothers had 
successively received letters of resignation from the same 
subordinate. Sir Henry Wellesley had condescended to 
request the withdrawal of the resignation in 1812. The 
Majorca division and its commander had since greatly 
distinguished themselves ; but Lord Wellington was dif- 
ferent from, and sterner than, his brother. Would he 
condescend in a similar manner ? General Whittingham, 
at all events, expected no such result : — 

Major-General Whittingham to the Marquis of 


1 Camp before Tarragona, 6th Attest, 1813. 

My Lord, — I have the honour to enclose translations 
of various official letters which have passed relative to the 


subsistence of the troops under my command. I have en- 
deavoured to the best of my power to act up to your Lord- 
ship's instructions considering that if a smaller sum than 
had at first appeared necessary, should be found sufficient, 
the difference ought necessarily to result in diminishing 
the sum appropriated by the British Government ; inas- 
much as your Lordship's order is positive that no part of 
the money destined for the division of Majorca should be 
employed in the purchase of provisions. The Duke del 
Parque, and General Elio, both perfectly agreed with me 
in the interpretation of your Lordship's instructions ; but 
the official communication which I have just received 
upon this subject froni the Minister of Finance is couched 
in such terms that I cannot in justice to my own feelings 
avoid sending in my resignation, which I have directed to 
General Wimpffen, to be forwarded, with your Lordship's 
permission, to the Spanish Government. 

' I cannot take my leave of this country without avail- 
ing myself of the opportunity of returning my most grate- 
ful thanks to your Lordship for the many favours which 
I have received at your hands. The obligations, indeed, 
which I am under to your Lordship, to Marquis Wellesley, 
and to Sir Henry, will never be effaced from my memory ; 
and nothing will afford me through life so much satisfaction, 
as to have an opportunity in my limited sphere, of proving 
the sentiments of respect and gratitude which animate my 
mind towards everything bearing the name of Wellesley. 

c If your Lordship will be pleased to grant me permis- 
sion, I wish to return immediately to England, and I 
should take it as a particular favour if Captain Foley 
might be permitted to accompany me ; as I am extremely 
desirous of getting my account with the British Govern- 
ment settled as soon as possible. 

6 1 have the honour to be, with the highest respect, 
1 Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 


On the 22nd August, he gives to his brother-in-law the 
reasons in detail which had induced him to resign. The 
Ministers had begun to stop indirectly his acknowledged 
right to promote the officers of his division ; in one case 
going so far as to separate the regiment of Burgos, which 
he had formed, from his command. They took in fact 
every opportunity of slighting him, and letting it be 
understood that his favour was no recommendation in 
their eyes. Carrying insult to the extreme limits of false- 
hood, the Intendant of the 2nd army — eager, no doubt, 
to please the Ministers — told some of General Whitting- 
ham's officers, * that the division of Majorca was more 
prejudicial than useful to the nation, and the Minister of 
Finance ventures to tell me that I am ignorant of the 
duties of a Spanish General/ The letter continues as 
follows : — 

' The measure, my dear Davis, is at last full. I have 
borne with patience insults and persecutions, because I 
conceived that my efforts would do good, in our great and 
glorious cause. In the present case, the opposite impres- 
sion is strong upon my mind. I am satisfied that, not 
having it in my power to forward the interests of the war 
— inasmuch as I am become the innocent cause of ruining 
the career of all who serve under my orders — it is my 
duty not to hold a command which could only serve to 
flatter my vanity at the expense of interests that 1 have 
always held dearer than my own. I have, as Buonaparte 
says of his politics, a morality of my own ; and I can 
never for a moment consent that for my personal advan- 
tage, the interests of those whom I am bound to protect 
and cherish should suffer the least detriment. 

' On the point of quitting the military career, I have 
had the satisfaction of executing two operations well. 

' When Lord William retired from before Tarragona, 
on the approach of Soult, my corps which was the most 
advanced, was attacked by a French column of 5,000 in- 


fantry, and 300 cavalry. I had with me 1,300 infantry, 
and 40 dragoons. This little force retired with admirable 
order upwards of ten miles — checked and repulsed the 
enemy whenever he pressed upon us, and about seven in 
the evening effected a junction with the remainder of the 
division, which by my orders occupied a commanding 
position in Biar. At one in the morning we again began 
our retreat, and joined the main body of the army at 
Cambrils. Our retreat was from the Coll de St. Christina 
to Brassin- Vails — Eeus, and Cambrils — a distance of thirty- 
three miles. 

6 On the 17th, Lord William Bentinck ordered me to 
leave the division of infantry of my command at Coll de 
Balaguer ; and with the whole of the Spanish cavalry to 
continue my retreat to the Ebro, and to cross the river as 
quickly as possible. The whole of the baggage of the 
3rd army, and one division of 2,000 men under the com- 
mand of the Duke del Parque had taken the same route 
the evening before. 

6 At ten at night I arrived on the banks of the Ebro, 
and found the only means of passage to be a raft, capable 
of carrying over four carts ; and one small boat. Tortosa 
was distant two leagues ; its garrison 6,500 men ; and 
reinforcements immediately expected from Suchet. 

' The division of infantry of the Duke's army took up 
a position on our right. The baggage of the Duke's army 
began to pass, and by dint of the greatest efforts, I col- 
lected by the morning eight small boats ; each boat held 
two men with their saddles, &c. ; and two horses swam 
the river, each man leading his horse* With these 
miserable means, I passed over in the day and night of 
the 18th [August] the whole of the cavalry and artillery, 
excepting six pieces and two squadrons. On the morn- 
ing of the 19th, the French attacked General Berenger 

* This was a slight error, corrected in his RecollectionSj as will be seen 

p 2 


(who commanded the covering division) with six pieces 
of cannon, 4,000 infantry, and ninety dragoons. Things 
looked very ill ; when the rapid advance of three of my 
guns on the right, and three on the left, and their truly 
well-directed fire, checked the progress of the enemy, 
and induced him to order a retreat. A battalion of grena- 
diers, sent by the Duke from the other side of the river, 
ably supported by the guns on the left, and the arrival of 
the head of the Duke's staff, remedied the errors and 
follies of the General commanding, — who, I am grieved to 
say, was literally as drunk as a beast. 

4 My artillery had never been in fire before ; but they 
did wonders. [The French] General Robert's aide-de-camp 
dined with me yesterday, and informed me that they 
thought the whole of our cavalry and artillery had crossed 
the river ; and that General Eobert determined upon 
retreating as soon as he found out his mistake. We had 
two other guns, which could not be used for want of men 
and horses, these being on the other side of the river. 
I drew them up, however, in the plain, and formed on 
their right an immense squadron of all the servants and 
mounted followers of the army ; who made a great show, 
and served to impose not a little. 

4 We have lost about 400 men in killed and wounded, 
and the French about double that number. Suchet has 
blown up the works of Tarragona, and our troops have 
entered the town. 

' 1 hope to be with you in the month October : and I 
trust in God that we shall pass many happy days together 
in the renewal of those first and beloved impressions which 
in good minds are never to be effaced.' 

In his c Recollections,' Sir Samford has given a very 
graphic account of his passage of the Ebro, which, though 
more picturesque, differs from the letter written at the 
period in only one very trifling fact, and, strange to say, 
in that, the c Recollections ' appear the more accurate and 


probable. Perhaps tHe letter written on active service was 
hurried. What was written in 1840, is as follows : — 

* On arriving at the Ebro we found ourselves without 
boats to effect our passage. We tried to swim the horses 
over without dismounting the men. But invariably as 
soon as the horse felt a little tired he dropped his hind 
quarters, and his rider floated out of the saddle. I linked 
a division of horses together, but they had not half crossed 
the river, when they began to fight, and they were all 
drowned. I finally adopted the plan of putting two men 
in a small boat, one to row and one to lead the horses.' 

That portion of the ' Eecollections ' on this subject 
which only repeats what has been already given in quota- 
tions from the letter of 22nd August is omitted, but what 
comes next is here subjoined, beginning after the repulse 
of the garrison of Tortosa : — 

c Having failed in their surprise, the French continued 
their retreat closely followed by our troops. Like old 
and experienced soldiers, they took advantage of every 
obstacle to impede our advance, and to cover their retreat. 
In this affair I lost a dear and much esteemed friend, 
O'Eeilly. He was nephew to the famous Count O'Eeilly, 
and as gallant a soldier as ever drew sword.. We had 
studied together at High Wycombe : and on his joining 
me in Spain, I made him colonel of a regiment of grena- 
diers ; — for all power of promotion, of organization, of 
distribution, and of employment of the troops under my 
command had been placed by the Spanish Government, 
with the approbation of the Duke of Wellington, exclu- 
sively in my hands. 

' In following up the French too eagerly, at the head of 
a single detachment of cavalry, his (O'Eeilly 's) horse was 
shot under him, and he fell. His cavalry fled, and the 
French soldiers who had fired from behind a wall, leaped 
over and murdered him in cold blood. I was not two 
hundred yards from the spot when he fell ; but in a moment 


he was stripped, and on his bleeding body were discovered 
no less than seven bayonet wounds, one of which was 
quite through the throat. Severely, however, did the 
enemy pay for this act of barbarity. Several hundreds of 
their wounded men remained on the field of battle, every 
one of whom fell a sacrifice to the manes of O'Eeilly, for 
our infuriated soldiers gave no quarter after his death.' — — 

The exact time when the following circumstance oc- 
curred, the Editor has not been able to discover. The 
account is taken from the ' Kecollections,' and is worthy 
of being recorded: — 

4 My instructions during my stay in Aragon were to 
take care of the condition of the horses, and to form the 
largest possible depot of grain, and of the means of trans- 
port for our future advance into Catalonia. I had no other 
means of feeding my troops but by requisitions, which, 
however, the Commissary-General alone was allowed to 
make, countersigned by me. But the distribution of the 
quantity to be furnished by each town was made by the 
municipality of the principal town in the district, upon 
the returns furnished by the Chief Commissary, which 
returns were countersigned by me. All arbitrary pro- 
ceedings were thus checked ; and the receipts of the 
Commissary were invariably received by the Spanish 
Government in payment of taxes and dues of all kinds. 
I adopted the same system in Aragon ; but the result had 
not been satisfactory, and the horses were starving for 
want of food. Had this abomination been suffered to con- 
tinue for a fortnight longer, so far from being in every 
respect ready for the field, my 3,000 cavalry and 36 pieces 
of horse-artillery (the whole of my force in Aragon) would 
have been totally inefficient, and good for nothing. 
Sancho has an apt saying for such desperate cases, A 
males graves remedios fuertes ; (great evils require strong 
remedies.) So I directed my favourite Euti to take fifty 
hussars, and to collect and bring to my quarters every 


Alcalde (mayor) who had failed to obey my orders. He 
brought thirteen! "Gentlemen," said I to them, "it 
grieves me more than I have words to express, to be 
forced, by your want of patriotism, to have recourse to 
measures of severity, at all times repugnant to my feelings, 
but peculiarly so in a war entered into in defence of your 
religion, your country, and your King ! Coolly and delibe- 
rately you appear to have made up your minds to aid and 
assist the French, by every indirect means in your power ; 
and as I cannot tolerate so pernicious a system, I am de- 
sirous that you should experience personally how very 
disagreeable it is to be reduced in point of diet to the 
lowest possible expression ; and how little can be expected 
of men or animals so treated. 

4 " Ruti," I continued, " escort these gentlemen to the 
Castle. Let each be lodged in a separate cell, and be 
furnished daily with a loaf of bread and a pitcher of water. 
Furnish them also with pen, ink, and paper for their corre- 
spondence ; and let them know, that no change will take 
place in their position till all my requisitions have been 
attended to." 

' In less than a week my magazines were full, and I 
never had any further cause of complaint.' 

We now return to the correspondence of the period, at 
an interesting moment to General Whittingham. 

On the 9th August, 1812, he had sent in his resignation 
to the English Ambassador of his Spanish command ; but 
had withdrawn it at the request of that amiable and dis- 
tinguished functionary, under whom he was serving as a 
military agent. Since then the division had established 
an honourable reputation. Yet on the 5th August, 1813, 
he once more resigned his Spanish command in disgust at 
the treatment he had received from Spanish Ministers. On 
that day he sent his resignation to the Eegency ; and the 
day following to Lord Wellington. 

On the 28th and 31st August, and on the 4th Sep- 


tember small parties of the Majorca division greatly dis- 
tinguished themselves in skirmishes ; the details of which 
are carefully preserved in Eeports numbered 1, 2, and 3. 
There is only space to record that on the 28th August, 
Captain Francisco Fernandez, of the regiment of Light 
Dragoons of Olivencia, by repeated and successful charges 
against a superior body of French horse and foot, covered 
himself with glory and put the enemy to flight. 

The following letter signed by the illustrious Com- 
mander-in Chief of the allied armies, after being carefully 
written by one of his Staff, (evidently meant to be secret 
and confidential, though not so marked) instead of as 
usually in a clerk's hand, speaks for itself: — 

The Marquis of Wellington to Major-General 


1 Lesaca, 20th September, 1813.f 

' Sir, — I have received your letter of the 6th August, 
by the Chief of the Staff of the division of troops under 
your command, who now returns with this answer. 

' I feel the utmost concern that you should think it 
necessary to retire from the Spanish service in consequence 
of the use of an expression in the correspondence between 
two ministers, which would never have reached you if the 
arrangement made with me by the Spanish Gov\ had 
been adhered to — that all reports and applications from 
the army to the Gov*, and their answer, should pass 
through my hands. 

c I must also observe, that you have mistaken my in- 

* The Editor does not know -why Colonel Gurwood left blanks in this 
letter, which was so flattering a testimony to the value of General Whit- 
tingham's services. 

t In the punctuation of this letter, Gurwood is followed j but the rest of 
it accurately copies the original now lying before the Editor, which differs 
from the letters given by Gurwood — 1st, in the order of dating ; 2nd, in 
the number of the word ' arrangement'; 3rd, in abbreviations of the word 
' Government.' 


tentions in my letter of the 8th of January, 1813. I 
stated that the funds placed in your hands by His Ma- 
jesty's Ambassador, were not to be employed in provisions, 
hospitals, or means of transport, but in the pay of the 
General and other officers and soldiers present with the 

' What I meant by ordering that the money should not 
be employed in provisions, was that it should not be em- 
ployed in the purchase of bread, to which every Spanish 
soldier has a right, besides his daily full pay, which article 
was to be found by the Spanish Gov\ ; but I understood 
then, as I now understand, that when a Spanish soldier 
receives his full pay, he is not entitled to what is called 
etape, or any other support from. Gov*., excepting bread; 
and I could not, therefore, mean that the money should 
not be laid out to supply the soldier with food necessary 
for him besides bread, according to the Ordenanzas of the 
Spanish Gov*. 

6 1 think this is sufficiently clear in my letter of the 8th 
January ; but if that letter should leave any doubt on 
that subject, the enclosed extract of a letter to General 
Sir John Murray, which I have reason to believe was 
communicated to you, and to General Eoche, will have 
shown in positive words what my opinions were. 

' The practice upon this subject has, I believe, differed 
from the regulation, and this may have fallen into disuse; 
and at all events, it may be difficult to subsist the soldier 
upon his pay. But that is a matter for representation and 
further regulation, but not for your resignation. 

' Under these circumstances, I have thought it best to 
withhold your papers till I shall hear further from you in 
answer to this letter. 

6 1 am afraid that it is not in my power to prevail on 
the Gov 1 , to promote Colonel Serrano. 

1 In regard to the other objects referred to in your letter 
of the 22nd August, as it is possible that you may alter 


your determination of retiring from the Spanish service 
in consequence of this letter, it is not necessary that I 
should consider them at present. 

' I have the honour to be, Sir, 

6 Your most obedient servant, 

< M.-General Whittingham, ' WELLINGTON. 

' &c, &c, &c.' 

As for the mistake referred to in this letter, (a mistake 
equally made by General Elio, and General the Duke del 
Parque,) that was a circumstance of comparative indif- 
ference to General Whittingham. That Lord Wellington 
felt the utmost concern at his leaving the Spanish service, 
was inducement enough to make him brave any amount 
of mortifications which continuance in that service might 


On the 9th August Lord Wellington informed Sir John 
Murray that the English Government had determined, on 
Admiral Hallowel's letter, to bring him to a court-martial. 
Later in the year, in a letter dated Reus, 25th November, 
1813, General Whittingham writes to Colonel Torrens the 
military secretary at the Horse-Guards : ' I hope Sir John 
Murray will not call on me as an evidence. It was my 
opinion and still is — and Sir John knew it all the time, — 
that we ought to have marched on the 9th against Decaen, 
— have driven him across the Llobregat, blown up the 
bridge, and returned instantly to meet Suchet, who could 
not have been at Montoblanco before the 16th. It is, and 
was my opinion, that Sir John might on a small scale have 
equalled the glory of Buonaparte at Mantua. The even- 
ing before we broke up, Sir John came to my camp, and 
told me that he had determined to march against Decaen, 
and that I should move at daylight with three of my 
battalions. I have hitherto not mentioned my opinions, 
or what passed between Sir John and me to anyone. He 
is unfortunate, and God forbid that I should appear against 
him in the light of a public accuser.' 


To his Brother-in-law. 

' Calanda, 7 th October y 1813.* 

c I have received so kind a letter from Lord Wellington, 
in which his Lordship is pleased to say that he feels the 
utmost concern at my idea of leaving the Spanish service, 
that I have determined to remain and take my chance to 
the end of the war. His Lordship has appointed me to 
a very large command of cavalry ; not less than 5,000 

c I have with me, at this place, fifteen squadrons. Our 
daily exercises have already rendered them very dex- 
terous, and I do think that another month will make 
them everything I could wish. This is the first time you 
have heard me speak with enthusiasm of the Spanish 
cavalry. I cannot, however, help feeling a considerable 
degree of pleasure at the idea of succeeding in the regene- 
ration of the Spanish cavalry, when everybody else has 
failed ! 5,000 horse, with fifteen pieces of horse artillery, 
is certainly a fine command ; and if I can make the rest 
of the cavalry as good as that which I have now with me, 
I do not doubt that the exit will be as favourable as we 
could wish. 

c If you see General Donkin in town, I pray you be 
attentive to him. He is a real friend of mine, and a good 
officer and worthy man. In my opinion, he has been very 
unfairly coupled with Sir John Murray, in the unfortunate 
affair of Tarragona ! 

fc I should be obliged to you if you would order from 
Whippy a hussar saddle complete, such as he has always 
made for me, and a hussar bridle ; the bit of which to be 
large and heavy like those used by the soldiers of the 1st 
regiment of German hussars. 

' I am grieved most deeply to be again deprived of the 
pleasure of seeing you and yours this winter. But I am 

* In this letter he announces the birth of his eldest (surviving) son. 


sure that you will agree with me, that when such a man 
as Lord Wellington condescends to express a wish, it 
must be the glory, as well as the duty, of any soldier to 
obey [him]. 

' Yours ever, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

General Whittingham was not present at the action, in 
the pass of Ordel, in which Lord William Bentinck's ad- 
vance guard under Colonel Adam (who had so distin- 
guished himself at Castalla) was attacked and forced to 
retire with the loss of four pieces of artillery. In his dis- 
patch to Field-Marshal the Marquis of Wellington dated 
Tarragona, 15th September, 1813, Lord William states: 
6 1 had not numbers equal to those which the French 
could bring against me ; I had been obliged to leave the 
division of General Whittingham at Eeus and Vals, from 
the want of provisions and means of transport.' General 
Whittingham must have been greatly mortified at his en- 
forced absence on this occasion, though he must have 
derived some consolation from learning that such of the 
Spanish troops as were present at that unfortunate affair, 
equally, with the English, distinguished themselves by 
their steadiness and gallantry. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Calanda, 10£A October, 1813. 

' The state of politics in this country is woeful. The 
Government are doing everything in their power to in- 
commode Lord Wellington. But great changes are soon 

c The Spanish cavalry has done nothing during the war. 
It is in a state of complete disorganization : immoveable 
from want of discipline and instruction ; sunk and de- 
pressed from misery and want ; accustomed to defeat, and 
almost deprived of the hope of success ! Under these cir- 


cumstances, you will readily conceive that I have not a 
moment to lose in commencing a system of organization, 
and I may say of regeneration ; which must either, on 
the trial of the effects produced, lead them and me to 
immortal glory, or plunge us one and all into the abyss 
of disgrace and dishonour ! 

' I have been for the last month at work with twelve 
squadrons. Their daily progress has exceeded my warm- 
est expectations, and I trust in God and our good cause 
that " every man will do his duty." . 

6 If, in speaking to you in the confidence of the truest 
friendship, any expression should escape me which may 
look like self-praise, do not attribute it to vanity. I cer- 
tainly believe and hope that it could not proceed from so 
poor a source. 

' The great advantage that I have hitherto had in the 
different commands which I have held in the Spanish ser- 
vice, has arisen from the study I have always made it to 
cultivate the greatest harmony and good- will amongst the 
corps, officers and soldiers, of the troops under my orders. 
I have laid it down as a system — to behave kindly to all, 
— to cultivate by every means in my power the happiness 
and comfort of officers and men ; to forgive and forget 
the errors and wanderings of youth and inexperience, and 
to punish with a severity even beyond the law everything 
which could throw the slightest blemish upon that honour 
and exaltation of sentiment, without which no soldier can 
deserve the name.* 

' The result, my dear Davis, Has been the heartfelt 
satisfaction of being idolized both by soldiers and officers ; 
and of seeing officers and soldiers of these different armies, 
all now united under my command, living together as 
one family, and without a single instance having occurred 
of the slightest dispute or disagreement. 

* This sentiment has long been carefully fostered in the Prussian army, 
and greatly contributes to its excellence. 


' On this basis I build my principal hopes of success. 
The morale of the Spanish cavalry has been destroyed by 
neglect, and I hope to raise it by being their friend and 
protector; by participating in all their hardships and 
sufferings, by providing, by every means in my power, 
for their wants and necessities, and above all by showing 
them on the day of battle, that example, without which 
all the tactics in the world are of no avail/ 

If the reader will recollect that the writer was a British 
Lieutenant-Colonel of only little more than two years' 
standing, he will not be surprised that the being entrusted 
by Lord Wellington and the Spanish Government with 
the prospective command of 5,000 cavalry, should have 
raised his hopes of being serviceable to his country and 
its allies, to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. Had the 
Peninsular war been prolonged for a couple of years, the 
example of the Majorca division might have been repeated 
on a larger scale, by the cavalry of Spain, under the orders 
of an Englishman who had gained the confidence of the 
Duke of Wellington and of the Spanish nation. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Reus,* ISth November, 1813. 

c I have this moment received your affectionate letter 
of the 2nd October, and am grieved beyond measure that 
my silence should have occasioned so much uneasiness to 
you. It was occasioned by my waiting for Lord Welling- 
ton's decision upon my resignation. With his lordship's 
flattering answer you are already acquainted. I have for 
the last two months been hard at work with the cavalry. 
The twelve squadrons, which I have sent to Saragossa, 
manoeuvre well at a gallop, and charge in a very fine 

* Here he had been left, as already explained, by Lord William Bentinck ; 
and was thus saved from sharing a repulse : which, however, it is by no 
means improbable his division might have changed into a victory, as it was 
by superior numbers that the French gained their advantage. 


style. In Calanda I have as many more to form ; and 
the whole is shortly to be increased to 5,000 — if any at- 
tention can be paid to rumours ; my future destiny is still, 
however, undecided. One report says that I am to com- 
mand all the cavalry of the right ; another, that I am to 
command a separate corps dJarmee in upper Aragon ; a 
third, that Copons goes to the Ministry of War, and that 
I am to command in chief the army of Catalonia/ 

Colonel Torrens to R. H. Davis, Esq. M.P. 

' Horse-Guards, l§th November, 1813. 

' I now return the interesting papers which you enclosed 
me in your letter of the 31st ultimo ; and I assure you that 
in those which so strongly mark the military energy and 
talents of my friend Whittingham, I have derived a satis- 
faction equally decided with the disgust and indignation 
naturally excited by a perusal of his correspondence with 
the Spanish Government. It is no wonder that such 
treatment and base insinuation should induce him to give 
in his resignation ; though, at the same time, one could 
not help regretting that he should have given way to the 
evident aim which they had in view. Now that danger 
is removed from the immediate door of the Spanish nation, 
their little jealousies will lead them to disgust, and dismiss 
if they can, every foreign officer. But I rejoice to find 
that Lord Wellington's interference has induced Whitting- 
ham to disappoint them for this time. The command 
which his Lordship has given W. is most desirable and 
flattering ; and I have no doubt but that he will derive 
great credit from it. I have also had a letter from him, 
acquainting me with this change in his destination.' 

Major-General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Reus, 25th November, 1813. 

' Lord Wellington has proposed that I shall have the 
command of about 6,000 cavalry. Nine regiments are 


already under my orders. I am ordered to reorganize 
them completely. I have already sent four regiments to 
Saragossa in a very good state of manoeuvre. Having 
now this very large command of cavalry, I have been 
obliged to mount myself with a couple of good English 
hunters ; and, I am sorry to say, they have cost me 
so much money that I fear that my affairs will be a 
little deranged by it. They have each cost me 550 

' Torrens, in a private letter of the 21st October, con- 
cludes his truly kind and affectionate epistle by saying : 
" Should you quit the Spanish service, you must be placed 
at the head of a regiment of cavalry : I have already 
mentioned this to the Duke,* who has received it most 
graciously.'' What a magnificent thing this would be 
for me ! ' 

This was a bitter subject to him afterwards. Though 
his only real English regimental service had been in the 
cavalry, yet, unfortunately, his promotions successively to 
Major and Lieutenant-Colonel had been to infantry half- 
pay. At the period in question he might have been 
transferred to the cavalry. But in later years, when 
a general officer, he could obtain only the honorary 
colonelcy of an infantry regiment, on the plea that he 
had not served in the cavalry as a field officer ! That 
was carrying routine rather far in the case of a man who 
had always served in the cavalry, English or Allied ; and 
to whom Lord Wellington had, towards the close of the 
Peninsular War, entrusted 6,000 Spanish horse for com- 
plete organization ! 

On the 23rd October, 1813, Lord Wellington writes 
to Sir Henry Wellesley : ' The Cortes have acted in 
respect of the resignation as they have on every other 

* Of York — the Commander-in-Chief. 


subject.* The delay is a matter of indifference to me ; 
and tilings may go on as they are, as long as they choose 
to delay. In the meantime the Minister of War has 
written me a most impertinent letter, of which I shall 
take no notice/ Lord Wellington adds : ' I would re- 
commend you, if you find the new Cortes act upon the 
same democratical system as the last, to quit them, and 
travel about to amuse yourself.' 

Lord Wellington had little reason to be pleased with 
the democratic government of the Cortes, which con- 
tinued most of the abuses of Old Spain, without the 
responsibility or regularity of the monarchical rule. 

It cannot, therefore, be surprising, that General Whit- S 
tingham shared the feelings of his chief; and that, though 
(unlike the latter) his antecedents were not likely to make 
him otherwise than liberal minded, he was not pleased 
with the very republican form of government now estab- 
lished in Spain ; for which that country was then, as it, is 
now, quite unfit, for want of sufficient education and 
civilization. It is necessary to take these facts into con- 
sideration, in judging of the future proceedings of General 
Whittingham in Spain ; and also to bear in mind that, as 
a foreigner in command of troops, he deemed it his duty 
to take no part whatever in any political intrigues or 
changes of government ; unless, at the request of the * 
English Ambassador, when his services were deemed 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Saragossa, 28^ December, 1813. 

' As a proof how much more easy it is to feel the 
extent of the sacrifices which one may be called on to 
make, than to carry that sentiment into execution, Lord 
Wellington himself — in spite of his admirable system 

* Lord Wellington had, in disgust, sent in his resignation of the com- 
mand of the Spanish army. 



of forbearance — sent in his formal resignation of the 
supreme command of the Spanish armies, not long since ; 
and in the discussion in the Cortes, whether it should be 
[accepted] or not, the point was only carried in his favour 
by a maj ority of four votes ! 

' He is, however, thank God ! again firmly seated ; 
and I hope and trust, that when all the members of the 
Cortes have taken their seats, we shall see a new Regency, 
and a new Ministry of War — without which, believe me, 
things cannot go on long. The cavalry under my com- 
mand is composed of nine regiments. The division of 
Majorca is under my command as before. The artillery 
fifteen pieces, horse. 

i The Inspector-General of Cavalry wrote to me the 
other day, to say that I might consider myself as possess- 
ing all his powers ; and that I had nothing to do but to 
propose whatever arrangements might appear to me good, 
in the certainty that they would be approved of by him. 
The Inspector [General] wished to have placed all the 
cavalry in the kingdom under my orders ; and he did me 
the honour to assure Lord Wellington that the only cavalry 
worthy of the name would be that which I should form ! 

' May I hope that these flattering circumstances will 
aid and assist my anxious desire to be placed at the head 
of a British regiment of cavalry ? * Several officers of no 
great interest have lately been put at the head of cavalry 

regiments at home. M , of the 13th, has got the 

Inniskilling Dragoons. 

' You would be delighted to see how extremely well 
eighteen of my squadrons manoeuvre. I am fearful to 
say all I think of them. But I doubt whether I have 
seen anything better in any country. I cannot tell you 
what Lord Wellington means to do with my cavalry. I 
hope to God he will attach it to his army. It is really 
good. I am capitally mounted, though half ruined with 

* As Lieutenant-Colonel commanding. 


the expense. I have now seven nags fit for the field. 
The harmony and union which reign in all the corps of 
cavalry under my command is the admiration of all ! I 
shall write to Lord Wellington to request that he will 
allow me to send an officer to England for the clothing. 

; Torrens has already made me an effective Lieutenant- 
Colonel from the 30th May, 1811.* 

6 1 have been elected a member of the Koyal Academy 
of Arts and Sciences of San Luis, established in this 
town ; and the flattering distinctions that I have received 
here are beyond description. My route to and from the 
Sunday parades appears more like a Eoman triumph than 
anything else ; and the whole population of Saragossa 
appear to vie one with another in doing me honour ! 
Yet in the midst of all the brilliancy of parade and dis- 
tinction, my heart beats to return to the scenes of love 
and affection which await me in your beloved society ; 
and the happiness I enjoy is only the anticipation of the 
blessings which await me at home ! ' — ■ — 

Alas ! for the enthusiastic pride and hopes of the 
warrior. At length he had obtained a rank and position, 
and a command sufficiently large to give him sanguine 
hopes of being able to serve his country (through its 
allies) on a larger scale and in a more effectual manner 
than ever. But peace was rapidly approaching, and with 
it was to disappear the last chance of the re-establishing 
in the field the lost character of the Spanish cavalry. 
'Tis not in mortals to command complete success ; but it 
is at least something to have deserved it, not only by the 
testimony of his own conscience, but by the approval of 
that great and fortunate man who, besides securing his 
own renown, had acquired authority to stamp deserving 
merit with the seal of his invaluable and durable recog- 

* An effective infantry Lieutenant-Colonelcy, being a matter of rejoicing 
to a General commanding 6,000 horse, forms here an amusing incident. 





spanish promotions — a prayer not heard — lord wellington's 
fears regarding spain — reception of ferdinand vii. at saragossa 
— a triumphant entry — constitution unpopular in spain — the 
king requests gen. w. to accompany him to valencia — the 
royal present — arrests — i the majesty that doth hedge a 
king' — the king and don carlos's flattering request— the 
duke's testimony to the merits and services of general whit- 
tingham — his conversation with the duke — unpopularity of 
king ferdinand in england — appointed aide-de-camp to the 
prince regent — promotion to lieut. -general in spain — sir john 
Murray's court-martial — sir henry wellesley recommends 
general whittingham to viscount castlereagh — the earl op 
fife's letter — marshal suchet's opinion of whittingham — 
inquisition established in spain — spanish finances — sir john 
Murray's trial — unlucky 'buts' — general mina's rebellion — 
recollections of king ferdinand — triumphal royal route — the 
king and the constitution — royal thanks — general whitting- 
ham commanded to continue with his majesty — general zayas 
sounds general whittingham — his opinion not approved — 
arrests — march on madrid — cavalry field-day — lieutenant- 
generalship conferred by the king — ministry of war opfeked 
! — declined after reference— takes leave of the king and don 


To his Brother-in-law. 

' Alumnia, 12th February, 1814. 

c Convinced that pence must soon take place, I am 
doubly anxious to secure at home such a situation as 
may enable me to live amongst my best and dearest 
friends, with the respectability which I conceive neces- 
sary, after the command which I have held in this 

6 In my campaigns in this country I have the singular 
satisfaction to be able to state that all my [Spanish] com- 


missions have been gained in the field of battle ; and 
have been granted to me as a reward of service, without 
the slightest intervention on the part of any person. In 
[the case of] Baylen, I was made effective colonel of 
cavalry. In Mora and Consuegra,* brigadier. In Tala- 
vera, Mariscal de Campo. Still, however, I long to 
return to the service of my own country ; and I would 
not hesitate a moment between being a British Colonel, 
or a Lieu tenant-General in any other service. If, how- 
ever, circumstances should render this impossible, I must, 
I fear, give up those hopes which have ever been most 
cherished by my heart ; and continue my services here. 

6 1 confess to you that I have not the best opinion of 
the future state of things in this country. I enclose a 
gazette containing the peace treated of by Buonaparte 
and Ferdinand the Seventh ; and the decree of the Cortes 
in consequence. We expect the King to return here 
soon. It is not easy to imagine what Buonaparte's 
motives can be for sending him. I fear much that dis- 
putes will occur between the King and the Cortes, which 
may lead to a civil war ; or at least to differences, which 
the Corsican may know too well how to avail himself of. 
All will depend upon the class of men in whom the King 
may place his confidence, God grant that he may choose 
well ! f 

'I enclose also another gazette of a review of my 
fourteen squadrons of cavalry, and of one of artillery 
given by me to the authorities of Saragossa.' 

To the Same. 

1 Saragossa, 20th March, 1814. 

' Nothing can be more grievous than the uncertainty 
and delay of our correspondence ! I [only] yesterday 
received your letter of the 31st January ! 

* No accounts of the combat of Consuegra have reached the Editor's 
hands. It was one of Alburquerque's successful actions, 
t This prayer was not heard. 


' I enclose the state papers which have been published 
here relative to the mission of the Duke of San Carlos.* 

' In this country I have no idea of remaining. The 
republican party is every day gaining ground ; and civil 
war must ultimately decide the contest. 

'Lord Wellington is finally arranging the form and 
number of the Spanish armies. This will determine 
when and how, and where I am to be employed. In the 
mean time my cavalry continues to improve and is very 
fit for any service.' f 

Lord Wellington writing; to his brother the Ambas- 
sador on the 22nd March, 1814, says : 'lam very much 
afraid that the real mischief is only now beginning in 
Spain. I was always certain that the conduct of the 
people of Madrid towards the Cortes would, after a short 
time, be the same as that of the people of Cadiz. No 
popular assembly can exist if it opens its galleries under 
any other system than that in use in England, unless the 
press is restrained. I heard at Tarbes the other day that 
the King had passed Toulouse on his return to Spain. 
Again on the 27th March, Lord Wellington writes : 'You 
will have heard that King Ferdinand passed Toulouse on 
the 18th on his way to Spain.' 

On the 30th April from Toulouse Lord Wellington 
writes to his brother : ' I shall be very anxious to hear 
of the King's decision and conduct in regard to the 

Major- General Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Madrid, 21st May, 1814. 

' I enclose copies of all the official papers which have 
passed relative to my march here ; and I shall now at- 

* Friend of, and Minister to, Ferdinand VII. 

t By a Return of 1st April, 1814, in Spanish, General Whittingham's 
force at Saragossa consisted of nine regiments of infantry, eleven regiments 
of cavalry, and 18 pieces of horse-artillery : a large command for a British 
Lie ut. -Colonel. — Vide Appendix B. 


tempt to give you some idea of what took place from the 
time of my going to meet the King in upper Aragon. 

' On the 12th of March, we received advice at Sara- 
gossa, that the King had determined upon taking that 
route, instead of going direct to Valencia ; and that he 
would be at Seville on the following day. I immediately 
pushed on about 300 dragoons ; with orders to station 
themselves by troops on the route, and to advance as far 
as possible ; and myself taking post * set off immediately 

in the same direction. I met the King at f , where 

my cavalry relieved that of the first army. 

' As soon as I approached the King's carriage, His 
Majesty said to me ' Como va? 7 tempo ha que tenemos 
mucha gana de conocerte. y % From that day, I received 
the most marked attention from His Majesty, and the 
Prince, Don Carlos. The King's entrance into Saragossa, 
and, in short, into all the towns of Aragon, was such a 
triumph, as it is impossible to express, and not easy to 
conceive, except by those who witnessed those happy 
scenes. But if the marks of joy and exultation were 
strong beyond measure at the King's return, the expres- 
sions of dislike and detestation of the Constitution were 
not less general and strong : and His Majesty, from his 
entrance into Aragon till his arrival at Madrid, never 
heard any language that could induce him for a moment 
to believe that the Constitution had merited the approba- 
tion of his subjects. Nor is this to be wondered at. In 
the fury of their republican zeal, the rulers of the Cortes 
had attacked, openly and in the most violent manner, the 
nobility, the clergy, and the army; and consequently 
had made the whole of these respectable classes their 

* Travelling post by relays of horses was then the mode of quick travel- 
ling in Spain. 

t At the moment of writing, he appears to have forgotten the name of 
the place (perhaps a small village) where he met the King. 

t ' How do you do ? For a long time we have much desired to know 
you. 1 


enemies. They had also, in the plenitude of their finan- 
cial ignorance, done away with all the old duties, and 
revenues of Spain ; and established, in stead, what they 
called ' la contribution unica y directa ' ; a tax exactly 
similar to our income tax. You will recollect with what 
reluctance this tax was admitted in England, although 
it was only to meet a small part of our expenditure, 
and although England from her commerce, interior and 
exterior, has so large a circulating medium, that dis- 
bursements must be to her, compared with Spain, of 
little burthen ! You will easily, therefore, conceive the 
effect of such a tax on the Spanish peasantry,* and to 
an extent sufficient to meet the whole expenditure of 

' The mind of the Spanish nation was in a state of 
ferment ; and the presence of the King produced an im- 
mediate explosion. 

' Had the King found the nation in general attached 
to the new Constitution, he would undoubtedly have 
sworn to it. But never was a national opinion more 
decidedly, or more openly pronounced. Not a shadow 
of doubt could remain upon the King's mind. 

' The King staid four days at Saragossa ; reviewed my 
cavalry ; and was pleased to say everything that was 
kind and flattering. I accompanied him, with relays of 
troops, as far as the frontier of Aragon, where I met my 
Commander-in-Chief, General Elio. On my approaching 
the King to take leave, he said ' No te vayas. Tengo 
mucho gusto en que me accowpanes. Ven conmigo a 
Valencia.' f 

6 At Valencia, I remained two days, and on taking 

* It appears that in Spain, no income, however small, escaped the tax in 
question — a law that would never be tolerated in England. 

t His brother-in-law being a good Spanish scholar, the original alone is 
in the letter. His Majesty said, ' Don't go. I have much pleasure in your 
accompanying me. Come with me to Valencia.' 


leave, the King made me a present of a beautiful mosaic 
snuff-box, which he desired me to keep in remembrance 
of him.* 

c The remainder of the details of my march you will 
be perfectly acquainted with by the enclosed official 
correspondence. Many of the leading people were ar- 
rested the night before the King arrived at Madrid, by 
the Captain-General Eguia, and there is no longer a 
shadow of doubt, from the republican papers that have 
been seized, and the secret correspondence with France, 
that had the King sworn to the Constitution, he would 
have gone to the scaffold in less than six months.' 

From this letter, a great deal in praise of King Ferdi- 
nand has been here omitted, as General Whittingham at 
a later period reluctantly discovered that the amiable and 
plausible but fickle and weak-minded prince was very 
far from being the promising Sovereign he had mistaken 
him for in the first excitement of His Majesty's return to 
his loving and enthusiastic subjects, for such were at that 
time the great masses of the Spanish nation. Shakspeare 
confesses that there is i a Majesty that doth hedge a 
King,' but a King smiling, flattering, grateful, plausible, 
affable, is surrounded by a double hedge of Majesty. No 
wonder that for a time the Englishman in his service 
should have imbibed a personal partiality for a Sovereign, 
who on his part displayed so flattering an appreciation of 
his foreign General, f 

* This box Sir Sainford, some nine or ten years later, gave to bis beloved 
and respected friend, the Hon. Sir Edward Paget. This not very valuable 
gift was all Sir Samford ever received from King Ferdinand. 

t If General Whittingham erred in his opinion of King Ferdinand, and 
of his popularity at this time in Spain, he erred in good company. In a 
letter dated ' Madrid, 25th May, 1814,' and addressed to Sir Charles Stuart, 
the Duke of Wellington writes, f you will have heard of the extraordinary 
occurrences here, though not probably with surprise. Nothing can be more 
popular than the King and his measures, as far as they have gone to the over- 
throw of the Constitution. The imprisonment of the Liberates is thought by 
some, I believe with justice, unnecessary, and it is certainly highly impolitic ; 


To his Brother-in-law. 

< Madkid, 23rd May, 1814. 

' The King of Spain continues to distinguish me by 
every possible mark of attention. I expect daily the 
commission of Lieutenant-General. 

c The King and the Infante Don Carlos, are anxious that 
I should remain in their service : but they know not of 
what materials my heart is composed, and that I prefer 
the love of my best and dearest friends to all the glory in 
the world !' 

Lieutenant-Colonel Whittingham, for he now usually 
reverts to his British rank, determined to return to Eng- 
land ; but before leaving he desired to obtain from the 
great Duke, c never prodigal of praise, some more decided 
opinion as to the merits of his services in Spain than 
was to be gathered from the many strong but indirect 
proofs of confidence which had been hitherto vouchsafed 
to him. 

The result was the following letter, and, considering 
the character of the illustrious writer, a more comprehen- 
sive testimonial can scarcely be imagined, than the words 
now placed in italics : — 

The Duke of Wellington to His Royal Highness the Duke 

of York. 

i Madrid, 4th June, 1814. 

4 Sir, — Colonel Wliittingham (Mariscal de Campo,* in 
the service of Spain) having informed me that it would 

but it is liked by the people at large.' In the same letter the Duke writes, 
i I entertain a very favourable opinion of the King, from what I have seen of 
him, but not of his Ministers.' — Wellington Dispatches, vol. xii. p. 27. 

* Had this letter been delayed a little longer, instead of i Mariscal de 
Campo ' (that is Major-General), the Spanish rank would have been Lieu- 
tenant-General, that is the highest ; for Captain- General was (then at least 
if not now) rather an appointment than a rank, and for it all Lieutenant- 
Generals were eligible. 


be necessary for hhn to return to England in a short time, 
and having expressed a desire that I should lay before 
your Eoyal Highness my sense of his services and merits, 
I beg leave to inform your Eoyal Highness, that he has 
served most zealously and gallantly from the commencement 
of the war in the Peninsula ; and that I have had every 
reason to be satisfied with his conduct in every situation in 
which he has been placed. 

'I have the honour to be, &c. 

' Wellington.' 

1 His Royal HighneSvS the Duke of York. 7 

His Grace probably styled Lieutenant-Colonel Whit- 
tingham, Colonel by courtesy, but he may have known 
that on that very day, the ' London Gazette ' was pub- 
lishing his promotion. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Madrid, <Uh June, 1814. 

6 1 have had a long and very satisfactory conversation 
with the Duke of Wellington. He is decidedly of opinion 
that I should by no means think of giving up the British 
service, although he believes that there will be no ob- 
jection to my continuing in this part for the moment. He 
has promised to speak to the Duke [of York] upon the 
subject of my commission being dated in the year [180]9, 
which he seems to think may be done with perfect pro- 
priety. He also gave me a letter of recommendation to 
H.E.H. the Duke, " although " as he kindly said " that 
will not prevent my speaking to H.E.H. as I shall see him 
before you." 

'Castaiios has given me a letter to General Gordon, 
reminding him of the King's [George IH.] promise, and 
begging him to submit my case to H.M.'s consideration. 
I hope also to obtain from the King of Spain a strong 
letter of recommendation to the Prince Eegent.' 


Meantime, the conduct of the King of Spain had made 
him very unpopular in England, and that unpopularity 
was destined later to extend to General Whittingham, as 
if he could have in any way interfered in the political 
government of Spain, or had the least authority for so 

The Duke of Wellington wrote from London, (20th 
July, 1814), to Sir Henry Wellesley. ' It is not easy to 
describe the unpopularity attached to the King's name, 
from the occurrences at his return to Madrid. The news- 
papers afford some specimens of it : but at a late dinner 
at Guildhall, I recommended to the Lord Mayor to drink 
the King of Spain's health, and he told me that he was 
become so unpopular in the city, he was afraid that, if the 
toast were not positively refused, it would at least be re- 
ceived with so much disgust as to render it very disagree- 
able to me and to every well wisher to the Spanish 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Madrid, 8th June, 1814. 

4 1 march this evening to Alcala, where I have directed 
sixteen squadrons of cavalry, and one of horse-artillery, 
to assemble. They are to manoeuvre under my direction, 
fifteen or twenty days previously to their being seen by 
His Majesty. This will occasion a small delay in my 
return home/ 

To the Same. 

1 Madrid, 1st July, 1814 

6 I have seen by the Gazette [of the 4th June] that 1 
have had the high and distinguished honour to be ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to his Eoyal Highness the Prince 
of Wales ! It would be indeed difficult to express my 
feelings on this occasion. 


< The King of Spain has promoted me to the rank of 
Lieutenant-General ;* and [H.M.] assured me the other 
day, in a manner truly affecting from its kindness, that 
nothing could grieve him more profoundly than my 
quitting his service ; an event which he hoped and trusted 
would never take place.' 

To the Same. 

i Madrid, 14th July, 1814. 

c My dear Davis, — This night I begin my march for 
Bourdeaux, through Saragossa. 

c I had scarcely taken the pen in my hand, when I 
received an official summons to attend Sir John Murray's 
court-martial at Tarragona. This will create a consider- 
able delay. Mrs. W. will remain at Saragossa ; and I 
shall proceed on to Catalonia. I have written to you 
fully, under cover to Torrens, a few days since. I send 
this to Bilboa. 

' Yours ever most truly, 

c Samford Whittingham.' 

Before leaving Madrid, the English Ambassador added 
his testimony to the services of General Whittingham, 
entering into more details than his illustrious brother had 
done : — 

Sir Henry Wellesley to Viscount Castlereagh. 

< Madrid, 22nd July, 1814. 

' My Lord, — Lieutenant-General Whittingham being 
about to embark for England, I have taken the liberty of 
giving him this letter of introduction to your Lordship. 

' The services of General Whittingham, from the period 
of the breaking out of the general war against France, 
have obtained for him the approbation of his Boyal 
Highness the Prince Begent, as well as that of the 

* This commission as Lieut. -General was dated 16th June, 1814. 


Spanish Government. He was with General Castafios, as 
a military agent at the battle of Baylen ; and, in the fol- 
lowing campaign, was severely wounded at the battle of 
Talavera, while leading a Spanish corps into action. 

' During the period of his residence at Cadiz, he was 
employed in the formation of a corps of cavalry : and he 
afterwards formed the division, which, under his orders, 
behaved with the greatest gallantry at the battle of Cas- 
talla ; where it repulsed the attack of nearly the whole 
of Suchet's corps, and where General Whittingham was 
again wounded.* 

c I have before informed your Lordship that General 
Whittingham had the good fortune to receive the King 
at Saragossa, at the head of a division of cavalry, of 
which he undertook the formation, at the desire of the 
Duke of Wellington. This division has since been re- 
viewed at Madrid by the King, and was so highly ap- 
proved by His Majesty, that immediately after the review 
he conferred upon General Whittingham the rank of 

' I have thought it my duty to mention these circum- 
stances, so honourable to an officer whose conduct during 
his employment in Spain has entitled him to general 
respect and esteem. 

' I have, &c, 

' H. Wellesley.' 

The following letter, as being also a testimonial to 
General f Whittingham's services, equally flattering, is 
here inserted a little out of its place, to complete the 
estimate of his military services at this period : — 

* It was at Concentayna (an action that took place a little before that of 
Castalla) that General Whittingham was the second time wounded in the 
face. The Editor can find no record of his having been hit at Castalla. 

t Whilst he was still in Spain, in spite of the peace, English as well as 
Spaniards still called him General ; but on the part of the English this was 
now only by courtesy. 


The Earl of Fife to General Whittingham. 

1 Paris, 31st December, 1814. 

; My dear Whittingham, — As you know my friendship 
for you, and everyone who served in Spain is aware of 
the great regard and high opinion I always entertained 
of you, it will not be surprising when I inform you how 
much pleasure I had in hearing your praises from the 
highest authority, concerning your conduct in the last two 

4 1 was particularly anxious to know from the French 
officers who had served in that part of Spain where you 
were latterly employed, their opinion of your merits 
and exertions ; and, believe me, yourself, or your 
warmest friends, could not have wished more favourable 

' The Duke of Albufera, Marshal Suchet, spoke to me 
a long time about you, and told me that he was sur- 
prised at the perfection you had brought your division 
to, and that they were in as high a military state as any 
of his own troops, and, he believed, as any other sol- 
diers in Europe ; that he had had frequent occasion to 
admire your conduct in the field ; and his opinion of you 
was that of a most meritorious officer. 

' I was witness to a great part of your exertions in the 
cause, and was aware what difficulties on all sides you 
had to encounter. Nothing can be more satisfactory 
than the result ; and I most heartily congratulate you, 
on your having so steadily persevered in a contest which 
has gained you a reputation even among your former 
enemies, of an excellent officer. With every good wish, 
believe me, my dear Whittingham, 

4 Your very sincere friend, 


* See Preface, for Lord Fife's letter to the Editor, (in confirmation of the 
above testimony,) in 1845. 


Such a letter, written by one of the bravest of English- 
men, who courted danger as a volunteer, almost for its 
own sake, is valuable in itself ; but as conveying also the 
more important approval of one of Napoleon's cleverest 
Marshals, it must ever be treasured by the descendants 
of General Whittingham, as an invaluable testimony to 
his merits and exertions ; second only to the compre- 
hensive certificate of the Duke of Wellington. 

To Major-General Sir Henry Torrens* 


1 Saragossa, 2nd August, 1814. 

' My dear Torrens, — Your letter of the 12th [ultimo] 
I received here on the 21st July ; and am most parti- 
cularly obliged for the leave you have obtained of His 
Eoyal Highness the Prince Eegent, and His Eoyal High- 
ness the Commander-in-Chief, [for me] to continue my 
services in this country. 

' I had come thus far on my route to Tarragona, to 
attend the court-martial of Sir John Murray ; but on my 
arrival at this town, I received intimation that it would 
not take place at Tarragona, but was transferred to 

c Previous to the return of my division of Cavalry to 
Aragon, we had a field-day before the King, [at Madrid] 
who was pleased to express his highest satisfaction. Im- 
mediately after the review His Majesty said to me, " In 
proof of how much I esteem you, and how highly 
penetrated I am with [a sense of] your merit, you 
will receive to-morrow the commission of Lieutenant- 

' When I waited upon His Majesty to inform him of 
the honour His Eoyal Highness the Prince Eegent had 

* All extracts from letters, where the writers are not named, are from the 
letters of General Whittingham. 


been pleased to confer upon me, and to ask leave to re- 
turn to England for eight or twelve months, His Majesty 
expressed much satisfaction at my appointment. At the 
same time he did me the honour to say, " I hope that 
you do not mean to quit my service. Be assured it would 
be a matter of great grief to me that you should do so." 

' Many things have taken place since the arrival of 
His Majesty at Madrid which will, I fear, produce much 
discontent ; and most particularly the re-establishment of 
the Inquisition! The army at least has received this 
[measure] with decided disapprobation. 

c The question of the Inquisition was long and warmly 
disputed. The Duke of San Carlos ; Macanar, Minister 
of Gracia and Justicia ; Lardizaval, Minister of [the] 
Indies ; Escoiquez, the priest who accompanied the 
King to France ; were decidedly against it : and His 
Majesty had said that he would take no determination 
till the reunion of the Cortes, when he would submit 
the question to their decision. But the weight of 
influence of the Infante Don Antonio ; of Ostalara 
confessor to the Infante Don Carlos ; of the Minister of 
War, Eguia ; of the Marquis of Palacio ; and the repre- 
sentations in favour of its re-establishment, of very many 
towns ; at length prevailed, and the King was induced to 
reauthorize a tribunal of secret despotism, and to legalize 
tyranny of the worst class. 

' The greatest, or at least the most pressing evil, how- 
ever, which affects this country is the deranged state of 
the finances. 

' Under these circumstances, His Majesty ascended the 
throne ; and although orders were given to do away 
[with] the income tax, and to re-establish the old duties, 
yet a very considerable time must elapse before any bene- 
ficial consequences can be expected/ * 

* These details having been mentioned in a previous letter, are not re- 
peated in this extract. 



As in his letter to his brother-in-law, so in his letter to 
Sir Henry Torrens, his personal attachment and partiality 
to King Ferdinand, is very conspicuous. That plausible 
and personally popular monarch, by his gracious smiles 
and by his really friendly appreciation of the Englishman 
who had served him so well, had thrown a temporary 
veil over his real character and vices ; which after all 
were those of a weak and timid, rather than of a de- 
praved and wicked nature. 

To Sir Henry Torrens. 


' Saragossa, 30th September, 1814. 

c My dear Torrens, — I was on the point of beginning 
my journey to England to appear as a witness on the 
trial of Sir John Murray, when I received a letter from 
Sir John, dated Barcelona, stating that he was still in 
hopes, in consequence of his representations, that the 
trial would take place in Catalonia ; and requesting that I 
would await at Saragossa the final determination of 
H.E.H. the Eegent. I have now received a letter from 
him saying that he has received the final answer, and 
that the trial is to take place in London, to which place 
he returns by land to France/ 

' As Sir John travels through France with his own 
horses and carriage, I hope to be in England as soon as 
he can. At all events, the difference cannot be great. 

6 Could I have avoided quitting Spain at this moment, I 
have been given to understand, I should have been ap- 
pointed Inspector-General of Cavalry. But these unlucky 
huts must at times happen to all men. 

; General Mina, on receiving the order of the Govern- 
ment to deliver up the command of his troops to the 
Captain-General of Aragon, Palafox, has refused to obey, 
and is at present in open rebellion. He has, however, 


few followers : most of his battalions have come over to 
the Captain-General. He still, however, keeps the field 
between this and Pampeluna. In the present instance, it 
would not be possible for me to take that route to Eng-« 
land. I trust, however, that a few days will put an end 
to his wild enterprise/ 

The following account of Ferdinand the Seventh's 
return to his kingdom is taken from the often quoted 
' Eecollections,' and is confirmed by the letters written at 
the period in question. 

' Upon the King's return to Spain, I advanced to the 
frontier of Aragon to meet him, distributing a sufficient 
force of Cavalry to form His Majesty's escort on the road, 
and to furnish his guard at night. 

' The charge of the King's person, as well as of his 
brother Don Carlos, and of his uncle Don Antonio, was 
made over to me on the frontier of Aragon, by General 
Copons, then commanding in Catalonia. My reception by 
His Majesty and the Eoyal family was infinitely gracious 
and most flattering. Our marches were twenty or thirty 
miles a day. The coach or rather landau in which H.M. 
travelled was English built. The roads were tolerably 
good, and the royal party suffered little or no fatigue. I 
rode always at the side of the carriage, and we generally 
arrived at our resting-place between three and four in the 
afternoon, having started at about half-past nine. I always 
dined with the King during the inarch, and the whole 
route was one continued scene of triumph. I never saw 
such a wild expression of joy as the Spanish people uni- 
versally gave way to on the return of their King from 
his infamous captivity. His Majesty, during the journey, 
was constantly occupied in studying the Constitution which 
he was required to swear to. 

' As I rode close to the side of his carriage, he often 
entered into conversation with me. One day he said, 

B 2 


" Santiago, you will hardly imagine what book I am 
reading. It is the new Spanish Constitution, formed and 
published by the Cortes during my absence. I find much 
that is good in it, but also many things quite inadmissible. 
Notwithstanding, if the refusal of my sanction is to cost 
one drop of Spanish blood, I will swear to it to-morrow." * 

' Such were then the sentiments of .Ferdinand. His 
Majesty remained three days at Saragossa, and did me the 
honour to inspect the two thousand cavalry and sixteen 
pieces of artillery, at my head-quarters. I commanded 
the field-day. We manoeuvred in two lines : and I did 
everything in my power to give it the appearance of a real 
action. The King was quite enchanted, and thanked me 
most warmly for all the services that I had rendered him 
dming his absence. 

' On arriving at the frontier of Aragon, I dismounted, 
and requested His Majesty's orders, previously to making 
over the charge of his royal person to General Elio, who 
commanded in Valencia. " I desire," said His Majesty to 
me, "that you accompany me to Valencia. I am much 
pleased with you, and you must come on with me." 

' At Valencia, the plot began to thicken, [General] 
Elio was a violent ultra-royalist ; and was too well sup- 
ported by a host of fanatical priests and grandees ; and 
hence the first false impressions were made on the King's 

' General Zayas was sent to sound me : for the Gene- 
ral commanding so large a body of cavalry and horse- 
artillery was too important a person to be neglected at 
such a crisis. " If," said I to Zayas, " you are sent by 
order of His Majesty to obtain my real opinion upon the 
present state of affairs, I shall be happy to submit them 
frankly and fully, for I conceive the measures now to be 

* Lo jurare mafiana. — In the ' Recollections' all the royal speeches and his 
own answers are given in the original Spanish, followed by the English 


adopted of infinite importance to the well-being of His 
Majesty and of the Spanish Nation. 

c " In my opinion, there is much that is good in the 
new Constitution ; but as there is also much which re- 
quires to be modified, it is not in His Majesty's power to 
swear to it in its present form ; especially, on account of 
the article which requires His Majesty to swear that no 
change, alteration, or modification shall take place for 
eight years. 

' " Still, however, it must be kept in mind, that the 
Cortes have rendered the royal cause good service ; and 
that they deserve the gratitude of the King and of the 
Spanish Nation. On his arrival at Madrid, I humbly 
conceive, His Majesty should in person thank the Cortes 
for all their good services, and express his intention to 
invoke the ancient Cortes of Spain, for their opinion 
and advice ; and having thus announced his royal will, 
that His Majesty should forthwith dissolve the present 

' It would seem that my opinions were not approved 
of; for, the next clay, I received orders to return to 
Saragossa, with the escort which I had furnished for the 
King's guard, and there to await further orders. 

6 In the meantime, orders were despatched to Gene- 
ral Eguia, at Madrid, to arrest a number of the leading 
members of the liberal party ; and the charge of the 
King's person was made over to General Elio. 

' A few days after my arrival at Saragossa, I received 
orders to march upon Madrid with the cavalry and 
horse-artillery under my orders. On my arrival at 
Guadalaxara, I was directed to halt until further orders ; 
and I did not enter the capital till the morning of the 
King's entrance ; and then only to line the streets in 
parade order. The arrests had all taken place several 
days before. 

' Nothing can give a true picture of the enthusiastic 


joy manifested by the people of Madrid, on seeing their 
beloved sovereign once again amongst them. A young 
and handsome manola came close to the head of my 
charger, and shouted with a most audible voice, "May'st 
thou be blessed, Ferdinand of my soul ; Thou shalt be an 
absolute King, and thou shalt always do whatever may 
be thy royal pleasure ; and if it be thy will to tread us 
under thy royal feet, thy will and pleasure shall be our 
only law ! " 

' This anecdote brings to my mind a circumstance, 
which occurred during my march from Saragossa to the 
frontier of Aragon, to meet the King. I had received 
my billet in the house of a most respectable yeoman, and 
after supper, he stated his utter incapacity to comprehend 
the meaning of the doubts and difficulties which seemed 
to be generally felt. " Whilst the master was absent," 
said he, " I understand very well that his head servants* 
must act in his name ; but now that the master has 
returned home, what have the servants to do but to obey 
his orders ? " 

; As soon as the King had entered the palace [at 
Madrid], the troops were dismissed ; and I retired to my 
lodgings. A few days afterwards, I had the honour of 
giving His Majesty a field-day of the cavalry and horse- 
artillery, which so highly pleased him that he made me a 
Lieutenant-General on the field. f 

4 My favour at court was every day increasing ; and 
I had it in my power to be of service to Sir Henry 
Wellesley, as he has been pleased to state in his letter to 
Lord Castlereagh. But Tatischeff, the Eussian Minister, 
was too cunning for the straightforward dealing of 
English diplomatists ; and he obtained from Ferdinand 

* ' Los criados de confianza.' 

t From the correspondence of the period it would appear that King Fer- 
dinand only took that graceful occasion to announce the l^vard already 
intended for his services. 


the Toison cFor, which had been refused to Sir Henry 

6 At this time I spent almost every evening, from eight 
till ten, in the King's private apartment. The Queen 
often joined us ; and conversation was as free and as 
general as could have been the case in the house of any 
private gentleman. His Majesty never took offence at 
anything that I said. " I cannot comprehend," said I 
to him one evening, " the interest which your Majesty 
takes in the affairs of Russia ! Your respective coun- 
tries are placed in the opposite extremes of Europe ; 
and they have not, nor ever can have, any community of 
interests. On the other hand, England offers to your 
Majesty her most advantageous friendship, which you 
appear to despise." " What an excellent Englishman 
thou art, Santiago ! " said the King ; " would to God all 
my subjects were as good Spaniards ! " 

c Some time afterwards,* His Majesty proposed to 
make me his Minister of War. I submitted the proposal 
to Sir Henry Wellesley ; and he referred it to Lord 
Castlereagh, who declared its acceptance to be in- 
compatible with the duties of a British officer; and 
particularly with those of an aide-de-camp of the King 
of England. 

' Shortly after this, I announced to the King my inten- 
tion of returning to England. His Majesty and the In- 
fante Don Antonio were full of expressions of grief at 
my departure ; and the King was pleased to say, 
u Santiago, tell me what you wish, and on condition that 
you do not leave me, there is nothing in my power that 
I will not do to please you."f But the day of con- 
fidence was passed ; and I could not make up my mind 

* This may mean any time between 1815 and 1819 that he passed in 


t " Santiago, dime lo que deseas, y con tal que no te vayas y te quedes 
en mi servicio ; no hay cosa en mi poder que no harepor complacerte." 


to give up friends and country, on so unstable a base 
as the caprice of a weak mind. I pledged myself, how- 
ever, to return to Spain, should His Majesty call for my 

They were destined to meet again ; but the history of 
that reunion must be deferred for a time, and form part 
of the following Chapter. 




sir john Murray's trial — sentence of admonishment not car- 






At the commencement of 1815, Colonel Whittingham for 
the second time in his life had to perform the disagreeable 
duty of giving evidence on the court-martial of a Com- 
mander under whom he had served. But in the case of 
Sir John Murray, Baronet, his task was light compared to 
what it had been on the trial of General Whitelocke in 

Lieut. -General Sir John Murray was tried by a court- 
martial that sat in London from the 16th January to the 
7th February. He was tried (for his conduct in June 
1813) on three charges ; the first implying imprudence 
in his plans ; and the second, disobedience of orders. 
But of both these charges he was fully and honourably 
acquitted. The third and last charge was for his hasty 
embarkation after raising the siege of Tarragona, although 
no enemy was near ; whereby he unnecessarily lost guns 
and stores. He was found guilty of ; an error of judg- 
ment ' * in regard to these losses, as specified in a part of 
the last charge ; and he was sentenced to be admonished. 
But the Prince Eegent thought it needless to admonish 
for an error of judgment, and the result was a virtual 

Soon after this trial, General Whittingham, (for so he 
was styled on this occasion) became the object of a par- 
liamentary calumny, which might be termed atrocious, 
had it not been too ridiculous to merit so strong a de- 
nunciation ; and he sent to his friend, Sir Henry Torrens, 
a Bristol newspaper, giving an account of an exciting 
scene in the House of Commons, in fuller details than 
were inserted in the London press. 

It is needless to reproduce the details of this calumny. 
It is sufficient to say that Mr. Whitbread in fact argued 
as if General Whittingham f were responsible for all the 

* Uis errors in judgment were numerous, but Lord Wellington acknow- 
ledged his abilities, and he was otherwise a worthy man. 

f As his services for the greater part of the war had been per- 


pecuniary assistance which the English Ambassador, and 
the English Commander-in-Chief had, witli the consent of 
the English Government, given to their Spanish allies! 
But not satisfied with this absurdity, he was not ashamed, 
in the hope of shaking a ministry, to accuse an English 
officer of distinction of having received more than 50,000/. 
as a bribe to place Ferdinand VII. on a despotic throne ; 
the fact being that the accused officer had lately returned 
to England a far poorer man than when he had left it ; 
having spent a considerable part of his private patrimony 
on his commissions and in the public service ! But the 
waves of party spirit then ran mountains high ; and even 
the great Duke himself did not escape their fury ; as he 
has recorded in his immortal ( Dispatches.' 

Mr. Hart Davis, member for Bristol, the affectionate 
brother-in-law of the calumniated General, a man of high 
character, naturally retorted with spirit on the privileged 
calumniator, and a duel appeared imminent. The affair 
is thus recorded by the Bristol journal. [After Mr. 
Whitbread's motion had been made and rejected.] ' The 
House had proceeded to the order of the day, when the 
gentlemen above named retired. The speaker felt it to 
be his duty on the instant, to call the attention of the 
House to the conduct of two of its members, and to re- 
quire that the individuals to whom he referred should be 
immediately called back, to give the House their assur- 
ances that no further proceedings should take place in 
consequence of what had fallen from them in the course 
of debate.' [The members were brought back, and the 
gallery was cleared]. 'Strangers were not again ad- 
mitted, but we understand the Hon. Gentlemen readily 
gave the assurances required, and the business was in a 
few minutes satisfactorily adjusted.' The Bristol paper 
which had warmly taken the part ' of our gallant towns- 
man, General Whittingham,' ends its article by stating : 

formed in the rank of General it was natural he should be so called in 


6 General Whittinghani is at this time at the house of Mr. 
Davis at Clifton ; ' one of the brief and rare visits, that he 
paid to his native country. 

Whilst he was thus calumniated in England, in Spain on 
the contrary — let it be said in justice to the Spaniards — his 
merits were still appreciated. 

The following letter was written by an excellent officer 
and brave man, who was also a most estimable gentleman 
in private life : — 

Coloiiel * Patrick Campbell to General Whittingham. 


'Madrid, 25th 3farch, 1815. 

' Whatever failings or vices I may have, ingratitude is 
not amongst them : and truly ungrateful should I be, were 
I to forget one to whom I owe so very much, and who 
has shown me so many acts of friendship. Most heartily 
do I rejoice at the very handsome reception you have re- 
ceived from the Prince Eegent. I would to God that you 
were here again. A.f at present is the only countryman 
of ours at this moment in the peninsula, who has any 
reputation. B. and C. are only spoken of in derision. D. 
is never mentioned at all. You, however, are always 
mentioned both with respect for talents, and instruction, 
and [with] enthusiasm for your gallantry. An army of 
8,000 men is ordered to be formed on the frontier, in 
consequence of the escape of Buonaparte. Who is to 
command is yet a secret. Castafios has offered his ser- 
vices ; and some say he is to command. Others say, the 
Infante Don Carlos is to go there : but the present de- 
ranged state of the finances will not bear that additional 

' My business of Brigadier is not yet decided. Sir 

* He was then Major in the British, and Colonel in the Spanish, service, 
t A. B. C. D. These letters are used to conceal real names. 

colonel Campbell's letter from Madrid. 253 

Henry [Wellesley] however, has done whatever he could ; 
and in consequence Ceballos wrote to Eguia. But he is 
such an enemy to everything English, that he tries all he 
can to delay it. I have got the supernumerary cross of 
Charles III. I do not think old Herasti will ever go to 
Barcelona. I would you were here, as that is the best 
Government in Spain ; and, as you know, if one is not on 
the spot nothing is obtained. I wish much you would 
speak to Sir Henry Torrens for the rank of Lieut. -Colonel 
[for me]. You were my Commander-in-Chief; and con- 
sequently, the only one who can recommend me. It is 
the step of the greatest importance to me. How does 
Mrs. Whittingham like England? What an infamous, 
shameful, and lying attack Whitbread has made ! I saw 
it here in the English papers. He talks of 52,000/. as 
given to you for your own purposes ; and you above all 
men ; who, it may be said, never even saw the public 
money ^ much less handled it* I wish you could tell me, 
how we serving here are to be considered, particularly 
Don Patricio Campbell, as I am much interested about 
him, Castafios and Zayas are well, Giron is in Seville, 
Serrano is in Badajos.' 

Colonel Patrick Campbell was in Spain usually styled 
c Don Patricio Campbell ' to which he playfully alludes. 
As Lieutenant-Colonel of the Light Infantry Eegiment of 
the Majorca division, as well as on the Staff of General 
Whittingham, he had always distinguished himself greatly 
by zeal, intelligence and courage, and, as usual with all 
who served under the General, was devotedly and per- 
manently attached to his Chief. 

Meantime the escape of the great Napoleon had again 
aroused to arms the greater part of Europe ; and reopened 
prospects of fresh distinction to all soldiers : — 

* General Whittingham had had the responsibility, had negotiated the 
bills, and conducted the correspondence ;. but until Paymaster Foley was 
appointed, Colonel Campbell performed the actual payments required. 


To May or -General Sir Henry Torrens. 

* London, 28th May, 1815. 

< Sir, — I have the honour to inform you, that I re- 
ceived by last mail my appointment of Lieutenant-General 
employed in the army of Catalonia under the orders of 
General Castaiios. I have therefore to request you will 
be pleased to submit this appointment to the considera- 
tion of H.B.H. the Commander-in-Chief ; and at the same 
time that you will express my hope that H.B.H. will 
condescend to allow me to proceed to Spain immediately. 

' Having failed in my solicitations for employment in 
Flanders* I am anxious to join the army in Catalonia 
with as little delay as possible ; and as my appointment 
there has taken place, I cannot, I conceive, use too much 
expedition in getting to my post. I have the honour 
to be, Sir, 

' Your most obedient servant, 

; Samford Whittingham.' 

This letter establishes the fact, that he had previously 
desired rather to serve under Wellington as a Colonel, 
than with the Spaniards as a Lieutenant-General. Had 
his request been granted, he would doubtless have justi- 
fied himself to the King of Spain, under the sound plea 
that there was no danger to be immediately apprehended 
in Spain from Napoleon, as was well-known to be the 

The word solicitations being in the plural, there rests 
a strong suspicion in the Editor's mind, that Colonel 
Whittingham, not only applied direct to the Duke of 
Wellington, but did so also through His Boyal Highness 

* Till perusing the words now placed in Italics, the Editor was wholly 
unaware of the fact of such applications. No doubt their refusal had been 
too sore a subject to mention, in spite of the flattering terms in which they 
had been couched. 


the Duke of Kent. In short the Editor has some reason 
to believe that the letter of the Duke of Wellington 
dated 'Bruxelles, 14th April, 1815,' and addressed to 
Her Majesty's illustrious father, refers to Colonel Whit- 
tinghain. Colonel Gurwood having unfortunately left 
this name in blank, and none of the original appli- 
cations having reached the Editor's hands, the matter 
must remain for the present doubtful. To desire eagerly 
to serve under the Duke of Wellington was sufficiently 
praiseworthy to have justified Gurwood in printing the 
name of the rejected applicant, especially as the rejection 
was coupled with the flattering words ; ' he knows that 
if I could have gratified him I would have done so, 
without the aid of your Eoyal Highness's powerful 

There can be no question, however, that besides merit, 
some high aristocratic connection was required at that 
moment, to obtain a place on the Staff, then ambitioned 
by hundreds of meritorious officers. It was no disgrace 
to fail in such an application, but rather a high honour 
when accompanied by an observation, which so plainly 
and strongly implied that no want of merit occasioned 
the writer's non-compliance with the request. If a list 
were made of all those who served on the great Duke's 
staff throughout his life, it would be found that birth or 
rank had ever the strongest claims on his favour : and 
that the kind of liberality which was so frequently dis- 
played by kings and royal dukes, was never one of the 
traits of the essentially aristocratic as well as illustrious 
Duke of Wellington. 

It appears, however, that though to serve under the 
Duke, Sir Samford would have retired from the Spanish 
service, this was before his services had been called for 
by the Spanish King. For he declined (subsequently) 

* Vol. xii. of Wellington DispatcJics, page 308 ; edition 1838. 


the offer of the post of British Commissioner to the 
Austrian army, when offered to him by Lord Castlereagh. 
Now that he was once more going to serve in Spain, he 
became again a General even at the Horse-Guards. He 
had also been made C.B. and knighted * 

To Lieutenant-General Sir Samford Whittingham. 

'Horse-Gttaeds, 2nd June, 1815. 

6 Sir, — I have not failed to lay before the Commander- 
in-Chief your letter of the 28th ultimo, communicating 
to me, for His Eoyal Highness's information that you had 
received your appointment of Lieutenant-General em- 
ployed in the army under General Castanos ; and re- 
questing permission to proceed to Spain to join the 
same in Catalonia. 

4 1 have His Eoyal Highness's commands to acquaint 
you that as circumstances do not admit of your talents 
and experience being rendered available to the services of 
the British army itself, in a manner adequate to your 
claims and pretensions, he can have no objection to your 
being employed in the general cause, by assuming the 
duties in the Spanish army to which you have been 
called in so flattering a manner by His Catholic Majesty. 
I am therefore charged by the Commander-in-Chief to 
apprize you, that you have the Prince Eegent's leave of 
absence to proceed to Spain without delay ; and likewise 
His Eoyal Highness's special permission to absent yourself 
for the same purpose from your situation in the house- 
hold. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

' Your most faithful and obedient humble servant, 


i Lieutenant-General Sir Saniford Whittingham.' 

The reference at the close of this letter, to the duties of 
aide-de-camp to the Prince Eegent, gives occasion to state 

* At that time no one could be made K.C.B. under the rank of Major- 
General ; but distinguished officers ; who had earned the C.B. were sometimes 


that in this capacity Colonel Whittingham appears to have 
been very successful. It is to be regretted that he did 
not write of George IV., similar recollections to those he 
has left of Ferdinand VII. The English monarch, there 
is reason to believe, treated him with scarcely less kind- 
ness than did the Spanish sovereign : — and he used when 
on duty, to be called into the royal private apartment, 
to be consulted as to the equipment and clothing of the 
cavalry. At the levees also, owing to their rarity, and 
consequent crowding, the post of Eoyal aide-de-camp 
would appear to have been no sinecure at that period ; 
and physical strength was quite as needful a qualification 
as courtly manners and bearing. At the royal drawing- 
rooms especially the crush was tremendous. There also 
the King alone receiving the ladies, it sometimes happened 
when some bashful young persons were to receive the 
royal lip salute, that they required to be almost forcibly 
propelled up to the dreaded spot. 

We revert to the ' Recollections ' : — 

' Not long after my return to England, Napoleon re- 
seated himself on the throne of France ; and a general 
war was the consequence. I received a letter from 
[Count] Montenegro, written by order of the King of 
Spain, desiring me to return immediately to take the com- 
mand of the cavalry, under General Castanos,* who had 
been appointed Commander-in-Chief. I accepted the 
offer, and was preparing for my departure, when Lord 
Castlereagh sent for me to inform me, that he purposed 
sending me as British commissioner, with rank and pay of 
Brigadier-General, and 1000/. per annum extra allowance, 
to the head-quarters of the Austrian army, about to ad- 
vance upon Lyons. 

' I stated to him the position in which I stood to the 
King of Spain, should His Majesty call for my services. 

* His old patron and friend had been created Duke of Baylen, in honour 
of the first victory gained over the French in the Peninsular war. 



His Lordship gave it as his opinion, that under all the 
circumstances, he thought I was bound in honour to 

return to Spain/ 

General Whittingham took with him on his return to 
Spain, for which he embarked from Falmouth, with 
part of his family on the 30th June, the following letter, 
for the English Ambassador : — 

The Duke of York to Sir Henry Wellesley. 

{ Horse-Gtjakds, lith June, 1815. 

'Sir, — Colonel Sir Samford Whittingham having been 
called to a command in the Spanish army according to 
his rank of Lieutenant- General in the service of His 
Catholic Majesty, I have to acquaint you that the Prince 
Regent has been graciously pleased to approve his ac- 
ceptance of the same : and I cannot permit this deserving 
and distinguished officer to take his departure from this 
country without making him the bearer of my desire 
that you will be pleased in your diplomatic as well as in 
your private character, to show him all the countenance 
and attention which a British officer in a foreign army 
may frequently require from a person in your high 

' It may be necessary to add, that a sense of Sir Samford 
Whittingham's merits would have made me desirous of 
affording him employment in the British army how in 
the field ; and it has only been in the impracticability of 
making an arrangement suitable to his pretensions, that 
I have been induced to facilitate the permission he has 
received to serve in the Spanish army.* 

6 1 have, &c. 

' Frederick. 

' Commander-in-Chief.' 

* Being only Colonel in the English army, he was not eligible to a high 
command with the troops of his own country, by the then inexorable laws 


His return to the Peninsula is thus described in his 
' Eecollections :' 'On my arrival in Spain I found the 
war at an end ; for the battle of Waterloo had taken 
place, and I had not only lost the opportunity of being 
present at that memorable action, but I had also deprived 
myself of the advantage of forming part of the army of 
occupation commanded by the Duke of Wellington, whose 
field-days at the head of the principal armies of Europe 
formed the best school for grand military operations.' 

He here alludes to his rejection of Lord Castlereagh's 
offers, which, however, was under the circumstances un- 

To Sir Henry Torrens. 


' Madrid, 8^ August, 1815. 

6 HI health and bad spirits have made me delay writing 
to you till I am almost ashamed to take up the pen. It 
appears to me very doubtful whether I shall go to Cata- 
lonia or not. The minister of war, Ballasteros, has recom- 
mended me to wait for General Castanos's answer. 

'It has been determined* that the division of Majorca, 
which I had the honour to command during the late 
war, and which consisted of eight battalions of infantry, 
two regiments of cavalry, and two troops of horse-artil- 
lery, formed a separate corps d'armee, and that the cross 
which I received as General of Division, should have been 
the grand cross of [a commander of] a corps d'armee. 
In consequence I have received the grand cross, and 
kissed the King's hand upon this new honour.f Now, 

of routine, though he had for so many years commanded in the field as a 
general officer to the full satisfaction of the Duke of Wellington. 

* That is, decided by the Spanish Government. 

f The London Gazette of the 28th November, 1815, sanctions the wearing 
of this order ' with which His Catholic Majesty has been pleased to honour 
him, as a signal testimony of His Catholic Majesty's approbation of the 
distinguished services rendered by that officer on the field of battle, during 
the Peninsular war.' 

s 2 


in the true spirit of chivalry, I pray you to lay the grand 
cross at the feet of Lady Torrens, and to assure her that 
all my knightly services are at her command. 

' I assure you, we often talk of our trip to Cheltenham ; 
and look back with delight upon the gaiety and constant 
good humour of our quartetto ! Alas ! what a contrast 
did our journey from Coruna to Madrid form. Galicia, 
naturally poor and wretched and now desolate by the late 
war, is miserable beyond expression. Nor is it possible 
that anyone could form an idea of want and woe equal to 
what you meet with from Coruna to Madrid. 

' The state of the finances is so very shocking that I 
can only convey to you an idea of it by saying that 
many, very many, meritorious officers would ere this have 
perished from absolute want had they not received their 
daily food, and even a room to sleep in, from the charity 
of the convents ! How long this can last, God only knows. 
In any other country in Europe it could not have subsisted 
so long ; but even here the discontent, particularly of the 
army, is great, and sooner or later evil must arise. 

1 This is a sad picture, my dear Torrens, and would 
to God it were not so very true ; still resources might 
be found ; but the good and amiable Ferdinand is sur- 
rounded by men of little, miserable minds, incapable of 
doing good, but very well disposed to do evil.' 

To his brother-in-law, he had written, on the 7th August, 
a long letter to the same effect, adding that he received 
no Spanish pay as Lieutenant-General owing to the state 
of the finances. 

The great affability of the King, and his flattering par- 
tiality for Sir Samford Whittingham, inclined the latter, 
for some time, to regard his weaknesses with indulgence, 
and to throw the blame of his conduct upon his Ministers. 
Indeed Ferdinand does not appear to have been a man of 
bad natural disposition, and he was certainly very amiable 


in private life. But his narrow and bigoted education 
and his want of discernment, incapacitated him from being 
a good ruler, and his reign was mainly tolerated on ac- 
count of his personal popularity amongst the mass of his 
subjects, especially the lower orders. This feeling the 
King appears to have cultivated in a manner resembling 
that of our Charles II. ; minus^ however, the immorality, 
for His Majesty was a very good husband. Sir Samford 
used to relate how Ferdinand, when handing his beautiful 
Queen Christina into the royal carriage, would turn round 
smilingly on the loyal crowd, and observe familiarly to 
them, ' Is she not a fine woman V or some similar remark. 

By desire of the King of Spain, General Whittingham 
wrote a long Spanish paper on the reasons that should 
induce his Majesty to abolish the Slave Trade. This 
request was the result of a conversation with his Majesty, 
for Sir Samford now felt it his duty to use what influence 
he had with the King, in favour of civilization and good 
government, reluctant though he was as a thorough 
soldier to embark in matters which savoured of political 
intrigues. But ample proofs exist of the noble and patri- 
otic manner in which he exercised his influence with the 
Spanish King,- and especially in the letters of His Britannic 
Majesty's representatives at Madrid. 

Meantime, as the war was over and his active services 
were no longer required for the safety of the country, the 
jealousy regarding the employment of an Englishman, 
(who as such could not but be too partial to liberty in 
royal eyes,) in a high military command, coupled with 
the intrigues of courtiers in Spain and the calumnies pro- 
pagated at home, all combined to deter General Whitting- 
ham from either seeking for, or obtaining, a high com- 
mand. If, indeed, he would have consented to abandon 
his own service, (in which, for want of military rank, he 
could expect for many years only a very subordinate posi- 
tion) there is every reason to believe that a fine career 


was before him ; but to this idea he never could resign 
himself, though sometimes tempted to it by natural am- 
bition of distinction, and by the laudable desire of com- 
manding armies for which he felt himself fully capable. 

His voluminous correspondence from 1815 to 1820 
shows but too clearly how his active mind revolted from 
the compulsory idleness, in a military point of view, to 
which he was at this period condemned by uncontrollable 
circumstances, however useful he frequently was to, the 
embassy at Madrid. Brief extracts of his correspondence 
are all that can be laid before the reader. 

The following relates to his claims for a small pension 
from the British Government, afterwards granted to him 
on the same terms as other officers similarly situated. 
He had now no salary except his half-pay as a British 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and was involved in difficulties. 

To his Brother-i?i-law. 

' Madrid, 15th September, 1815. 

' I was, as you know, employed by Mr. Pitt on a secret 
mission to Portugal. My expenses were, as you also know, 
very great ; but notwithstanding Mr. Pitt's generous offers 
of remuneration upon my return to England, I declined 
receiving any reimbursement of my expenses, and felt 
happy at being able to render what was then thought 
a good service, without the possibility of having my mo- 
tives misinterpreted. 

' In the Spanish service, I never received any pay as 
Colonel, Brigadier, or Major-General, till I was appointed 
to the command of the cavalry in the Island of Leon, and 
the scale of my expenses in consequence unavoidably in- 

'Would to God I could follow the same system at 
present ! but the diminution of my private fortune by 
unavoidable expenses, and the increase of my family, 



have placed me in a situation, in a pecuniary point of view, 
very different from that I have heretofore enjoyed.' 

General Whittingham endeavoured to counteract by 
his influence with the King the overbearing influence of 
the Eussian Ambassador and the Holy -Alliance principles 
which the latter warmly advocated. In a letter of the 
24th November, he writes to his brother-in-law : ' I have 
been able to render some good service of late.* The 
King continues his decided partiality towards me ; I have 
frequent interviews and conversations with him. I have 
had many opportunities of studying Mr. Vaughan lately ;f 
I do not think our affairs could be in better hands.' 

But King Ferdinand could not forgive the evident sym- 
pathy of England with his revolted colonies, and threw 
himself the more readily into the arms of Eussia. 

To detail all the circumstances that occurred between 
King Ferdinand and General Whittingham during the 
time, (nearly four years,) that the latter resided in Madrid, 
would swell this work far beyond its intended limits, and 
being of a diplomatic and commercial rather than military 
nature, forms no necessary part of a military memoir. 
But it will be requisite to establish hereafter on incontro- 
vertible testimony the fact, that even in matters of diplo- 
macy, in which he had no official business, he did good 
and recognized though unrewarded service to his own 

To his Brother-in-law. 

* Madrid, Sth December, 1815. 

'Mr. Barthelemy Frere, brother to John Hookham 
Frere, went to Constantinople, as Secretary of Embassy to 
Mr. Liston. Mr. Liston is now at home, and B. Frere 

* He means to the British Embassy. 

t This was the Minister, Mr. Charles Vaughan, acting as such in the 
absence of the Ambassador. 


will of course have remained there as Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary, in the same manner as Vanghan has remained 
here, as Minister Plenipotentiary in consequence of the 
absence of Sir Henry [Wellesley]. Mr. B. Frere is going 
to be married immediately.'* 

The year 1816 was a gloomy one in Madrid; the 
King from his despotic and Russian proclivities becoming 
odious to all men of liberal opinions in Spain, and the 
recovery of the Spanish American colonies being already 
nearly hopeless. Sir Samford Whittingham was now 
thankful that he held no responsible post in Spain, and 
in spite of his low rank in the English army desired, more 
and more, employment under the English Government; 
turning his thoughts meantime to a residence in the south 
of France. For he writes to Mr. Davis, (in January 1816) 
alluding to his poverty,*)* ' it is impossible for me to live 
in England' 

To the Same. 

1 Madrid, 6th March, 1816. 

' The state of things does not mend, though a momentary 
tranquillity reigns. An attempt has been made to as- 
sassinate the King.' [After a long description of the 
wretched state of Spain, financial, military and political, 
he adds :] — c I have been appointed to form the chapter 
of the military order of San Fernando, with the Duke del 
Parque, Palafox, Zayas, Blake, Giron, O'Donnel, Venegas, 
and La Pena. 

■ MagdalenaJ has had the offer of being appointed one 
of the ladies of honour to the Queen. But this I have 
declined on account of the expense of diamonds necessary, 

* To Donna Barbara Creus, sister-in-law to the General. 

t It is not superfluous to record such a fact in this Memoir, when it is 
borne in mind that others similarly situated had undoubtedly enriched them- 
selves, and that he had been calumniated. Many people are slow to believe 
that when a man rati, lie will not enrich himself. 

\ Lady Whit'in^ham. 


and which amounts to about 4,000 dollars. In short 
honours and distinctions are crowded upon me, but 
honours and distinctions will not pay bills, and the higher 
a man rises in society the more he stands in need of an 
increase of pecuniary means. This has induced me to 
turn my thoughts to a high command in America ; and 
the more particularly as the delay in the English brevets 
gives me no chance of getting out to India as a Major- 
General, till old age will have rendered the voyage un- 

On the 7th April, 1816, he defends himself to "the same 
correspondent from a charge that had reached Lord 
Castlereagh of his meddling with the general politics of 
Europe ; a charge that appears to have resulted solely 
from his private letters not having always been sufficiently 
kept secret by his correspondents. On all these matters it 
is useless to dilate, for Marquis Wellesley, Mr. Hookham 
Frere, Sir Henry Wellesley, and Mr. Charles Vaughan, 
were the four ambassadors or ministers from 1808 to 
1819, and on their final judgments of him may safely 
rest the verdict regarding Sir Samford Whittingham's 
diplomatic conduct. His exceptional position in Spain 
had made the successive representatives of Majesty thank- 
fully use his services when occasion offered, especially 
latterly, in his conversations with the King. But the 
only political memorandum (besides a letter on the Slave 
Trade) that he ever gave the King was at the desire of 
the latter, and given with the private consent of the 
Minister, Mr. Vaughan ; and was only calculated to make 
Spain prefer the alliance of England to that of Eussia, 
which would have redounded to the eventual benefit both 
of England and of Spain. In the same letter he further 
requests Mr. Davis to make Lord Castlereagh acquainted 
with the following circumstances regarding King Fer- 
dinand's return to Spain : — 


' It was the conviction of my mind, and of General 
Zayas, and of all those I intimately knew, during the 
march from Saragossa to Valencia, that the King meant 
to swear to the Constitution under such modifications as 
might appear necessary; and His Majesty's proclamation 
from Valencia is a convincing proof that we had a right 
to form that opinion. 

6 1 did not accompany the King on his march to Madrid. 
He was escorted by General Elio and his infantry, by the 
high road from Valencia to Madrid. My orders were to 
march from Saragossa to Guadalaxara ; and there wait 
for further orders.' 

The letter then describes the King's triumphant entry 
into Madrid, which has been already described in this 
work ;* and continues : ' Soon after his arrival at Madrid, 
His Majesty sent me a message through the Duke of San 
Carlos,f desiring I would ask for any favour I might 
desire. I begged the Duke to assure His Majesty that I 
considered myself amply rewarded for my services during 
the war, by the rank of Major-General that had been 
conferred on me after the battle of Talavera, and I did 
not desire any other recompense. Had I done otherwise, 
my conduct in obeying the order to advance with the 
cavalry from Saragossa to Guadalaxara might have been 
interpreted into a vile speculation for my own personal 
advantage, rather than as proceeding from that high sense 
of duty and obedience to superiors which should form 
the basis of every military character. 

'The only favour I ever asked of the King was the 
pardon of two artillery soldiers of my division who were 
under sentence of death for desertion, not to the enemy, 
but to their home ! This was granted. 

' The cross of San Fernando was gained by me in the 

* See page 245. 

f By the fuller detailed letter at page 283, it would appear that it was 
the Duke's son, the Count de Corres, who actually delivered this message. 


field of battle, according to the established rules of the 
order ; * and my claim legitimated by a public examin- 
ation in the face of all the troops concerned. It was 
therefore no favour of the King. 

' The rank of Lieutenant-General was conferred upon 
me by the King without any application on my part, for 
my general services during the war. But the same rank 
was also conferred by His Majesty upon upwards of thirty 
Major-Generals, all under me in the list. 

' I was finally offered one of the best governments in 
Spain, which I declined from the motives before alleged, 
for I have always been of opinion that it is not sufficient 
to be satisfied entirely ivith the motives of our conduct. 
It is necessary that there should be no possibility of doubt 
as to the purity of the motives by ivhich we are actuated J \ 

Thus did his rash English calumniators not only deprive 
him of the legitimate rewards of his services after the 
Peninsular war, but also force him into a spirit of self 
assertion foreign to the natural modesty of his nature, 
which led him to trust to his superiors for the record of 
his merits and services. Nor was it a vain trust. For 
rarely has an officer, not sprung from the aristocracy, 
enjoyed such numerous and striking acknowledgments 
of his merits and services, as fell to the lot of General 
Whittingham before the close of his career. 

Meantime he no longer even desired a military com- 
mand in Spain, because no person was paid in Spain his 
nominal salary, so that the only effect of such appoint- 
ment would be to increase his already too great expenses. 
On the 7th October, 1816, he writes : ' In my situation, 
with the high rank I hold in this country, it is morally 
impossible for me to reduce my expenses more than I 

* By the votes of officers and men under Lis command. 

t Such sentiments do not facilitate the attainment of wealth and success, 
but they are the characteristics of a nobility of nature which forms the 
truest aristocracy. 


have done. Once only in the year and a half I have been 
here, have I asked a friend to dine with me.' 

Only those who have known Sir Sainford Whittingham's 
habits of profuse though refined hospitality, can feel the 
true force of these words. 

The letter thus continues : ' Thus you see, my dear 
Davis, that I am exposed to starvation in the midst of 
honours and distinctions, and I see no road to salvation 
except through the East Indies. Barbara [Creus] is now 
with us, and I am only waiting for the pope's licence 
to celebrate her marriage [by proxy] with Mr. B. Frere, 
British Minister at Constantinople. I have Mr. Frere's 
full powers to effect the marriage.' 

In November 1816, an unfounded report of the pro- 
bable retirement of the Governor of Trinidad, induced 
General Whittingham to apply through H. M.'s minister, 
Mr. Vaughan, for the supposed vacancy. There seemed 
no disinclination on the part of the British Government 
to serve him, had the opportunity really occurred, if the 
Editor can judge by the brief notes written by Lords 
Liverpool, Castlereagh, and Bathurst, now in his posses- 
sion. The letter, however, of Mr. Vaughan alone is here 
recorded, placing in italics the parts relating to the 
General's (not then sufficiently appreciated in England) 
diplomatic services : — 

The Right Hon. Charles Vaughan to Viscount 


i Madrid, 23rd November, 1816. 

' My Lord, — I have received the enclosed from Lieut.- 
General Sir Samford Whittingham, and gratefid for the 
services I have ever found him anxious to render me, as 
His Majesty s Minister at this Court, I think it my duty 
to recommend his present application, to be employed in 
the island of Trinidad, to the most favourable attention 
of your Lordship. 


' In support of General Whittingham's application, I 
can venture to testify to his accurate knowledge of the 
language, the customs, and the laws of Spain ; and his 
conduct in this country has obtained for him the confi- 
dence of His Catholic Majesty, and the respect and esteem 
of all classes of Spaniards. 

' I have no occasion to refer to the distinguished mili- 
tary services of the General, as they have long since been 
acknowledged by His Majesty's Government. But I feel 
it my duty to recommend him to your Lordship, in ac- 
knowledgment for the services which he has rendered to me 
as His Majesty s Minister, through the confidential inter- 
course he enjoyed with the King of Spain, and ivhich has 
enabled me to communicate to this Court opinions by which 
I have thought it of consequence that the Spanish Govern- 
ment should be influenced* 

' On these grounds I trust that your Lordship will par- 
don the liberty I have taken, in recommending General 
Whittingham for the employment he solicits. 

' I am, &c, &c, 

6 Charles Vaughan.' 

On the 14th January, 1817, Sir Samford writes: 
' Nothing can exceed the King's attention to me, nor the 
confidence he shows me. But as I have before said, I 
am fully of opinion that in order to ask for any high 
employment here, I must leave the service of my own 
country — a step I can never make up my mind to take. 
So that I am exactly in the situation of the man who 
seated himself between two stools, and thus came to the 

In the same letter Sir Samford writes : ' I have lately 

* On the 12th Dec 1 ". 1816 Mr. Davis writes, from London, to Mrs. Har- 
ford: ( Your uncle has been the happy instrument of settling the question 
of the Slave Trade. This is a secret, and I learnt it by accident, not from 
himself. Mr. Vaughan states that it is wholly owing to your uncle's per- 
sonal influence with the King.' — Mr. Davis gives the details and adds : 
1 These terms are beyond the expectation of our Ministers here.' 


had it in my power to be of some service to Sir Henry 
Wellesley, and he seems disposed to do anything in his 
power to serve me.' He adds his intention, if he fails to 
obtain employment from the British Government, to retire 
to ' some small town in France, where I shall always be 
able to live perfectly well on my small income. I think, 
however, it is best giving things a fair chance to wait at 
this Court eight or ten months longer, particularly as I 
am in hopes that Sir Henry will not find my services 
altogether useless.' 

On the 3rd February, 1817, was born his third surviving 
son, to whom Don Antonio the King's uncle stood god- 
father. Sir Samford's influence was not only great with 
the King and the Eoyal Family, but extended to many 
of the first Spanish nobility, such as the Dukes of Frias, 
Infantado, Osuna, &c. With some of these he arranged 
wool-importing business for his brother's mercantile house 
in Bristol. Thus he writes on the 27th February, 1817 : 
6 I am also endeavouring to persuade the Duke of Infan- 
tado, to send you his pile [of wool] for the future. He 
does not seem very well satisfied with his correspondents 
in Bristol, but unfortunately he has taken it into his head 
that by sending [his wool] for some time to London he 
shall obtain better prices.' 

' It has appeared to me that you would not disapprove 

of my introducing into the best society of this town, 

inasmuch as that by no means militates against his atten- 
tion to business. I have therefore taken him to the 
Eussian Minister's, to the Duchess of Osuna, to the Duchess 
of Frias ; and on Sunday next I shall take him to Pizarro's, 
the Minister for Foreign Affairs. To Sir Henry's Satur- 
day evening parties he also goes with me.' 

In a letter dated 'Madrid, 18th March, 1817,' he 

writes : — ' begins his riding lessons this evening. 

The Duke of Alagon, commander of the King's Body- 
Guard, has ordered the director of his manege to pay 


him every attention, and to employ every means in his 

power to make him a complete horseman. * goes 

on in every respect most charmingly. Miss Creus was 
married some days ago, by proxy, to Mr. Barthelemy 

Sir Samford now (no Colonial government being forth- 
coming) resolved again to ask the Duke of York for 
employment, in spite of the difficulties about his want of 
rank ; and having conversed with Sir Henry Wellesley 
(who had returned to his post) on the subject, he was 
enabled to transmit to the Duke of York, through his 
brother-in-law, the following satisfactory letter : — 

Sir Henry Wellesley to the Duke of York. 

1 Madrid, 3rd April, 1817. 

c Sir, — Understanding it to be the wish of Sir Samford 
Whittingham to obtain active employment in His Majesty's 
service, and your Royal Highness having been pleased in 
a letter to me, under date the 14th June, 1815, to express 
your approbation of his general conduct, I venture to take 
the liberty of recommending him to the notice of your 
Eoyal Highness, as an officer who was not only eminently 
distinguished during the war in Spain, but to whom / 
feel under great obligations for the assistance ivhich, since 
his return to Madrid, he has afforded to this Embassy in 
its intricate negociations with the Spanish Government 

' I have, &c, &c, 

' Henry Wellesley/ 

The Duke of York to E. H. Davis, Esq. M.P. 

Horse-Guards, 28th April, 1817. 

' gi r? — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 26th instant, with its enclosure, and to assure you 

* When Mr. , at the termination of his lessons sought to pay for 

them, he was informed that all had been done gratis, for the love of his 
uncle, General Whittingham. 


that I have had great pleasure in receiving from Sir 
Henry Wellesley, so favourable a testimony of Sir Sam- 
ford Whittingham's zeal, ability, and assiduous attention 
to every duty assigned to him, though nothing was want- 
ing to add to the opinion I had previously entertained of 
that officer's distinguished conduct. 

' I have, &c, &c, 
' Frederick.' 

But nothing came of the application at this time. On 
both sides of the water plenty of praise from high quar- 
ters, but no rewards. Praise is good, but it cannot feed 
a family, and has a satirical aspect when attended with no 
practical result. It is however, certain that ; the Soldiers 
Friend' was hampered by the difficulty of finding a 
Colonel's post suitable to such a deserving officer, and he 
might also naturally think that the nature of his latter 
services might give him a claim for civil employment 
pending his want of British military rank. 

Troubles began now to arise in Spain. There was also 
a danger of General Whittingham being ordered to South 
America, to reconquer the revolted colonies, w T hich com- 
mand he must have declined to accept, as incompatible 
with the then policy of England. He therefore prepared 
to quit Spain ; but signs of a civil war then began to 
appear, and his high feeling of honour, and regard for 
the King, made him inclined to remain in order to pro- 
tect His Majesty. Sir Henry Wellesley, however, recom- 
mended his withdrawal, at least for a few months, and he 

On the 24th May, whilst staying with his family at 
Aranjuez on a visit to the Duke and Duchess of Frias at 
their beautiful family seat, he requests his brother-in-law 
to consult Lord Castlereagh's wishes, as to his leaving or 
remaining in Madrid, in one of the sentences of which his 
chivalrous nature asserts itself, scorning to escape a dis- 


agreeable duty, by the excuse of ingratitude in the highest 
quarter. Speaking of the danger of taking high command 
in civil war he writes : c Personally this does not occupy 
me one moment. I only wish it to be clearly understood, 
that I cannot wear the King of Spain's uniform, and aban- 
don him in case of need' * 

To his Brother-in-law. 

Private. < Madkid, 8th June, 1817. 

' Since the return of the King, the English interest at 
this Court has been gradually declining, and strange to 
say, the Eussian influence as gradually increasing-. This 
has depended principally upon the personal character of 
the King, but has been considerably forwarded by the 
intriguing abilities of the Eussian Minister Tatischeff. The 
King from his infancy has been taught to suspect and 
dislike the English, and these feelings have been not a 
little fomented by the repeated obstacles thrown before 
him and his Government by the British papers, and in 

"of Eussia] on the 
in flattering his 

the British Parliament. The Emoeror 


contrary has been constantly occupiec 
vanity, and gaining his good will by numberless presents 
both to him and to the Queen. At the present moment, 
Tatischeff reigns despotically at this Court, and his influ- 
ence appears to be almost irresistible. Some time since, 
Tatischeff began a treaty with his Government, by which 
Eussia was to interpose all her power in favour of Spain 
against Portugal, and Spain was to cede to Eussia, in con- 
sequence, the island of Minorca. This treaty was not at 
that time approved of by the Emperor, and the whole fell 
to the ground. However, the subject has again been 
taken in hand, and the intrigues to gain possession of 
Minorca, have again been renewed.' 

* He could not say ' draw the King's pay/ because he drew none. 



The above is a brief fragment of a long letter : — It 
proves that the Emperor Alexander, was less of an in- 
triguer than his Minister, and more upright in his inten- 
tions. At least, this is the impression it now leaves on the 
mind of the Editor.* 

In the summer of 1817, sickness seized the General 
and all his family, and finally c Mrs. B. Frere was taken ill 
of a nervous fever early in July. Water was thrown out 
upon the brain, and in the short period of four days, she 
was no more. Three months previous to this dreadful 
calamity, she was married by proxy in the very room 
in which she died. Sorrow and grief have borne us to 
the ground.' 

The above is an extract from a letter to Mr. Davis, 
dated 'Madrid, 12th July, 1817,' and containing the sad 
end of the virgin wife of one of the best and most amiable 
of men, who is said to have received at Constantinople, 
the news of her death by the very ship in which he ex- 
pected her to arrive. To complete the sad romance, the 
widower remained single for the remainder of his, by no 
means, short life. 

The same letter says : ' I have seen Sir Henry, and he 
is of opinion that I should do well to absent myself, for 
some time at least, from Spain. I have therefore deter- 
mined to go to Toulouse, and there wait events. I hope 
to be able to set off in the course of next month.' 

The General and his family left Madrid in August. 
Here his public life ceased for the time, so that it is not 
necessary (with a few exceptions) to quote his letters for 
the remainder of 1817, or the whole of 1818. He first 
went to Toulouse. In September he was at Bagnieres 
de Bigorre. In November again at Toulouse, where he 
remained till, at all events, the third week in February 
1818. For on the 17th of that month, he wrote to Mr. 

* It proves also that Russian intrigue is an institution too fixed to be 
much shaken by any moderation or weakness in the ruler of the day. 


Davis : — c I received some time back, a letter from [Count] 
Montenegro, whose situation at Court you must recollect, 
enclosing the King's manifesto on the abolition of the 
Slave Trade. I copy the words of the letter, because I 
am forced to speak of myself* and because I know you 
will be pleased to see the effects of my influence so 
decidedly acknowledged. Dirijo a Vm. el Real Decreto 
aboliendo el comercio de negros, creyendo darle con esto 
una satisfaction por lo mucho que ha contribuido al logro 
de un negocio tan importante.f Sir Samford continues : — 

' I had upon the subject of the Slave Trade, repeated 
and long conversations with the King. At his desire, I 
gave him a memorial upon the subject, which merited his 
acknowledged approbation, and which he gave to his 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, desiring him to read it with 
the greatest attention. I read the memorial to the King 
myself. ' 

In the summer of 1818, General Whittingham and his 
family, to avoid the great heat, again visited Bagnieres 
de Bigorre in the Hautes Pyrenees. Commencing with 
the 4th July, he received a three months' visit from his 
eldest nephew, Hart Davis, junior, who had been com- 
pelled by delicate health to abandon a very promising 
parliamentary career, and who had lately married the 
truly beautiful and accomplished daughter of Major- 
General and Lady Eleanor Dunclas. Mr. Hart Davis had 
a genius for sketching, especially figures, and many 
romantic sketches of Pyrenees' scenes and peasantry were 
collected on this occasion in his scrap-book. 

In a letter addressed to Mr. Barthelemy Frere, and 
dated, c Chez Monsieur Jalon, Cabinet litteraire, Bagnieres 
de Bigorre, 6th August, 1818/ Sir Samford writes : 'Hart 

* In consequence of the calumnies to which he had been exposed. 

f ' I enclose you the Royal Decree abolishing the traffic in negroes be- 
lieving that I shall thereby do you a pleasure, on account of your having 
greatly contributed to the settlement of so important a business. ,' 

t k j 


Davis and I are just returned from a chasse de chamois, 
amongst the highest and most inaccessible cliffs of the 
Pyrenees. We were out four days. The fatigue was ex- 
cessive, but Davis bore it very well. We expect Eichard 
[Vaughan] Davis on his return from Spain. Could you 
not make an effort to join us ?' It does not appear, how- 
ever, that his old friend and brother-in-law, Mr. B. Frere, 
joined him on that occasion. After the departure of his 
guests, the General returned to Toulouse. 

Early in 1819, the sudden and unexpected law for the 
enforcement of cash payments caused the failure of many 
mercantile houses, and the ruin of many families. Mr. 
Hart Davis was a great loser on this occasion, and in the 
crash Sir Samford also lost, it appears, all his capital. 
With an increasing family it became more imperative for 
him to obtain active employment of some kind or other. 
But a portion of 1819 was passed between Toulouse and 
the Pyrenees and Bordeaux, in enforced inactivity. At 
last in July 1819 he received the offer of the Lieutenant- 
Government of Dominica, an unimportant post, not 
very remunerative, and subordinate to the Governor-in- 
Chief at Barbadoes. It was, however, more lucrative 
then than at the present period, and he accepted it, with- 
out ceasing to hope for more profitable employment in 
the East Indies. But though he received the appoint- 
ment in July, in anticipation, he was not ordered out im- 
mediately. Probably the time of the preceding Governor 
wanted six months before expiring.. Meanwhile he 
thought it his duty before embarking for Dominica to 
take leave of the King of Spain: — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

i Madrid, 18th July, 1819. 

'I am this moment returned from the baths of Sacedon 
where I was obliged to follow His Majesty. He received 


me with the greatest kindness, approved highly of my 
acceptance of the government of Dominica, and assured 
me that he should preserve my name in the list of the 
Generals of his army. I dined with His Majesty during 
the two days of my stay at the baths; and on my 
taking leave his behaviour was affectionate in the ex- 

' Pray tell me if you think it would be possible to ob- 
tain from the Duke of York, the local rank of Brigadier- 
General for me in Dominica. I have been now ten 
years a General ; and it is an unpleasant feeling to 
change the name for Colonel if it can be avoided.* It 
is indeed woeful to see that the expense of my commis- 
sion [as Governor] will amount to nearly 600/.' 

In this letter to his brother-in-law, Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham gave only the above very brief account of his 
farewell to King Ferdinand. Fortunately in the ' Eecol- 
lections,' which have been so often quoted, there is a 
fuller account of his last intercourse with that Prince, 
which will now be laid before the reader : — 

'In 1819 I accepted the government of Dominica, in 
the West Indies. But previous to my departure I 
thought it my duty to go to Madrid to take leave of 
the King of Spain. Troubles had again surrounded him, 
and the army of Andalusia was in a state of insurrection. 
His Majesty was at the baths of Sacedon, and desired my 
immediate attendance. 

' The order of the day was as follows : — At daybreak 
His Majesty walked to the baths. At eleven he held a 
little Court of the persons present at Sacedon. At one, 
all the officers of a certain rank dined with His Majesty, 
at a round table calculated to hold sixteen ; His Majesty 
doing the honours as host, and paying the greatest atten- 

* A natural regret for the man whom the Duke of Wellington had 
addressed as a General so many years previously. 


tion to all his guests. Soon after dinner a plate of the 
finest Havannah cigars was presented to the King, who 
selected one, and sent it to some one of his guests, with 
whose taste for smoking he was acquainted. His Majesty 
then lighted his own cigar and soon after retired to his 
apartment. The Duke of Alagon, Captain of the Gardes 
clu Corps, then took His Majesty's seat, and the whole 
party began to light their cigars. Excellent coffee was 
introduced, and we sat smoking and talking till five p.m., 
when His Majesty commenced his evening walk, accom- 
panied by all his little Court. 

'At the first lev&e after my arrival, as soon as the 
strangers were dismissed, the King said to the Duke of 
Alagon, " Leave us, I desire to speak in private with 
Santiago."* It is the etiquette of the Spanish Court, that 
the Captain of the Gardes du Corps should never quit 
the King's person ; and great was the surprise of the 
Duke at so novel an order. 

c As soon as we were alone, His Majesty opened the 
conversation in the most flattering and confidential man- 
ner, by saying : " Santiago, you well know the confidence 
with which you have inspired me, and how very highly 
I esteem you. Tell me, therefore, frankly and openly, 
your opinion upon the state of Europe in general, and 
upon the revolutionary movements which threaten on all 
sides ; and particularly tell me what you think of this 
country." " Sir," I replied, "your Majesty well knows 
my devoted attachment to your Eoyal person, and how 
sincerely I desire and hope for the happiness and pros- 
perity of your Majesty and of Spain. I feel, therefore, 
no hesitation in answering your question frankly, fully 
convinced that the purity of my intentions will not be 
doubted. The minds of your Majesty's subjects are gene- 

* c 

Dejanos, deseo bablar a solas con Santiago.' It was, and probably 
still is, tbe fasbion in Spain for friends to address eacb otber by tbeir Chris- 
tian names. 


rally unsettled. Novelty and change are the order of 
the day: if your Majesty takes the initiative, and makes 
a few concessions in harmony with the times, I am of 
opinion that they will be received gratefully, and produce 
the best effects. If, on the contrary, the people should 
take the initiative, nothing short of anarchy and destruc- 
tion will satisfy them, and the worst consequences may 
be feared." 

' The King applauded my opinion, and apparently coin- 
cided with it ; but he had not strength of mind to act in 
consequence. The next day I took my final leave and 
never saw him more.' 

The following was the final testimony of the English 
Ambassador under whom General Whittingham had 
served so long as a British Military Agent in the war in 
the Peninsula : — 

Sir Henry Wellesley* to Viscount Castlereagh. 

1 Madrid, 1st August, 1819. 

' My Lord, — Sir Samford Whittingham having retired 
from the service of His Catholic Majesty, I cannot suffer 
this occasion to pass over of repeating the sense which I 
entertain of his distinguished services during the war in 
the Peninsula, as well as of his uniform desire to pro- 
mote, by all the means in his power, the views of the 
British Government in this country, which has been mani- 
fested upon many important occasions since the restoration 
of peace. 

' I hope, therefore, that your Lordship will allow me 
to avail myself of this opportunity (probably the last I 
shall have) of recommending Sir Samford Whittingham 
to the protection of the Prince Eegent's Government. 

* In 1828 Sir Henry was raised to the peerage as Baron Cowley. His 
son — the well-known Ambassador at Paris for many years — has been raised 
to an Earldom. 


1 He leaves this country with the testimony of all ranks 
in his favour, but ivithout any other reward from this 
Government for the valuable services rendered by him to 
the Spanish cause, than that of being allowed to retain his 
rank in the Spanish army. 

' I have, &c, 

6 Henry Wellesley.' 

The words placed by the Editor in italics though 
strictly true, imply a greater charge of ingratitude against 
the King of Spain, than the facts really substantiate. As 
Sir Samford was not prepared to give up the service of 
his own country, the King knew that there were marked 
limits to the extent of his devotion to His Majesty, which, 
with his natural dislike of England and Englishmen, was 
calculated to check his liberality. Moreover, the King 
had peculiar notions in the matter of rewards. Some one 
having asked His Majesty, why a certain distinguished 
officer had never been recompensed, he simply replied, 
(as if conclusive) that 'He never asked for anything! 5 * 
His Majesty could have pleaded the same excuse on this 
occasion in justification for neglecting to reward General 
Whittingham, for assuredly the latter never did ask for 
any reward from His Catholic Majesty. But the fact is 
that the King had made an exception in the English- 
man's favour; and, as we have seenf had not waited to 
be asked in his case. This will be again proved by the 
following letter, which is here inserted out of its place, in 
order to finish at once with the Peninsular portion of 
this Memoir : — 

* The Editor frequently heard Sir Samford Whittingham narrate this 
trait of Ferdinand VI 1. 
t At page 266. 


Sir Samford Whittingham to Thomas Murdoch, Esq. 

' Dominique, 23rd September, 1820. 

' My dear Friend, — I am glad you have touched upon 
the Spanish question. I have been so deeply involved in 
that affair, and so often and so unjustly attacked, under 
the false supposition that I had been the principal actor 
in the destruction of the liberties of the Spanish people, 
that I feel particularly anxious to put you in possession 
of everything which occurred on the King's return to 

'His Majesty after leaving Barcelona chose the route of 
Aragon. I commanded at that time all the cavalry and 
artillery in that kingdom. I met the King on the fron- 
tier, and accompanied him by his express order to Va- 
lencia. During the King's stay at Saragossa his mind was 
certainly by no means prepared for the plan of action he 
was subsequently induced to adopt. For, speaking to me 
of the Constitution, he said, " There are many parts of 
this work I do not approve ; but if any opposition on 
my part were likely to cause the shedding of one drop of 
Spanish blood, I would swear to it immediately." 

' At Valencia I was asked my opinion as to whether 
the King should swear to the Constitution or not. I an- 
swered then, as I should do now, for my sentiments have 
not changed : " The Constitution, as it now stands, is 
too democratic to be in unison and harmony with the 
habits and ideas of the Spanish people, or with the laws 
and customs of the Spanish monarchy.* It must be 
modified in many parts to give well-founded hopes of its 
duration. Yet one article of the Constitution forbids the 

s * This letter, written in 1820, is of course likely to be more accurate 
than the Recollections, written entirely from memory in 1840 ; but there is 
no material discrepancy between the two documents. The later accounts t 
written for his nieces were briefer than the more business-like letter of ex- 
planation iO Mr. Murdoch. 



slightest alteration during the space of eight years. The 
King, therefore, must either deprive himself of the possi- 
bility of amelioration, or be guilty of wilful and pre- 
determined perjury. It is therefore my opinion that the 
King, under existing circumstances, cannot swear to the 
Constitution as formed by the Cortes. But it is also my 
opinion that the members of the Cortes have deserved 
well of the King and of the country ; that His Majesty 
unaccompanied by a single soldier should dissolve the 
Cortes in person ; should thank them for the good ser- 
vices they have rendered to the state, and should express 
the pleasure he anticipated in seeing them re-elected by 
their constituents as members of the Cortes he was about 
to summon." 

6 The day following, I was directed to return to Sara- 
gossa. Three days afterwards I received an official order 
from General Elio, in the King's name, to march with 
all the cavalry and artillery under my command to 
Guadalaxara, nine leagues from Madrid. On the road I 
was met by an officer from the Regency, who desired to 
know by what authority I entered Castile. I sent a 
copy of the order to the Regency ; and on my arrival at 
Guadalaxara, I received orders from Elio, in the King's 
name, to wait the pleasure of His Majesty. On the day 
of the King's entrance into the capital, the cavalry under 
my command marched in, to line the streets. But so far 
were they from being necessary, that the people had 
gone out three leagues to meet the King ; had taken the 
horses out of his carriage, and were bringing him in 
triumph into the city, when we arrived at the gates of 

' As to the arrests of the members of the Cortes, they 
had taken place the night before by order of Eguia, 
when not one soldier of mine was within thirty miles of 
the capital. 

' This is a plain statement of facts ; and I confess I 



am not aware that I could in anywise vary my conduct 
had I again to act in a similar situation. 

' A few days after His Majesty arrived in Madrid, he 
sent to me the Count de Corres, nephew to the Duke of 
San Carlos,* " to desire me to point out any favour I wished 
to have granted, as his Majesty was desirous of giving 
me some proof of his esteem.' I requested the Count 
de Corres to state to his Majesty, " my gratitude for his 
kindness; but at the same time, to assure His Majesty 
that I felt amply rewarded by the military promotion 
I had obtained during the war, and that I desired 
nothing further." One word from me at that time would 
have obtained me a title, and a military encomienda.f 
But I felt that my position was delicate ; and I preferred 
without hesitation, as I trust in God I always shall, 
poverty to dishonour. Had I accepted a reward from 
Ferdinand, it might have been said that I had been 
bribed ; and I have always considered, that it is not suffi- 
cient to be satisfied in your own conscience that you 
have acted rightly ; it is necessary to deprive even your 
enemies of every plausible pretext for attacking your re- 

4 Believe me, &c. 

'Samford Whittingham.' 

From Madrid, Sir Samford returned early in August, 
1819, to Bagnieres de Bigorre ; whence he removed in 
October to Bordeaux. 

In November, he took his two eldest children via Paris 
to London, to his brother-in-law's, and saw them soon 
after established at a school in Hammersmith, at which 
were staying the two sons of his dear friend Sir Henry 
Torrens. He passed less than two months in England on 
this occasion. 

* The Duke was then the King's principal Minister. 

t Either the product of a certain amount of land, or a claim on the rent. 


Whilst still there, he wrote a letter to Mr. Davis dated 
14th December, 1819, in which he informed him that he 
had ' had a long conversation with Lord Castlereagh the 
other day ' on the subject of his (Mr. Davis) losses, by 
the great commercial crisis of that period. The Minister 
assured Sir Samford that notwithstanding these losses his 
brother-in-law ' never stood so high in the opinion of 
Government.' His Lordship added : — ' He has borne his 
unmerited misfortunes with a strength of mind which 
does him infinite honour ; and the value of his character 
was never so well known as since his late trial. HisEoyal 
Highness the Eegent said the other day, " There is not a 
man in the House of Commons, without one single ex- 
ception, for whom I have a higher esteem than for Hart 
Davis." ' * 

It may be easily imagined what pleasure it gave Sir 
Samford Whittingham to communicate Lord Castlereagh's 
observations to his oldest and best friend and connection, 
in whose losses his own fortune had likewise disappeared. 
He had now to take leave of Mr. Davis and his old 
friends, to proceed to the West Indies. 

Before sailing, the account of which will be given in the 
following chapter, Sir Samford received a farewell letter 
from his old friend Baron Hugel, which contained the fol- 
lowing not very encouraging passage : 

c Comment, mon ami, vous allez done vous ensevelir 
dans un pays sans souvenirs et sans esperances ? Un 
pays de sucre, de cafe et d'esclaves ? Un pays oil tout le 
monde vegete dans le vice et dans V ignorance ? Que le bon 
Dieu vous benisse, et vous tienne dans sa sainte garde!'] 

* Lest the reader should suppose this to "be a mere party opinion, it may 
be well here to state that the liberal Lord William Bentinck, in one of his 
letters to Sir Samford Whittingham, written in 1831, states, 'I have always 
had a great respect for Mr. Hart Davis.' 

t ' What, my friend, you are going to bury yourself in a country without 
recollections, and without hopes ? A land of sugar, of coffee, and of slaves? 
A land in which all the world vegetates in vice and ignorance ? May God 
bless you, and shield you with his holy protection ! ' 




IN-CHIEF — lord hastings's great error. 

On the evening of the 1st January, 1820, Sir Samford 
Whittingham arrived at Dover, 'after spending a delight- 
ful day at Maidstone with Sir John Brown.' * On the 
3rd he recrossed the Straits, and returned to Bordeaux 
via Paris, as he had come. Sickness in his family de- 
tained him many weeks ; f so that the embarkation did 
not take place till near the end of February ; and Domi- 
nica was reached on the 28th of March. 

By May, he was obliged to send home one of his chil- 
dren from sickness, and the remainder of his family were 
laid up with fever. But he had the satisfaction of speedily 
restoring order and concord in Dominica, which had been 
in a discontented state before his arrival. 

* Letter to his brother-in-law. 

f During this detention, the sad news must have reached him of the pre- 
mature death of his earliest illustrious patron, the good and kind-hearted 
Duke of Kent, who expired on the 23rd January, 1820. 


Iii a letter, dated ' Eoseau, 24th August, 1820/ he 
writes : — ' We are going on perfectly well here, and I 
hope shall continue so to do. I make it a point to em- 
ploy all possible forbearance and moderation in all my 
transactions with the [local] Colonial Government, and I 
love to hope that my efforts will be crowned with suc- 
cess.' On 2nd October, he records the destructive effects 
of a gale, and sends a memorial on the subject to His 
Majesty. In a later letter he writes, 'Exercise is gene- 
rally considered as contributive to health in this country. 
For myself I never took harder exercise even in Europe. 
The other day I walked upwards of twelve miles in a 
broiling sun ; and found myself all the better for it.' 
This was pretty well in a tropical mountainous Island. 
But Dominica with its small garrison had no attractions 
for a zealous soldier, whose thoughts were entirely turned 
to India. As early as May 1821, he had hopes of an 
Indian appointment ; and was anxious to get Earl 
Bathurst's leave to quit his government as soon as he 
should be nominated to the new post. At this time 
Lady Whittingham's health compelled her to return to 
Europe with the two younger children. From his coun- 
try seat, 'Babillard 7 on the 20th May, 1821, he writes 
to his brother with no love for his solitary life in the 
little sugar Island, in which there was little to interest 
him : ' Were I not provided with books it would be diffi- 
cult to prevent my spirits from sinking under it. I go 
to town [Eoseau] Tuesdays and Thursdays. I start at 
five in the morning, and leave Eoseau at five in the even- 
ing.' He amused himself by Avriting home instructions 
for the education of his children, the eldest of whom was 
less than eight years old. 

In the same letter he records his simple system of 
colonial government. It is perhaps not unworthy of re- 
cord ; as it is certain that there seldom was a more 
popular government than his brief one of Dominica : — 


c I have not hitherto occupied your attention about the 
affairs of this government ; because I have not thought it 
of sufficient importance. My own system has been simple 
and unvaried. I have never courted any man. I have 
never favoured any particular party. I have constantly 
inculcated, both by precept and example, that in all our 
acts and deeds the good of the Colony should be our 
only object ; and that a spirit of harmony reigning with- 
out interruption in all the councils of this Colonial Legis- 
lature would be the best and surest mode of re-estab- 
lishing our reputation at home ! I have lived retired 
from society except on particular occasions ; and I have 
endeavoured, as much as in me lay, both by my public 
and private conduct, to justify my principles by my ex- 
ample. I am happy to be able to add, that success lias 
crowned my endeavours, and that the inhabitants of 
Dominica are satisfied with their Governor.' 

He here omits, however, one of the well known causes 
of his popularity throughout his life, his hospitable din- 
ners, which, in spite of his own temperate habits, he took 
care should be most excellent of their kind. His friend 
Mr. Murdoch, the great wine merchant, selected his sherry 
and madeira. His French friend Count Turenne, who 
had been in the household of Napoleon, ordered for him 
his champagne and claret direct from France, and en- 
sured him the best vintages. Especially was this the case 
in India, but the system was commenced in Dominica. 

In the letter before quoted, he writes : ' I hope to be 
able to forward to Lord Bathurst by this packet an act 
of this Colonial Legislature, containing many useful regu- 
lations in favour of the slave population. The 35th clause, 
which establishes the admission of the evidence of people 
of colour in criminal cases, a privilege they did not before 
enjoy, I consider as most just and highly expedient.' A 
long discussion on the state of the Island concludes the 


On tlie 5th of October, 1821, he describes Ms joy at 
receiving the news of his appointment as Quartermaster- 
General of the royal army in India, and adds : ' In con- 
sequence of the letters by this packet, I have called the 
Council and Assembly together for Monday next, when I 
shall address to them my farewell speech. I shall, how- 
ever, of course, not give up the reins of government till 
I quit the Island. The sale of my few moveables will 
begin immediately : I fear their produce will be trifling. 
My outfit was expensive, but consisted almost exclusively 
of eatables and drinkables, and has therefore vanished 
without leaving a trace. You will not hear from me by 
letter after this packet: for as I go home in the next, 
I should only be the bearer of my own dispatches.' 

The popularity of Sir Samford Whittingham in Domi- 
nica (in spite of his short stay and his haste to depart) 
was proved by something more lasting than words, more 
convincing than addresses, though these were not want- 
ing. The inhabitants of the Island presented him with 
the Grand Cross of San Fernando, beautifully set in dia- 
monds, in testimony of his important services, whilst he 
administered the government of that Island. And the 
proprietors of estates resident in England also made him 
a present of a dress sword, as a testimony of their ap- 
probation of his conduct. His Majesty George IV. was 
moreover graciously pleased, on his return to England, 
to make him a Knight Commander of the Hanoverian 
Guelphic Order. 

But even in Dominica with its small garrison, so dif- 
ferent from the force he had commanded in 1813, he did 
not forget the interests of his soldiers ; for, as full Colonel, 
he had commanded the troops as a consequence of being 
Governor. The following letter was written to Sir Sam- 
ford Whittingham (some months after his return to 
England) by the Secretary at the Colonial Office :— 


' Downing Street, Friday, 18th January ; 1822. 

c Sir, — Perhaps it will be superfluous for me to inform 
you that your proposition with respect to the attachment 
of ten black men,* &c. &c. will be immediately recom- 
mended by Lord Bathurst to the consideration of His 
Eoyal Highness the Commander-in-Chief ; and that your 
other valuable suggestions have been attended to. But 
as you were so obliging as to write to me at my desire 
upon these points, I have thought it right to apprize 
you. myself of the effect of your letter. I have the 
honour to remain, 

4 Your most obedient humble servant, 

' E. Wilmot.' 

< Sir Samford Whittingham, &c.' 

In this letter was one to Mr. Wilmot from Sir Herbert 
Taylor, conveying the intention of H.E.H. the Duke of 
York to apply in future the practice suggested, ' in the 
proportion of ten men for each company of the Euro- 
pean regiments serving at any time in the West Indies.* 
What a boon this was to the non-commissioned officers 
and privates serving in that trying climate, even civilians 
wall be able to comprehend. 

Previously to this correspondence, the health of Lady 
Whittingham not permitting her to proceed to India, the 
General had taken her and the younger children to Paris, 
and leaving the elder at their school in England, to 
spend their holidays with their uncle Mr. Hart Davis, he 
started on his first long Indian exile, rendered necessary 
by his increase of family and the partial expenditure and 
partial loss of his private fortune. 

It was and is usual to take introductions on going to 
India ; and certainly, Colonel Sir Samford Whittingham 
carried out with him, testimonies of which any man might 
well have been proud. 

* To each company of infantry. 


The following letter was dictated, all but the post- 
script, by the celebrated William Wilberforce, a great 
friend of Mr. Harford of Blaise Castle, Sir Samford's 
nephew by marriage : — 

To the Lord Bishop of Calcutta* 

1 Near London, 22nd April, 1822. 

' My dear Lord, — I at once esteem it an honour and 
feel it a pleasure to have devolved on me the welcome 
office of introducing to your Lordship Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham, who is going out to India to fill the important 
station of Quartermaster-General. Notwithstanding your 
having been so long removed into another hemisphere, 
and your attention solicited by such a variety of new 
and interesting objects, I can scarcely doubt that you 
have kept in view what has been going forward in the 
Western world, sufficiently to render it almost unneces- 
sary for me to state to you how high and important a 
place General Wliittingham has occupied both on the 
Continent (in Spain), and since as a Governor of one of 
our West Indian Islands. But I have still greater plea- 
sure in telling you that he is, I trust, under the influence 
of religious principles, which render Mm very favourable 
to those high objects, which though less brilliant in the 
eyes of men of the world, are justly considered to be of 
a higher order, and more important to the best interests 
of our fellow-creatures.' 

The rest of the long dictated letter relates to missionary 
work in India. The signature and postscript are alone 
written by the great philanthropist himself. The post- 
script says : — ' A complaint in my eyes, which has become 
habitual, compels me to write by the hand of another.' 

The Bishop (Dr. Middleton) died a few months after the arrival at 
Calcutta of Sir Samford Wliittingham. 

wilberforce's letters. 291 

This no doubt applied only to long letters ; for, five days 
later, lie writes to Sir Samford the following entirely in 
his own hand, which however apparently must have been 
a great exertion to him, being somewhat difficult to de- 
cipher : — 

1 45 Brompton Row, 27 th April, 1822. 

c My dear Sir, — My friend Mr. Harford gratified me 
some time ago by telling me that you would allow me to 
have the honour and pleasure (for I can truly say it is 
both the one and the other in my judgment and feelings) 
of introducing the Bishop of Calcutta to your acquaint- 
ance. Allow me, therefore, to request of you to be the 
bearer of the inclosed letter. I hope to have the pleasure 
of wishing you a good voyage in person : but as you 
may make up your letters, &c. before your departure, I 
had better send it now. The Bishop, I scarcely need 
assure you, is a man of learning and talents, and of piety 
too, I trust ; though there was at one time, not quite that 
feeling expressed towards some of the best of men in 
India, I mean regular clergymen, too, that was to be de- 
sired. I hope the liberal grant of 5,000/. to the Bishop's 
College, and at his disposal, will have done away all 
jealousy, and have shown his Lordship the wish our 
society really feels to testify their respect for his station 
and character, and their desire of aiding his endea- 
vours for the public good. Of course all this I take the 
liberty of throwing out confidentially,* and remain, with 
every good wish for your health and happiness, my 

dear Sir S. 

c Your faithful servant, 

' W. Wilberforce.' 

'General Sir S. Whittinghani, &c.' 

* After fort}^-five years, it is to be hoped that these doubts about the 
Bishop's likings for certain missionaries may be published without indis- 

u )> 


Lieut. -General Sir H. Clinton whom Sir Samford had 
served under for a short time in 1813, and Sir Herbert 
Taylor, Military Secretary, whose acquaintance he had re- 
cently made, and Lieut.-General Sir John Murray, who 
had so often praised him in General Orders, all wrote 
flattering letters introducing him to the Commander-in- 
Chief in India, the Hon. Sir Edward Paget, that brother 
of the Marquis of Anglesey, who both from his public 
and private character might be truly called the pearl of 
the Pagets. 

From limited space only three more introductions are 
inserted in this work. These are of no common kind : — 

H.M. King George IV. to Sir Edward Paget 

1 Carlton House, 27th April, 1822. 

; My dear Sir Edward, — This will be delivered to you 
by my aide-de-camp, Sir Samford Whittingham,* a very 
smart, excellent, and distinguished officer ; but this must 
be as well known to you as to myself. I do desire, 
therefore, that you will take every opportunity of shew- 
ing him kindness and advancing his interests : this will be 
truly felt by 

' Tour sincere friend, 

1 George B.' 

'To His Excellency Lieut.-General 

' The Hon. Sir Edward Paget, &c, India.' 

The next is official from H.E.H. the Duke of York ; 
and gives Sir Edward his local rank of (full) General : — 

' Horse-Gtjards, 3rd May, 1822. 

* Sir, — Colonel Sir Samford Whittingham being about 
to embark for India, to take upon himself the duties of 
Quartermaster-General of the Force under your cora- 

* Was it the gentlemanly repugnance to call a man Colonel who had so 
long served as a Oeneral, that made His Majesty omit the military rank 
altogether ? 


mand, I cannot suffer him to proceed without recom- 
mending him to you as an officer highly deserving of 
your confidence. 

' I am, Sir, yours, 

' Frederick, 

i Commander-in-Chief.' 
' General the Hon. Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B.' 

The following letter is, on several accounts, especially 
worthy of record : — 

From Sir Henry Torrens, Adjutant-General* 

1 Horse-Guards, 4th May, 1822. 

c My dear Paget, — I am desirous of presenting to you 
the bearer, Sir Samford Whittingham, in a manner quite 
different from the common run of introductions ; for as 
an officer and a gentleman, I think you will find him a 
peculiar acquisition to your Staff. He joins to a practical 
knowledge of his profession every scientific acquirement 
which is necessary to render him a useful and distin- 
guished Staff officer ; and I only regret that the Consti- 
tution and usages in India are so little calculated to 
enable you to benefit by Whittinghain's talents,f in the 
duties of his appointment, should you happen to have 
any service in the field. 

' Depend upon it, however, that you will always find 
him capable of fulfilling your expectations, in any situa- 
tion in which the exigencies of the service may require 
you or enable you to place him, You perhaps know that 
Sir Samford was employed with the Spanish army from 
the earliest period of the revolt of that nation against the 

* So appointed 25th March, 1820. 

f Sir Henry Ton-ens alludes to the jealous provisions against the influ- 
ence of Kings versus Company's officers. The Quartermaster-General, for 
instance, of all the King's forces in India was, in each Presidency, a less 
influential officer than the Quartermaster-Generals of the three local armies. 
With the abolition of the Company, all have become Royal officers. 


power of France ; and that he held a very considerable 
command until the period when he conducted King Fer- 
dinand to Madrid. His devotion to the Spanish cause 
has led him into expenses in the public service of that 
country which he has never recovered, and which has so 
materially impaired a private fortune once considerable, 
that he is forced to proceed to India as the only probable 
means left him of benefiting a numerous family, which 
he leaves in Europe.* Exclusive of this inducement, I 
must add in justice to Whittingham's military zeal, that 
he has long wished to serve in the East, where the ex- 
tensive scale of operations affords an ample field to a 
soldier's laudable ambition. It is difficult now to say 
whether any operations may occur in India for a length 
of time. If they do^ depend upon it you will never find 
him fail you : and whether they do or not I feel con- 
fident that you will lend your friendly hand towards the 
aid of his interests in any manner in which you can 
benefit the King's Quartermaster-General. 

' 1 sincerely join, my dear Paget, in the desire felt by 
all your friends in this country to hear from you, and in 
the hope of good accounts, I remain ever, 

Yours most sincerely, 

1 General Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B.' 

The words of Sir Henry Torrens which the Editor has 
placed in italics, were (as the reader will see in due time) 
realized to the letter in the organization of the Indian 
army, and in the preparations for the campaign in Bur- 
mah, and for the siege of Bhurtpore. 

* Sir Sainford, it seems, had not imparted to Sir Henry Torrens the 
cause of his other losses of fortune. 


Sir Samford Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Madbas, 30th September, 1822. 

' Our passage was long and tedious, but tranquil and 
easy. General Sir Alexander Campbell ' [Commander-in- 
Chief at Madras], ' sent one of his aides-de-camp on board 
the "Lady Raffles" with a very kind note requesting me 
to occupy a room in his house. I had not seen him 
since the battle of Talavera, where we were both 
wounded. The 24th, I landed early in the morning, and 
breakfasted with him. His attentions to me have been 
unceasing. Lord Hastings will sail from Calcutta towards 
the. end of December. A vessel in the service of the 
Company has already sailed from Bombay, with orders to 
touch, at Ceylon and bring Sir Edward Paget and family 
to Calcutta. He will probably arrive in the course of 

' 2nd September. — To-morrow we sail for Calcutta.' 

How Sir Samford had been appreciated at Madras is 
recorded in a letter written some months later in London 
by Mr. Bartle Frere, dated only 'Friday night,' and 
without address, but evidently written to Mr. Hart 
Davis : — 

' On returning home to-night, I find a letter from my 
friend to whom I recommended Whittingham, at Madras, 
by which I have the pleasure of informing you of his 
safe arrival there. It is dated October the 4th. I sup- 
pose he must have been there some days, for my corre- 
spondent says : " he is a most delightful personage, much 
liked by all who have had an opportunity of cultivating 
his acquaintance." In another passage he says, "your 
friend is still detained here, and will not proceed on his 
voyage yet for a few days. He resides with Sir A. 
Campbell, so that we meet almost daily, and so pleasant 
do we all find him that we not only regret the shortness 
of his stay among us, but wish that he were finally fixed 


at Madras, instead of Calcutta." I am surprised that we 
have nothing from Whittingham.' 

It appears by one of his letters that the latter arrived 
at Calcutta on the 2nd November, 1822. The following 
was "written by Sir Samford after making acquaintance 
with the Marquis of Hastings, then Governor-General and 
also Commander-in-Chief : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

i Calcutta, 26th November, 1822. 

4 1 have not yet been enabled to procure a house, but 
I am in hopes of succeeding within a day or two. Com- 
modore Hayes has very kindly given me a lodging in .his 
house, without which assistance I really know not what 
I should have done ; for Sir Thomas Macmahon* has no 
spare room, and the hotels are not frequented by gentle- 
men. I have spent a week in Barrackpore with Lord 
Hastings. I never knew a more delightful man.' 

He sent his brother-in-law some extracts from his 
journal since his arrival in Calcutta, a very few of which, 
and these curtailed, follow here. 

1 Calcutta, 2nd November, 1822. — Nothing can exceed 
the magnificent view which the entrance into Calcutta 
presents/ [Here, there is a long description, needless to 
quote, of oft-described beauties.] 'The climate is now 
as delightful as the scenery is enchanting, the thermo- 
meter ranging from 65° to 75°. Land of magnificent re- 
collections, I hail thee ! Thy history of the past, thy 
present greatness, thy future changes — are all equally 
interesting; and nothing which relates to India can be 
considered with indifference. 

6 At half-past two I landed at Calcutta, and Commo- 
dore Hayes insisted upon my occupying rooms in his 
house. I never in any part of the world experienced such 

* Then Adjutant-General of the royal army in India. 


hospitality from anyone as from the Commodore and his 

' 1th November. — I called this morning on Marquis 
Hastings at Government House. He received me very 
kindly, spoke with much interest on the subject of the 
late war, and finally took credit to himself for the pre- 
sent prosperous state of India. The 16th Lancers are just 
arrived, and we compared the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of the sabre and the lance. To elucidate the dis- 
cussion, the Marquis ordered two of the native lances to 
be produced. They are made of bamboo, very elastic 
and very light. The Marquis took one lance, I took 
another ; we pointed our weapons, and advanced to the 
charge. My Uncle Toby and Corporal Trim could not 
have done it better. 

'At seven in the evening I returned to dinner. Lady 
Hastings made her appearance at half-past eight.' [A 
very graphic but not equally flattering description of her 
Ladyship is here omitted.] 'The Marquis himself is the 
model of a perfect English gentleman, and had Lady 
Hastingsf not accompanied him to India, he would have 
been the most popular Governor-General that ever yet 
presided over the affairs of that Government. 

6 Lord Hastings dines in the French style, the gentle- 
men accompany the ladies to the drawing-room. This is 
to me on every account delightful, and particularly so 
in the present case, as it furnishes ample opportunity for 
long and interesting conversations with his Lordship.' 

Sir Samford then describes at large the details given 
by his Lordship of his successful administration of the 

* Nothing strikes an Englishman on first arriving in India more than 
the boundless hospitality of his countrymen. 

f A haughtiness of manner (that may have been unintentional) was 
apparently the chief cause of this lady's unpopularity in India. She is 
said, however, to have also habitually kept her guests waiting dinner for 


finances of India, in spite of the great expenses of a three 
years' war. 

The journal then proceeds, — 'His Lordship related 
many amusing anecdotes of Scindiah, Ameer Khan, and 
Holkar. His system of espionage was so well organized 
during the war, that he always received with the least 
possible loss of time, copies of the information sent to the 
enemy. This generally consisted of observations made 
on him personally, and the deductions were very curious. 
His Lordship's smiles and frowns, seriousness and gaiety, 
nay, the very pace he rode in his morning's exercise, 
were, according to these deep observers, all the result 
of political causes. And not a single action of his life, 
however trivial, could they allow to take place, with- 
out attributing it to some great and mighty hidden 

Next comes the visit to Lord Hastings, at Barrackpore. 
The Marquis had been more than nine years in his high 
position, having been appointed on the 12th March, 

From the Marquis of Hastings. 

[Calcutta], ( 9th November, 1822. 

6 My dear Sir, — Next Friday morning, we shall return 
to Barrackpore, to pass a week, possibly our last, at that 
pleasant place. As you may like to see it, and your 
company there would be gratifying to Lady Hastings and 
myself, I cannot omit trying to tempt you thither. It 
will be a novelty to you to be lodged in a bungalow, 
but I trust you would find it no uncomfortable accom- 

6 1 have the honour to be, my dear Sir, 

' Your very obedient servant, 

' Hastings.' 

< Sir S. F. Wkittingham, &c.' 


Extracts of Journal continued. 

4 Barrachpore, 16th November, 1822. — I left the hospi- 
table mansion of Commodore Hayes, at six this morning, 
and arrived at this beautiful mansion of the Governor- 
General, at half past seven, distance sixteen miles.'* 
After describing the luxurious comforts provided for 
aim and the kind attentions shown him by the Marquis, 
and also detailing the habits of the household at Barrack- 
pore ; he describes his ' first elephantine excursion '] : 
4 Captain Doyle called for me at five o'clock. The how- 
dah or castle contains two persons with ease. The ele- 
phant lies down, a ladder is placed against his side, 
which you ascend, to take your lofty seat. The animal 
is commonly twelve feet high. I like his motion, and 
prefer this mode of conveyance to any other. A thousand 
recoliections of the grandeur of the House of Timour, 
of war and battle, and the rise and fall of mighty em- 
pires, are conjured up by being mounted on this noble 

6 llth Nov. — Lord Hastings took me with him this 
morning at five o'clock, on his favourite elephant, through 
the cantonment of four battalions of native infantry, situ- 
ated on the open ground beyond the park. His conver- 
sation is always interesting and instructive, and his good- 
ness and kindness to me are flattering in the extreme. 

'18th Nov. — The house in which I am lodged, is not 
properly a bungalow (which is in fact a thatched cot- 
tage), but a square building composed of four habitations, 
with a large dining-room in the centre. Mr. Adam, who 
will hold the Government ad interim, after the departure 
of Lord Hastings, occupies one suite of rooms, Major 
Taylor, the director of the college of writers, another, the 
third is vacant, and I occupy the fourth. The Marquis 

* All mere local descriptions are omitted. This journal alone would make 
a good sized pamphlet ! 


is kind and attentive to me beyond measure, and I find 
in the familiar intercourse with which he is pleased to 
honour me, the greatest source of enjoyment. I certainly 
never experienced so much confidence from any great 
man in so short an acquaintance, as from Lord Hastings. 

' 19 th Nov. — This morning after breakfast, Lord Hast- 
ings* desired me to accompany him to his study, where 
he was pleased to submit to my perusal the following 
interesting documents.' — [Briefly, they were five im- 
portant political correspondences, on the principal trans- 
actions of Lord Hastings, political, diplomatic, and financial 
affairs, including matters concerning the King of Oude, 
the Peishwa, and the Eajah of Bhurtpore. Of these 
documents, one was : — ] ' A letter from the Resident at 
Oude, giving an account of his having communicated to 
the King the intended departure of Lord Hastings. The 
King of Oude was so affected at the news, that for some 
time, he could not speak. At length, a flood of tears 
came to his relief, and he burst forth into the most bitter 
lamentations.' [The Rajah of Bhurtpore had very prac- 
tically proved the influence over him of the Governor- 
General. Sir Samford remarks : — ] ; When we reflect 
upon this Rajah's triumph over our forces under Lord 
Lake, and upon his extreme vanity and arrogance since 
that period, this change of sentiment and manner does 
great credit to the able negotiations of Lord Hastings.' 

[When he penned these words, Sir Samford little ima- 
gined that he himself was destined to contribute greatly 
to the final downfall of this haughty Rajah.] 

'After finishing the perusal of these documents, his 
Lordship related the following anecdotes of the King of 
Ava and of Scindiah. 

' Whilst the Marquis was engaged in the war against 

* Lord Hastings being Commander-in-Chief as well as Governor-General, 
the Quartermaster-General was under his immediate orders. But officially 
the latter had nothing to do with civil affairs. 


Central India, he received an embassy from the King of 
Ava, ordering him to restore immediately to the empire 
of the Burmese, their natural frontiers, by delivering up, 
to the officers he should appoint, Dacca and all its corre- 
sponding territories. The Governor-General sent back the 
King of Ava's letter upon the pretended supposition that 
it was a forgery quite unknown to the King, and evi- 
dently invented by some enemy to the peace and tran- 
quillity which so happily reigned between the two 
empires. Nothing more was heard of the pretensions of 
the King of Ava/ 

The anecdote regarding Scindiah, (too long for insertion 
here) proved how Lord Hastings had won his gratitude 
and effective services by boldly reposing confidence in 
him at a critical moment. 

The following is the only other note of his Lordship's 
to Sir Samford, besides the one already quoted, that has 
reached the Editor's hands : — 

[Calcutta] ' 25th November, 1822. 

c My dear Sir, — If you have no other engagement for 
Wednesday or Thursday, let me beg of you to favour us 
with your company to dinner on either of these days 
which may best suit you. Many thanks for the Archduke 
Charles's narrative. Though I have only been able to 
give a hasty glance at it, I have had a lesson from it. 
With decent self-sufficiency, I had flattered myself that 
I had conceived and digested novel principles respecting 
mountain warfare, and I have found all my notions, 
superiorily detailed in the observations on the inroad into 
the Tyrol. — 

6 1 have the honour to be, my dear Sir, 

' Your very obedient servant, 


< Sir S. F. Whittingham, &c.' 


Sir Samford Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Calcutta, 9th December, 1822. 

' To-day the address has been presented to Lord Hast- 
ings, and he made his reply. Sir Edward Paget is 
arrived in the river.* On the 28th Lord Hastings sails 
in the " Glasgow" Captain Doyle, for the Mediterranean. 
It is strongly rumoured here that Mr. Canning will not 
come out, that Lord Wellesley will be appointed Governor- 
General, and Lord Hastings go to Ireland in his room. 
This arrangement, if there were any truth in it, would 
please the people of this country amazingly : for Lord 
Wellesley is more popular amongst all ranks and all 
classes than I can possibly express. 

' To-morrow I commence the Persian language ; at 
which I shall work as though recommencing life.' 

The account of the first meeting of Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham with Sir Edward Paget, the man who was to 
become to him a more than second Cadogan, has not 
reached the Editor's hands. The appearance and man- 
ners of the new Commander-in-Chief, even before there 
was time to appreciate his inestimable mental and moral 
qualities, were calculated to win all hearts, and to com- 
mand universal respect. Though both the Chief and his 
Quartermaster-General had fought and bled in the 
Peninsula, they had never yet met as acquaintances. But 
they were soon destined to become both officially and 
privately the best and truest of friends, thus realizing in 
a wonderful degree the sanguine anticipations of Sir 
Henry Torrens's remarkable letter of introduction. 

Sir Samford Whittingham's first opinions in favour of 
the Marquis of Hastings were afterwards considerably 
modified, on discovering the wretchedly inefficient state 
in which that nobleman had left the army of Bengal, 

* From Ceylon, where he had been Governor. 


which he had sacrificed entirely to his otherwise laud- 
able schemes of economy. In India, especially, to be 
ready for war is indispensable to the permanent security 
of peace ; and the expenses of the Burmese war, and of 
the Bhurtpore campaign were of course greatly increased 
by the Marquis's neglect of this maxim. Though he saved 
money himself, he became a main cause of the expen- 
diture of his successors, who were compelled in haste to 
supply what he had failed at leisure to provide — a well 
organized military force. 

In this respect Sir Edward Paget had a great and 
arduous task to perform, and he performed it well, with 
the assistance of that Staff-officer whom he most esteemed 
and on whom he most relied ; and to whom, with a 
generosity as magnanimous as it is rare, he gave to the 
utmost of his power, his full share of the honour and 
credit due to their united and indefatigable exertions ; as 
will be seen in the next and following chapters. 





Sir Samford Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

' Calcutta, 12th January, 1823. 

6 We yesterday received the melancholy intelligence that 
Lord Londonderry * had put a period to his existence. 
Gracious God! when such a man as this finds life too 
great a burden to be borne, who amongst us can place 
confidence in himself? Who can say, " fountain of thy 
waters I will never drink"? No doubt his mind must 
have been partially deranged, but this is a poor conso- 
lation ; for madness has so many shades that its bound- 
aries are scarcely to be defined, nor can its approaches 
be easily guarded against. 

* Better known as Viscount Castlereagh. 


' Lady Harriet Paget will sail for England this month. 
The General will begin the journey to the interior early 
in July.' 

On the 19th January, 1823, Sir Samford Whitting- 
ham writes, ' Lady Harriet Paget sails the latter end of 
this month. She is without exception one of the most 
amiable women I ever knew. I cultivate Sir Edward's 
friendship, and am every day more delighted with him.' 

To the Same. 

' Calcutta, 8th February, 1823. 

' The season is very fine, and yet we have lost many 
men of mark within the last six months ; the Bishop,* 
the Archdeacon, the Chief Justice, the Surveyor-General 
Mr. Good, one of the principal judges, Dr. Jameson, 
brother-in-law to Torrens, and many others ! 

' I continue my water and vegetable diet. I do not 
even eat fish. Sir Edward is not yet returned from ac- 
companying Lady Harriet down the river. He is expected 
to-day. She has taken charge of a letter for you. You 
will find her to be everything that is amiable and good 
and kind. We expect to begin our journey at the end 
of June. Our expedition will last full two years. We 
are all anxiety to know if Mr. Canning comes out, and if 
not who replaces him.' 

The following letter gives the earliest indications of Sir 
Edward Paget's desire to profit by the zeal and ability of 
the Quartermaster-General of the King's army, in India ; 
qualities the more valuable from the (at that period) 
generally notorious inefficiency of the wonted channels of 
the General Staff, the Company's officers, for carrying on 
the business of the Commander-in-Chief: — 

* Dr. Middleton, to whom Mr. Wilberforce introduced Sir Samford. 



Sir Samford Whittingham to the Hon. Sir 

Edward Paget. 

1 Chowklnghee, 16th Februaj-y, 1823. 

' My dear General, — Lieutenant Colonel Marley* has 
mentioned to me your truly kind intentions of employ- 
ing my very weak means, but most excellent good will. 
I shall be delighted to be made useful in any way you 
may think proper ; and to merit your approbation will 
be ever my highest ambition. I have taken the liberty 
of enclosing a sketch of the information I ought to have 
been able to lay before you on your arrival, if I had 
been really the Quartermaster-General of the Indian 
army. Would you have the condescension to point 
out to me anything I have omitted, or to suggest any 
other arrangement that may appear to you better ? It 
is true I am now but a cypher, but should the chance 
of war ever render me effective under your command, 
I should be most anxious to be enabled to anticipate 
your general ideas, as well as to implicitly obey your 

' I fear this crazy machine of mine will again deprive 
me of the honour of dining with you. Nicholson talks 
of bleeding and medicining again to-morrow ; but no 
bodily illness that leaves my reason free will ever pre- 
vent my employing myself in the execution of your 

c I have the honour to be, with the most profound re- 
spect, c My dear General, 

6 Your most devoted servant, 

' Samford Whittingham/ 

1 General the Hon. Sir Edward Paget, 

1 Comrnander-in-Chief, G.C.B., &c. &c.' 

* Colonel Marley was the Military Secretary of Sir Edward Paget, and 
head of his Personal Staff. 


On the 19th February, he mentions to Mr. Davis the 
intention of Sir Edward Paget to employ him ' in draw- 
ing up a general state of India at present, particularly as 
to the military department. He has let me know that 
he does not mean to take the merit of the expose him- 
self, but to send it to the Duke of York as mine. And 
he has been pleased to add that he knows nobody more 
capable of executing a plan of such high importance.' 

On the 24th March, 1823, he writes: 'We have re- 
ceived the accounts of the nomination of Lord Amherst 
as Governor-General.' On the 4th April he tells his 
brother-in-law ' I am on the point of setting off with the 
Commander-in-Chief, on a visit to the Governor-General. , 
He adds a sentence worthy of record, as regards its bear- 
ing on a stormy future, then approaching : ' Sir Edward 
and Mr. Adam' [the temporary, Governor-General] 'are 
perfect models of what rulers should be. God grant the 
new Governor may harmonize with all their feelings, and 
fully co-operate with all their measures. A hundred mil- 
lions of souls, and an army of 250,000 men are weighty 
concerns to be arranged by such men as the East India 
Directors. If this were a Vice-Eoyalty under the King's 
government, it would be the brightest jewel in the 
crown; the most powerful Colony that ever existed in 
the world.' 

For the long and many letters describing his tour 
with his Chief in Bengal, from July to December, there 
is not space even for extracts. He was all this time 
(besides keeping up a voluminous correspondence with 
Mr. Davis) making himself, practically as well as theo- 
retically, thoroughly acquainted with the great Indian 
Empire in all its bearings ; and his pleasant intercourse 
with his Chief was daily ripening into the warmest per- 
sonal friendship, as well as mutual official esteem. 
Though Quartermaster-General, Sir Edward insisted on 
his living with him on the tour like one of his personal 

x 2 


staff ; thus adding to his comfort and lessening his ex- 
penses.* They visited Patna, Gazeepoor, Cawnpore, 
Futtyghur, and Agra. 

His letters to his brother contain graphic pictures of 
an Indian Commander-in-Chief's tour through the pro- 
vinces. Two sentences must suffice to give an idea of 
accounts which would fill a volume : — 

' 2nd Nov[ember, 1823.] — Unless I were to copy one 
of the stories of the Arabian Nights' Entertainment, it 
would be very difficult for me to convey even a tolerably 
just idea of the fete of last night given by the King of 
Oude to Sir Edward Paget.' 

After describing the almost incredible splendours of 
the entertainment, the profusion of jewels and precious 
metals, and all the forms and ceremonies and magnificent 
presents, he thus winds up his account : — ' I have never 
before witnessed so enchanting a scene. No description 
in Lalla-Eookh exceeds the reality of what we saw, and 
only such a pen as Moore's could paint the delightful 
illusion of this fairy fete ! The King did the honours of 
the reception with dignified ease, and his benign and 
good countenance well became the costly diamonds and 
lovely pearls with which his head and neck and arms 
and hands were ornamented. His dress was a shawl 
pelisse of inestimable value, and his whole appearance 
truly magnificent. 

' Sir Edward Paget's noble and handsome countenance, 
the emblem of every manly virtue, did honour to the 
distinction he was receiving, and completely filled up the 
picture, by a living demonstration that there is no real 
greatness but that which has virtue for its basis. I have 
never, in the course of my long wanderings, met with 
any man approaching so near to perfection as a soldier, a 
gentleman, and a Christian.' 

* The Commander-in-Chief at that time had more than £16,000 a year. 


In the beginning of 1824 Sir Edward Paget, now on 
his tour, was encamped at Meerut. In a long letter to 
his usual correspondent, dated Meerut, 20th February, 
Sir Saniford relates how he had offered his services to 
Sir Edward for an expected Burmese Campaign, no en- 
viable command, considering the terrible climate. ' He 
replied, " Where I go, you shall go, and you never shall 
be separated from me." Few things in this life have ever 
given me more pleasure. It is and has been ever my 
utmost ambition to merit the esteem and confidence of 
this model of everything that is great and good.' 

On the 20th March Sir Samford returned to Calcutta. 
There he and his Chief were busy making preparation 
for the Burmese war. Whilst at Calcutta Sir Samford 
received a letter dated ' Fyzabad, May 1824/ from his 
young friend Mr. (now Lord) William Godolphin Os- 
borne * (who had at one time been his guest), giving a 
long account of a very successful, exciting, and dangerous 
tiger hunt. His friendship for Mr. Osborne lasted for life, 
as did their occasional correspondence. 

If our Indian empire can now be considered safe, it is 
because many of the reforms considered indispensable by 
Sir Edward Paget and Sir Samford Whittinohain have 
been introduced since the faulty old system came to an 
end with the great Indian Mutiny. 

On the 17th May, 1824, he reports the commencement 
of the Burmese War, and also adds the following sen- 
tence, ominous of that coming mutiny, which, if Sir Ed- 
ward had met it with the coaxing and rose-water system 
by which the articles of war were then constantly diluted 
for the benefit of the natives, might have anticipated in 
its horrors its successor of thirty-three years later. ' The 
new regulations have curtailed the allowances of this 

* In 1832 he became Honourable, on his father being created Lord Go- 
dolphin ; and in 1859 he obtained the title of Lord, on the succession of his 
brother to the Dukedom of Leeds. 


[the Bengal] army, to such an extent that the highest 
discontent prevails throughout. If they are carried into 
effect, you will, I fear, hear of very serious conse- 
quences/ On the 20th he gives his brother-in-law some 
details of the progress of the Burmese War, and of the 
excitement and even anxiety in India. 

On the 10th May he had written : ' You will be 
pleased to hear, entre nous, that Sir Edward Paget has 
been pleased to honour me with his complete and un- 
reserved confidence. He calls for me every morning at 
daylight in his open carriage, and we ride alone till the 
sun obliges us to retire.' 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Calcutta, 10th June, 1824. 

' I wrote to you yesterday, enclosing a letter to Sir 
Herbert Taylor, giving some account of our late proceed- 
ings. But it is impossible to convey a just idea of the 
state to which we are reduced as to military preparation, 
without entering into details too minute for the contents 
of a letter. Suffice it to say that we have not a single 
twelve-pound shot in the arsenal, and that we are 700 
gun carriages short of our present wants ! 

' Sir Edward has given up the organization of the 
flotilla to Commodore Hayes and myself. By the end of 
this month we shall, I trust, have thirty gunboats and 
twelve armed brigs completely equipped, manned and 
armed, and soon after complete our number of gunboats 
to a hundred.' 

On the 30th June he writes : c The work of this month 
has been great, and we are fast recovering from the state 
of weakness we were in when I last wrote ; ' and he 
proceeds to enumerate the details. 

He had still hopes that Sir Edward Paget was about 
to take the field in person in Burmah, and longed for 


active service as a field for military distinction. On the 
1st August he writes : ' The season has been uncommonly 
sickly. Not five people out of one hundred have escaped 
fever : but the mortality has been trifling in comparison 
to the number who have been ill. The three great 
smokers of Calcutta, viz., Sir Edward Paget, Laruletta* 
and myself, have escaped, probably owing to the abun- 
dance and the goodness of our cigars. I long for the 
campaign to open ; I shall then have something to write 

The Burmese War was eventually satisfactorily con- 
cluded by Sir Archibald Campbell, without the personal 
intervention of the Commander-in-Chief. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' Caxctjtta, 20th September , 1824. 

' Sir Edward Paget has been pleased to say that I was 
the only person in India from whom he had derived 
comfort and support, and to whom he could unbosom 
himself freely, openly, and without reserve. He has been 
pleased to honour me with his friendship and fullest con- 
fidence ; and I feel more proud than I can express at 
having obtained the esteem of this best model of what a 
man should be ! 

' The longer I stay in India, the more I am convinced 
of the correct truth of all my former statements to you. 
The country hangs upon a thread. The slightest reverse 
would set the whole in a flame ; and you have not the 
smallest hold upon any class of men in all your vast 
Indian dominions, except that which immediately derives 
from the opinion, or rather the conviction, that your bay- 
onets and sabres are superior to theirs.f The Indian army 

* A well-known merchant of Calcutta. 

f It is evident that the great Indian mutiny, had he survived to hear of 
it, would not have surprised Sir Samford Whittingham. 



must become, and that speedily, a King's army, the num- 
ber of officers must be greatly increased, and the broken 
spirit of both officers and men regenerated.' 

The month of October continued to give the Quarter- 
master-General abundance of work in preparing the ex- 
pedition to Ava of the Commander-in-Chief, with a force 
of irresistible strength, should the prolonged resistance 
of the Burmese require it. 

November, 1824, opened in a melancholy manner, 
with the Mutiny of Barrackpore. There is no space here 
for the discussion of that vexed question. The infatuated 
adherents of the Indian coaxing system, whose eyes even 
the great crisis of 1857 has failed to open, and who 
would still employ rose-water to put down open rebel- 
lions, are impervious to the arguments of reason and 
experience ; and especially to the imperative necessities 
of military discipline. In affairs of government, civilians, 
though subjects, may and must be listened to and 
reasoned with ; but soldiers must be silent and obey, or 
the army becomes a mere rabble, more dangerous to its 
friends than to its enemies, as was proved in 1857. 
Whether a Government be despotic, constitutional or re- 
publican, does not affect this rule. 

As the dear friend of Sir Edward Paget, and as an 
officer who ever considered obedience as the chief duty 
of a soldier, it is needless to say that Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham sympathized fully with his Chief, who not with- 
out great reluctance, and even anguish of mind, trod out 
the dangerous mutiny of Barrackpore in the most decisive 

It appears that Sir Samford was employed to send in a 
brief report of this mutiny and of its suppression, for the 
information of the Governor-General's secretary ; at least 
so the Editor interprets the following copy (written in 



Sir Samford's hand), of the original, which he wrote on 
the occasion ; and which copy bears no address to show 
to whom it was written : — 

(Private and Confidential.) 

< Barkackpore, 5th November, 1824. 

c Dear Sir, — The Commander-in-Chief, being extremely 
occupied at the present moment, has requested me to 
communicate for your information the following detail of 
a daring mutiny which broke out amongst the Sepoy bat- 
talions at this station on the 1st instant. 

' The 26th, 47th, and 62nd Eegiments of Bengal Native 
Infantry were under orders for foreign service, and were 
to march to Chittagong from this cantonment succes- 
sively, with an interval of two days between the time of 
their respective departures. 

6 On the 1st of this month, it was officially reported to 
His Excellency that the 47th Native Infantry had re- 
fused to march, and that they were in a state of open 

c The Commander-in-Chief proceeded immediately to 
Barrackpore in the hopes that his presence might pro- 
duce some effect upon the mutineers. But they continued 
firm in their determination, and it became necessary to 
have recourse to coercive measures to bring them to 

'Before twelve at night, the Koyals,* H.M.'s 47th 
Eegiment, the Governor-General's body-guard, and a 
battery of field artillery, had arrived, and were assembled 
in the park at Barrackpore. 

* At daybreak two battalions N.I. ; H.M.'s 47th, and 
the body-guard with its gallopers,f were formed on the 

* H.M.'s First Regiment of the line is called the < Royals.' 
t Galloper guns, as they were called, were formerly attached to all regi- 
ments of cavalry in India. 


left of the cantonment. The Koyals, and the battery of 
field artillery drew up in the rear of the huts of the 

' During the night 160 men of the 62nd [Native In- 
fantry] went over to the mutineers, together with twenty- 
four men of the 26th [N.L] ; both taking their colours 
with them. 

6 The mutineers formed on the parade of the 47th N.L, 
in front of their own lines. 

6 The Commander-in-Chief, who was with the troops 
on the left, had formed the hope that the imposing atti- 
tude of so large a force would have been sufficient to over- 
awe the mutineers, without having recourse to extreme 
measures. But, being disappointed in that expectation, 
he sent the Adjutant-General and Quartermaster-General 
of the [Bengal] army, accompanied by his Persian inter- 
preter, and the Colonel of the 47th N.L to intimate to 
the mutineers, that, unless they laid down their arms, and 
surrendered at discretion, they would be immediately at- 
tacked. The Adjutant-General* ordered them to ground 
their arms. They refused to obey, and expressed their 
resolution to resist force by force. 

'At the signal of two guns fired from the left, the 
battery in the rear of the mutineers opened, and the 
Boyals advanced up the road which led to their right 
flank. At the same time, the whole line on the left ad- 

c In less than five minutes the mutineers were broken, 
and the dispersion was so complete that not two men 
were to be found together. They threw away their arms, 
stripped themselves of their military insignia, and fled in 

* It was afterwards discovered that the Adjutant-General of the Beflgal 
army (a Colonel) had received a petition from the mutineers "before he 
came on parade, and had put it into his pocket, instead of giving it at 
once to the Commander-in-Chief. It contained a list of their grievances, 
and might, if listened to, have averted the destruction of the mutineers. 


all directions. A considerable number were killed, and 
more taken prisoners. Of these latter, numbers are con- 
stantly [being brought] in. 

'A court-martial was immediately assembled. Forty 
of the prisoners were tried and condemned. Six were 
executed yesterday morning. The punishment of the 
other thirty-four the Commander-in-Chief has been pleased 
to commute into exile and hard labour for life in chains. 

4 The court-martial is still sitting, and will continue so 
to do till all the prisoners shall have been tried. 

1 These misguided men appear to have had no real 
grounds of complaint to palliate their misconduct. They 
had stated that the means of transport for their effects 
were not sufficient ; and ten bullocks per company were 
assigned [to them]. They had been told, they said, that 
they were to be embarked : but the Commander-in-Chief 
assured them he had never thought of such a thing ; and 
that no Bengal sepoy should ever be embarked, under 
his command, except as a volunteer. 

4 It is to be apprehended that much blame attaches to 
the Native officers of the battalion ; and it is feared that 
a dislike to the war against the Burmese had also its in- 
fluence upon the sepoy. 

' The Commander-in-Chief is still at Bar rackpore, where 
he will probably remain till the 26th and 62nd [N.I. 
regiments] have broken ground for their destination. 
6 1 have the honour to be, dear Sir, 

6 Your most obedient servant, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

About nine years later, the falsehoods of an anony- 
mous calumniator in the ' Meerut Observer,' were refuted 
in the following letter, which is here given in order to 
finish at once with the affair of the mutiny. 

From the ' Meerut Observer,' of Thursday, 18th April, 
1833 :— 


To the Editor of the ' Meerutt* Observer.' 

' Sir, — On the first report which Sir Edward Paget 
received of the mutiny at Barrackpore, he proceeded 
thither without a moment's delay. On his arrival he 
found the mutineers in open insurrection. Every effort 
was made, during that evening and the ensuing night, to 
induce the misguided men to return to their duty, but 
in vain. During the night, the colours of two other 
regiments, with detachments from each, joined the muti- 
neers. At daybreak the next morning they were under 
arms, and the force at the disposal of Sir Edward Paget 
was drawn up within full view. Sir Edward then made 
another attempt to convince them of their error. The 
General commanding the division, the Adjutant, and 
Quartermaster-Generals of the army, the Persian inter- 
preter, and the Commanding Officer of the regiment were 
sent in a body to the mutineers, and directed to state to 
them that, " if they would lay down their arms and sub- 
mit their claims to the justice of the Commander-in-Chief, 
they should be immediately investigated and attended to, 
and their past conduct forgiven and forgotten ; but that 
it was impossible for the Commander-in-Chief to treat 
with armed soldiers." The deputation returned with the 
report that the men would listen to nothing ; and it was 
then only that Sir Edward ordered the signal gun to be 
fired, and the line to advance. 

' The very instant the line of the mutineers broke, Sir 
Edward ordered the firing to cease, and directed the 
Quartermaster-General of the King's troops to proceed at 
speed to Colonel Armstrong, commanding the Ptoyals, 
with orders that all pursuit should be stopped. The 
Colonel, and the Quartermaster-General of the Kings 
troops rode forward to the front of the Light Company of 
the 47th and Eoyals, and made every exertion in their 

* Meerut, it appears, was formerly spelt Meerutt by the press of India. 


power to stop the firing, in which they succeeded in a 
very short time, and brought the Light Company back.* 

' The anonymous writer in your paper of yesterday, in 
what he says of an officer of high rank in His Majesty's 
service, sniping the sepoys, &c, is guilty of an infamous 
falsehood, and only screens himself from the punishment 
he deserves, by concealing his name. 

' The name of the author of this answer to the vile 
attack upon the character of Sir Edward Paget, contained 
in the 'Meerutt Observer' of the 11th April, is lodged 
with the Editor, and will be given on application. 

< Meertjt, 12th April, 1833.' 

This refutation w r as written by Sir Samford when in 
command at Meerut. It remained without an answer, 
and proves — what no one who knew Sir Edward Paget, 
and Sir Samford Whittingham doubted — that there was 
no desire on their parts to use more severity than was 
absolutely necessary for the occasion. By riding in front 
of the angry British soldiers who were firing at the muti- 
neers, Sir Samford proved the sincerity of his exertions, 
at the evident risk of his life, as did Colonel Armstrong, 
the commanding officer of those soldiers. 

Two more extracts from his letters to Mr. Davis will 
fill all the space that can be spared for the year 1824 : — 

'Calcutta, 12th December. — I am very anxious to know 
whether Lord William Bentinck comes out to this country 
as Governor-General or not ? It would certainly be a 
pleasant thing to meet my old commander ; and I love 
to hope that he would have no objection to having me 
again under his orders. 

' 24:th December, 1824. — We have received Sir Archi- 
bald Campbell's dispatches, with the account of a com- 
plete victory gained by him over the Burmese. The 

* Probably, picked men of the two regiments had on this occasion been 
formed into one Light Company. 


victory was rapid and decisive : 5,0 00 men were left on 
the field ; 240 pieces of cannon fell into our hands ; and 
the whole army of the enemy dispersed and fled. 

' Sir Alexander Campbell, the Commander-in-Chief at 
Madras, is dead. His loss will be greatly felt. He was 
a most able man, and a most honourable soldier ; and his 
zeal to meet Sir Edward's wishes, in everything con- 
cerned with this war, had been conspicuous throughout. 
When I saw him two years ago at Madras, he was 
healthy and strong, and really a wonderful man for his 
time of life, upwards of seventy. But the last rains and 
heats had tried the strongest constitutions, and sent many 
a wanderer to his long home.' 

Seventeen years later, the writer of the above words, 
a greater wanderer still, was to close his career at the 
same place and in the same command ! 

The truly voluminous correspondence of Sir Samford 
Whittingham was for the first four months of 1825 full 
of the Burmese war, in which he had hoped at one time 
to have taken an active part. But Sir Edward Paget, as 
we have seen, could not spare the man who had become 
the real though not nominal Chief of his Staff, as well as 
his confidant, counsellor, and general secretary. Colonel 
Patrick Paget, Sir Edward's surviving military son, was 
as much astonished as the Editor of this work, on search- 
ing the contents of a large and heavy box of papers left 
by Sir Edward (containing apparently the whole of his 
correspondence either in original or in copies) to find 
that one third at least of the writings were either letters 
or memoranda written by Sir Samford Whittingham, or 
at least, in his handwriting. When the Adjutant-General 
of Bengal and the Adjutant-General of the King's army 
charged each other, pen in hand, with a considerable 
amount of faults on both sides, the task of preparing the 
letter of the Chief blaming both, was evidently given to 
the Quartermaster-General of the King's troops. The 


copy of the letter found has the appearance of being the 
first draft of the intended dispatch, and it is all in Sir 
Samford's handwriting, and was afterwards marked as 
copy. If thus fully consulted in so delicate a matter, it 
may easily be conceived how he was entrusted with the 
ordinary special correspondence of an able commander, 
who disliked writing (though he could write so well) and 
was moreover unable, , from the loss of his arm, to write 
much. In fact Sir Samford became, without exaggeration 
his right hand, his alter ego, and that aid which most 
chiefs seek almost equally from their principal staff 
officers was here sought and found in all important mat- 
ters from one alone. 

Sir Herbert Taylor* to Sir S. Whittingham. 

'Horse-Gtjakds, 3rd April, 1825. 

' My dear Sir Samford, — I wished to have thanked you 
for your obliging and interesting letter of the 18th July, 
at the same time that I wrote to Sir Edward Paget, whose 
letter dated in August reached me a few days after 
yours. But I was so hurried at the time, and have been 
since, by the additional. business produced by the aug- 
mentations, &c, that I have been unable to keep up my 
general correspondence so regularly as at other times. 

6 1 showed your letter to the Commander-in-Chief, and 
he received great pleasure from the satisfactory report 
it contained of the change produced in our military 
situation and prospects by the ability, zeal, and intelli- 
gence of your excellent Commander-in-Chief. . . . The 
general impression, is that you will not proceed much 
beyond the frontier on the eastern side ; and that the 
operations against the Burmese will be confined to those 
of Sir Archibald Campbell's force, and possibly to an 
attack upon Arracan. I sincerely hope that these may 

* Then Military Secretary to the Duke of York. 


suffice to bring to a speedy termination this unsatisfactory 
and unprofitable war ; so destructive to our best men, 
from the effects of climate and the deficiency of whole- 
some food. I *know not what the feeling may be in 
India ; but here the war is most unpopular, and all are 

Jfe Jfr Jt* Jtm -U> Jfa Jtt 

■?P TT •7T TP "IT "TT TT 

6 Our friend Torrens is in better health than he had 
been some time ago, though still not well and very thin. 
6 Believe me to be ever, my dear Sir Samford, 

' Most sincerely yours, 

' H. Taylor. 7 

On the 20th June Sir Samford records the illness of 
Sir Edward Paget, and that, though less severe, of Lord 
Amherst. On the 22nd June he writes : — ' Sir Edward 
Paget's health still continues, I am sorry to say, in a very 
alarming state. But pray keep this to yourself, lest it 
should get to the ear of Lady Harriet. I am most anxious 
to get him on board ship as quickly as possible.' 

4 2ith June. — In a few days I am going on the river 
with Sir Edward Paget. I hope it may prove beneficial 
to his health. I am very anxious about him : for I think 
I never saw a man so completely shaken by climate. 

' Sir Edward will not delay his departure a single un- 
necessary day after the arrival of Lord Comberniere. 
Lord Combermere will not find India a bed of roses. 
To suffer as Sir Edward has done, however, he must 
possess the same exquisite sensibility, and the same ex- 
treme, anxious desire to do his duty/ 

In a letter dated Calcutta, 31st July 1825, consisting of 
thirteen pages of foolscap paper, Sir Samford gives Mr. 
Davis a summary of all the improvements introduced, 
and of the benefits conferred by Sir Edward Paget during 
his command, of which only a few sentences can be here 
quoted : — 


'I do not, however, by any means assert that the 
Bengal army is what it should be. The moral of the 
army is deeply affected, and a general spirit of insubor- 
dination pervades the whole. The want -of a sufficient 
number of European officers with the battalions is uni- 
versally felt ; and the dependence of the sepoy upon his 
commanding officer has been destroyed, by making, 
during the whole of the late administration, the head- 
quarters of the Commander-in-Chief, the only source of 
either reward or punishment. 

4 The mistaken lenity of Lord Hastings's administra- 
tion has engendered a spirit of reasoning, and a fervour 
of writing throughout the whole mass ; and this spirit is 
too much fomented by the system of promotion by seni- 
ority, whilst it gives the officers mistaken notions of their 
own independence, shuts the door to the exertions of 
genius, and makes a good constitution and a long life the 
only objects of ambition. 

6 I do not mean to say that these and other evils have 
been remedied. They are of too serious a nature to be 
cured by anything short of making the Indian army a 
King's army, and the Indian Government a King's go- 
vernment. But I do assert, and I am borne out by the 
facts, that the present Commander-in-Chief, supported 
by the Government, has done more for the tranquillity 
and security of India during this year of his administra- 
tion, than has ever been done with the same means 
in the same given space of time. And I am bold to 
say that no man could, under existing circumstances, 
have effected more important changes in our military 
state, and in that of the country at large than he has 

It required the Indian mutiny of 1857 to convince 
our statesmen of the necessity of those reforms and al- 
terations which, thirty-two years previously, Sir Edward 
Paget and Sir Samford Whittine;ham had deemed in- 



dispensable to the security and good government of our 
Indian empire. 

On the 1st of August, 1825, Sir Samford expresses his 
indignation to Mr. Davis at the news from England of the 
abuse then directed at the conduct of Sir Edward Paget, 
whose plain speaking and writing had deeply offended the 
great Company in Leadenhall Street, whilst the nation 
was disgusted with the Governor-General on account of 
the Burmese war. Sir Samford's letter in defence of 
his friend resembles a small pamphlet.* Even up to this 
date he writes : i Lord Amherst and the Commander-in- 
Chief have ever been upon the best and most friendly 
terms;' and he mentions the unanimity of the Council of 
India as quite extraordinary. 

On the 14th September, after long details of the progress 
of the Burmese war, he writes : c The Rajah of Bhurtpore, 
the Eajah of Alwar, and the Eanee of Jeypore have all 
disputes with this Government, which I think will only be 
decided by the sword. The sooner we begin the better.' 

' Calcutta, 1th October, 1825. — On the 3rd of this 
month we received the long-expected brevet, having come 
out it appears on the 27th May, the day you had men- 
tioned in your letters of the 12th and 13th May.f The 
same day arrived Lord Combermere, our new Com- 

' Yesterday Sir Edward Paget sent in his resignation, 
and to-day Lord Combermere will be sworn into his new 

'23rd October. — I have written the inclosed to our 
dear friend ' [Sir William Knighton], ' on the subject of 
his nephew, Mr. Seymour. J I assure you I shall be 

* This letter Mr. Davis sent to Lord Liverpool, as will be seen hereafter. 

t This brevet made Sir Samford at last a general officer in the British 

% Captain James Seymour, 38th Regiment, son to the late and brother to 
the present Admiral Sir Michael Seymour. Sir Samford had promised to 


delighted to have this opportunity of manifesting to a 
person I so much esteem my grateful feelings for all 
his kindness. I do not enter more into this subject, 
from having fully done so in the inclosed letter. 

' What I have seen of Lord Combermere I like much. 
He is open and plain in his communications, and has 
exerted himself in my favour as far as in him lay. I 
have no doubt we shall soon become well acquainted.* 

c Sir Edward Paget has amongst his other most excel- 
lent qualities, that of being an able, a first-rate nego- 
tiator. Of all men I have seen, he is the best qualified 
to gain an ascendancy over others. His manners are 
reserved, mild, and unassuming ; and he never increases 
opposition by offending self-love. His temper is natu- 
rally violent, but he has learnt to correct it, without in the 
least diminishing that firmness of mind which never aban- 
dons him for a moment. His judgment is as clear as 
it is solid, and he is a beautifully perspicuous military 
writer. When he came down to Calcutta from the Upper 
Provinces, at the breaking out of the Burmese War, his 
influence in Council was absolutely null ; and he was so 
hard pressed as to be obliged to ask whether he or Colonel 
Casement commanded the army. The opinions of every 
little civilian, nay even of Captains in the army, were put 
in opposition to his ; and the Commander-in-Chief was to 
all intents and purposes a nonentity. 

' For many months past, the whole Council have been 
with him ; and whatever he has proposed has been will- 
ingly and cheerfully acceded to. 

make him his aide-de-camp whenever he should ohtain a command as a 


* Notwithstanding this happy commencement, directly after the depar- 
ture of Sir Edward Paget, some persons who had long heen jealous of Sir 
Samford's influence, succeeded for a brief period, in prejudicing against him 
the new Commander-in-Chief. 

t 2 


' Sir Edward Paget possesses the singular advantage 
which public men always derive from rectitude of in- 
tention. In his mind there are no arrieres pensees. His 
object is always what it appears to be ; and the measures 
he employs, simple, clear, and honest. He is, in every 
sense of the expression, an English gentleman.' 

Before Sir Edward left India, he presented Sir Saniforcl 
with a beautiful roan-coloured Cape horse, called ' the 
Admiral,' of great value ; and also with a huge and mag- 
nificent silver hookah, with two gold mouthpieces, and 
other presents. And Sir Samford gave to Sir Edward the 
beautiful mosaic box which he had received from the 
King of Spain. 

His best friend was now about to leave him, having 
taken his passage in the 'Madras,' to sail for England, 
leaving Lord Combermere to reap the fruit of his pre- 
decessor's labours.* 

' Calcutta, 8th November, 1825. — I accompanied Sir 
Edward Paget to Diamond Harbour, where I had post- 
horses waiting for me, and returned to Calcutta, on the 
3rd. The "Madras " got to sea on the 5th. God send her 
a speedy and prosperous passage. On the 11th I shall 
leave this for Agra, Dak, which is our mode of posting. 
You travel in a palanquin, and are carried by four men, 
who are relieved at short stages. I shall reach Agra 
in about ten days. My horses went off on the 5th. My 
heavy baggage goes by water. Lord Combermere leaves 
this on the 19th. Every day from the 11th to the end of 
this month will be filled up by different officers of the 
Staff proceeding Dak to the same destination. The army 
will be assembled on the 1st December. Eighteen bat- 

* It is said that all the preparations for taking Bhurtpore having been 
made before Lord Conibermere's arrival, Sir Edward was recommended, 
as senior officer, not to resign till after the fall of the fortress ! But he 
deemed it his duty to resign at once ; and did so. 


talions, forty squadrons, a hundred and ten pieces of 
heavy artillery, two regiments of horse-artillery, besides 
an ample field train/ 

He himself, till a vacancy on the Staff of Generals 
took place, retained, by leave from the Horse-Guards, 
his post as Quartermaster-General of the Eoyal army ; 
but Bengal custom gave the Quartermaster-General of the 
local army the general authority, though a very junior 
officer ; and therefore it was with a heavy heart, having 
no scope for his abilities, that he hastened to swell the 
Staff of the new Commander-in-Chief. He had the more 
time to note and describe the siege, and send home the 
accounts of a conquest, to the mighty preparations for 
which, as will be proved hereafter, he had himself greatly 
contributed, by his ceaseless labours, whilst under the 
command of Sir Edward Paget. The whole of the siege 
is described in his journal-like letters, from the beginning 
of December 1825 to the 6th February 1826 ; but we 
will conclude this chapter with part of another letter to 
his great and faithful friend : — 

Sir Sam ford Whittingham to the Hon. Sir Edward 



' Agka, 24=th November, 1825. 

' My dear General, — I left Calcutta on the 11th, at 
four p.m., and arrived here yesterday morning at eight 
a.m., nothing fatigued with the journey, thanks to your 
tonjon, which is certainly a great relief from the recum- 
bent position of the palanquin. 

' It is calculated that we shall commence our advance 

* The original letter of successive dates fills twelve sheets of foolscap ! 
The military news and opinions it contains, regarding the siege of Bhurtpore, 
would too much lengthen this work by its insertion. 


about the 15th December. Our battery train is superb; 
144 pieces of heavy ordnance. They are advancing at 
present upon one road, and the length of the column 
extends to fourteen miles ! 

' To your unparalleled efforts in the good cause we 
are indebted for all the noble means we possess of bring- 
ing this contest to a speedy and happy issue. I only 
lament that another should pluck those laurels which so 
justly and truly belong to you 

' 1st December. — Lord Combermere arrived this morn- 
ing at five. Hostilities recommenced with the Burmese 
on the 10th of November. The two crores of rupees 
were insisted upon, and refused. Lord Combermere has 
entered his protest against continuing a war so fraught 
with difficulties and sacrifices of every kind upon any 
such ground. It is remarkable that both Commanders- 
in-Chief should have exactly coincided in their views of 
the Burmese War. A few days will, I hope, set us down 
before Bhurtpore.' [After narrating that Sir Charles 
Metcalfe, acting Governor-General, was coming to Muttra 
immediately, he adds :] ' Lord Combermere proceeds 
thither to-morrow.' 

The long letter, from which the above is extracted, also 
acquainted Sir Edward Paget with an incident which im- 
plied great coldness on the part of Lord Combermere to 
Sir Samford Whittingham ; the result of prejudices in- 
stilled into him by those officers who were jealous, (and 
naturally so) of the great confidence which Sir Edward 
had always displayed in Sir Samford, and of the latter's 
consequent power and influence. Lord Combermere 
could not then know how spontaneously Sir Edward 
Paget had acted, in making the King's Quartermaster- 
General his principal Staff officer ; and that it in no way 
resulted from any ambitious strivings on the part of the 
subordinate. His Lordship indeed, probably, only de- 


sired to make Sir Samford understand, that his excep- 
tional position was at an end, and that in future he must 
restrict himself to the duties of the King's Quartermaster- 
General. At all events that coldness was destined, ere 
long, to be exchanged for a friendly confidence, both in 
private and public matters ; as will hereafter be proved to 
the satisfaction of the reader. 





Eestricted space will not permit much quotation from 
the long journal-like letters which, with accurate plans, 
Sir Samford Whittingham transmitted to his brother-in- 
law and Sir Herbert Taylor, respecting the siege of 
Bhurtpore. Indeed the task would be superfluous, in 
consequence of the publication of Lord Comberaiere's 
Memoirs. A few extracts will suffice : — 

'loth January, 1826. — In going to the batteries this 
morning, a spent ball from a matchlock struck the calf 
of my leg ; and obliged me to come home in a doolee* 
I should not have mentioned this trifling circumstance, 
but as it has made me very lame, it will probably 
confine me to my tent for a day or two, and thus 

* k. fi'agment of a Calcutta newspaper of 1826, concludes a paragraph 
about Bhurtpore thus : ' A letter of the 15th, we are sorry to observe, 
states that Sir Samford Whittingham had been wounded in the leg by a 
matchlock ball, but the woimd was not of a serious nature.' 


prevent my being present at what may take place for 
that time. 

'I must, however, mention a providential escape I 
had on my return. A little to the right of the old 
mortar battery, the doolee, in which four men were 
carrying me, was stopped for a moment, by a Major 
Hunter, of the Bengal Infantry, a friend of mine, to en- 
quire how I was. A servant who followed him stopped 
just before my doolee, and whilst Hunter was speaking 
to me, a cannon ball took off the servant's head, exactly 
where the doolee would have been had not Hunter ar- 
rested my progress a moment before. 

' loth January. — My leg is better but still very painful, 
particularly when I attempt to move. It shall not, how- 
ever, prevent my doing my duty to-morrow to the best of 
my ability.' 

On the 18th January, he records the final springing of 
the great mine, and the assault and capture of Bhurtpore. 
One of the officers who most distinguished himself at this 
siege, Lieutenant Caine of the 14th regiment, was after- 
wards selected by Sir Samford Whittingham for his own 
aide-de-camp. Already distinguished in previous Indian 
wars, he on this occasion eclipsed his former feats of 
valour. Leaping across a ditch, where his British soldiers 
were unable at once to follow, he found himself opposed 
single-handed to three of the enemy. Of these he de- 
stroyed two with his double-barrelled pistol, then closing 
with the third, and finding that his sword could make no 
impression on his armour, he hurled him by main force 
over the. rampart into the ditch ! Lieutenant Caine was 
also the first officer up at the taking of the Khumbeer 
Gate, which was carried by him with about thirty men of 
the 14th.* 

* Vide Appendix C for Sir Samford Whittinghani's official letter to 
Lord Combermere, on the services of Lieutenant Caine. 


To his Brother-in-law. 

i Head Quarters, Camp before Bhurtpore, 

' 6th February, 1826. 

c Yesterday evening the young Eajah was installed in 
due form ; and this morning the principal bastions and 
curtains of the fortress were blown up. It would perhaps 
have been more civil to have sprung the mines first, and 
have installed His Highness afterwards. 

4 1 am daily persecuted with an access of fever, which 
all Dr. Burke's skill cannot get rid of; and which he 
attributes to too much exertion before the leg was well. 
Change of air will be the best remedy, and at the close 
of the campaign, I mean to go to the hills. Don't be 
uneasy on my account. I shall be quite well again 
very shortly.' 

In a letter dated Meerut, 28th March, 1826, and ad- 
dressed to Lieutenant-General Sir Herbert Taylor, Ad- 
jutant-General at the Horse-Guards, he enters into a long 
and eloquent defence of Sir Edward Paget, against the 
accusations of Lord Amherst, on which it is here need- 
less to enter further than to say that it was considered 
equally clear and convincing by those to whom it was 

In the course of the spring Sir Samford must have re- 
ceived a letter from Sir Edward Paget, dated St. Helena, 
15th January, 1826, full of the most affectionate ex- 
pressions of regard. 

The following two letters probably reached India in 
the course of June. The second, forwarded to him by 
his brother-in-law, referred to Sir Samford's defence of 
the Bengal Government • — 


Sir William Knighton to Sir Sam ford Whittingham. 

' London, Idth January, 1826.* 

' My dear Friend, — This will be put into your hands by 
Captain James Seymour, the second son of Sir Michael 
Seymour, and I can safely recommend him to you, not 
only for his own worth, but for the affection you bear 
towards me. The King takes a great interest in Sir 
Michael Seymour's family, who is the Captain of His 
Majesty's own yacht. I mention all this to you, to show 
that this young gentleman is not pressed upon you as 
an aide-de-camp, without proportionate feelings and mo- 
tives ! 

6 1 have read all your different accounts, military and 
otherwise. Nothing can be more admirable, or more 
lie your own invaluable intellect. That the Almighty 
may prosper you is the sincere prayer of 

c Your affectionate and sincere friend, 

' W. Knighton.' 

The Earl of Liverpool to Mr. R. H. Davis. 

i Fife House, 1st February, 1826. 

' My dear Sir, — I return you, with many thanks, Sir 
Samford Whittingham's letter. I should not have kept 
it so long, but I thought it so satisfactory in all respects 
that I was anxious to communicate it to the Duke of 
Wellington, Mr. Canning, and Mr. Wynne. 

6 Believe me to be very sincerely yours, 

' Liverpool.' 

Lord Liverpool doubtless alludes to the voluminous 
letter Sir Samford wrote to Mr. Davis on the 1st 
August, 1825. 

* This letter was written two or three months before Sir William could 
have received the promise mentioned in last chapter. 


In the course of this summer, Mr. William Osborne 
was again staying as a guest with Sir Samforcl Whitting- 
ham at Meerut. He was at that time a Lieutenant in 
the 10th Hussars ; and it would appear that his regiment 
must then have been stationed somewhere in Bengal. 
Young as he was, he and Sir Samford were already 
friends, and in spite of the wildness of his youthful 
spirits, his cleverness and amiability made him very 
generally a favourite everywhere. The General was a 
man so little given to gossip and small talk, that the 
Editor cannot resist inserting the following letter on a 
youthful escapade, which gives a graphic specimen of 
scenes of frequent occurrence, formerly at least, in Indian 
society : — 

Sir Samford Whittingham to the Honourable Sir Edward 


'Meeeut, 26th June, 1826. 

' My very dear General, — Meerut has been full of his- 
tories and scandals for the last week. Captain E. chose 
to take offence at a trifling circumstance which took place 
at Mrs. M'Combe's, and serious consequences have ensued. 
After dining as usual at 4 p.m., we took our ride on the 
course. On our returning to M'Combe's* to pass the 
evening, we remained smoking our cigars on the plat- 
form before the door ; and the ladies, Mrs. M'Combe, 

Mrs. P , Mrs. C , and Mrs. E went into Mrs. 

M'Combe's verandah dressing-room to arrange their hair. 
Osborne and Finucanef passed by on horseback. The 
mat-curtain blew up a little on one side ; and they cer- 
tainly did commit the heinous sin of looking upon the 
fair ladies arranging their hair, but separated from them 
by an exterior railing, and certainly without the least idea 
of giving offence. For they came running into the party 

* Brigadier, commanding the station. 

t Finucane was a Captain of the 14th Regiment. 


— which the ladies immediately joined — and said laugh- 
ing : " You must take care in future to fasten the curtains 
of your dressing-rooms, and not put temptation into the 
way of the curious." All the ladies laughed — called 
them impudent fellows; — and I declare I had not the 
slightest conception that any offence had been given. 
'On our entering the drawing-room, however, Captain 

E spoke to his wife in the roughest and rudest 

manner — told Osborne that he had not behaved like a 

gentleman — and led Airs. E out of the room. Osborne 

called him out the next morning ; and E , by the 

advice of his friends, made to Osborne and to Mrs. 
M'Combe, a most ample apology. But, in the meantime 
Osborne had had the imprudence to write a letter to 

Airs. E , to say that he thought E ? s conduct so 

constantly unkind and improper with regard to her, that 
he would strongly recommend her insisting upon a sepa- 
rate maintenance, and returning to her father's house. 
This foolish letter took away all our vantage ground, and 
placed us in a totally false position. E called Os- 
borne out. Baron Osten was second to Osborne, and 

Captain Luard to E . They tossed up for the first 

fire. Osborne won it, and fired in the air. E in 

very gross language, which left no alternative, insisted 
upon going on. They fired together ; Osborne fired wide 
of the mark. He had determined on no account to hit 
E . E s ball struck a round cigar-case in Os- 
borne's pocket, and, glancing off. passed obliquely through 
the side. The seconds interposed, and the affair ended. 
The bone has not been touched. He is doing well, and 
has promised me to leave Meerut for Calcutta, as soon 
as he is fit to make the journey. All the ladies in the 

place have made a point of visiting Mrs. E ; and 

peace having been generally signed, we remain in .statu 
quo ante helium. "What great events from trifling causes 
spring !" 


c 16^ July. — Osborne left us last night on his way 
clown to Calcutta. Nobody could have behaved better 
than he has done since the affair between him and 

E . But an illiberal spirit of persecution has been 

raised against him ; and the most ridiculous and ma- 
licious reports have been spread abroad to do him in- 
jury. One of the attacks against him is founded on 
the hardness of the boy's heart ; who had so little of the 
fear of death before his eyes, as to continue quietly 
smoking his cigar whilst he was receiving E 's fire ! 

' Lord Combermere has had an attack of fever, and 
Colonel Finch, Kelly, Dawkins, Stapleton, and Mundy 
have all been ill a second time. In short, Calcutta seems 
like one great hospital. 

'Ever, &c, &c, 

' Samford Whittingiiam.' 

Eeturning to his correspondence with Mr. Davis : — 

' Meerat) 24,th August — Day after day rolls on with- 
out any arrivals from England. I cannot describe to you 
the anxiety with which I wait for the arrival of the post. 
You will have heard, ere this letter reaches you, of the 
death of Captain Amherst ! A fever of a few days carried 
him off. He was universally beloved. His friends are 
inconsolable. Lord Amherst is, however, on his passage 
up the Ganges ; and Lord Combermere installed as Vice- 
President and Deputy Governor-General.' 

In this last letter, and in a later one of the 7th Sep- 
tember, he is anxiously expecting the arrival of Captain 
Seymour, who was to be his aide-de-camp, as soon as he 
obtained a General's command, on a vacancy occurring. 
Captain Seymour had arrived at Calcutta, but was des- 
tined never to meet Sir Samford Whittingiiam. 

Sir Edward Paget was now Governor of the Eoyal 


Military College at Sandhurst, and the following letter 
must have reached Sir Samford near the close of the 
year : — 

Sir Edward Paget to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


' Sandhurst, 16th June, 1826. 

'You will, I am sure, be thoroughly happy to hear 
that the reception I have met with in this country has 
been, as you factoid, most flattering and gratifying. A 
few months before I arrived in England, there had been 
a tremendous hubbub about the mutiny at Barrackpore ; 
and I verily believe that nothing but the firmness of the 
Duke of Wellington, who took up the cudgels most 
manfully, would have kept the Cabinet straight. But 
happily the intrigue was defeated ; and I have not 
the least doubt, that the masterly letter which you 
wrote to Hart Davis in defence of the measures of the 
Bengal Government, and which he sent to Lord Liver- 
pool, who communicated it to several leading members 
of the Cabinet, had a powerful influence upon that deci- 
sion. Infinite pains had been taken to make it appear 
that Lord Amherst and I were two ;* but I have com- 
pletely set this question at rest by taking every oppor- 
tunity of defending him and his measures. 5 

[The slow posts in those days often gave rise to strange 
and ludicrous results. Here we find Sir Edward fighting 
for a friend, who was now attacking him with all his 
strength and interest ! But we must give another ex- 
tract from this monster letter of sixteen pages. This 
part is written by Lady Harriet Paget, who often relieved 
her one-armed husband with the pen.] ' I most heartily 
and sincerely rejoice, without one particle of envy — 

* The Governor-General had abandoned a supposed fallen cause mean- 
time ; a fact, the possibility of which Sir Edward seems never to have 
imagined for a moment. 


which you will give me credit for — at the glorious ter- 
mination of the siege and assault of Bhurtpore ; and have 
but one drawback to my satisfaction, by knowing that 
you have received a hurt in the enterprize, by under- 
standing from you that the deportment of my successor 
towards yourself is most ungracious, and by observing 
how careful he has been, in his official report of the 
capture of Bhurtpore, not to make too much mention of 
j r ou. These things are most galling and distressing to 

[It is needless to quote more of this disagreeable 
matter. Lord Combermere had a great respect and re- 
gard for Sir Edward Paget ; and his coldness to the 
friend of the latter was not destined to be of long con- 
tinuance. In this letter, also, Sir Edward describes his 
having made the acquaintance of Mr. Davis and his 
family, and adds :] ' The return of Hart Davis for Bristol, 
in spite of his teeth, is a most unprecedented instance of 
attachment and respect, and I long for the opportunity of 
congratulating him.' 

[Mr. Davis had retired from the contest from motives 
of economy, but was re-elected at the expense of his con- 
stituents. The letter continues:] 'You will grieve to 
hear that the health of the Duke of York has sadly 
declined during the last twelvemonth. Still, if he can be 
prevailed upon to take more care of himself, much may 
be done. The King gets fonder daily of retirement ; and 
it is a rare thing to get a sight of him. I have seen him 
but once, about a month ago ; and though much in- 
creased in bulk, he seemed to be enjoying good health.' 

From Sir Herbert Taylor, Military Secretary. 

i Horse-Guards, 1st August, 1826. 

6 My dear Sir Samford, — Extraordinary pressure of 
business has obliged me to delay, much longer than I 
had wished or intended, thanking you for your letters of 


the 8th and 23rd December, and 8th and 16th January, 
containing a detailed and most interesting journal of the 
proceedings and operations of Lord Combermere's army 
preparatory to, and during, the siege of Bhurtpore ; and 
accompanied by sketches of the ground and positions of 
the troops and works. My acknowledgment has, indeed, 
been in part delayed by the communication of these 
valuable documents to our friend Sir Edward Paget and 
others, to whom I felt that I might afford the benefit and 
satisfaction of the perusal, after submitting them to the 

6 H.E.H. [the Duke of York] orders me to assure you 
of the interest with which he has read these clear and 
able statements of the important operations which they 
describe ; and how sensible he is of the trouble you have 
taken in making them, amidst the hurry and pressure of 
your avocations, and the share you took in the active 
duties arising from the services in which you were 
engaged. ... I sent the plans to Sir Edward Paget 
and Mr. Hart Davis, as you desired; and the former 
caused some beautiful copies to be made of them at the 

' I heartily rejoice that you escaped so well, and that 
the contusion you received on the loth from a spent ball 
did not prevent your being one of the actors in the 
glorious and brilliant scene of the 18th ; to have been 
excluded from which would have been truly mortifying. 
Although we have to lament the loss of some valuable 
officers and men, and however serious we must consider 
the loss of such men, it must be admitted that this im- 
portant conquest has been achieved at a much less price 
than might have been expected, from the nature of the 
works and the strength and character of its garrison. 
And this advantage is due not only to the vigour and 
ability of the operations, but, as you justly observe, also 



to the foresight and previous arrangements of Sir Edward 

' Your letter of the 27th January, which reached me 
shortly after the former, fully confirms your anticipations 
of the result of the blow struck at Bhurtpore ; and I trust 
that its impression will be lasting ; at least, that it will 
prevent any combination of the native princes, and discou- 
rage all attempt to disturb our imperfect administration of 
India. I say imperfect, with reference to many measures 
of the Company ; and more especially its military system, 
so palpably defective, yet so obstinately persisted in. Yet 
they cannot plead ignorance : for means are taken to 
apprize them of all that reaches us on this subject; and 
Sir Edward Paget has candidly stated to the Chair, f the 
opinions which you know him to hold. Of the defective 
organization of the commissariat, and of the hospital de- 
partment, you have stated ample proof. 

' The courts-martial on deserters to the enemy have 
evinced the spirit and feeling of the Company's officers. 
The inefficiency of their regimental system and arrange- 
ments is placed beyond doubt by every return ; and the 
consequences of this evil are apparent in the comparative 
inferiority of the native troops, and then 1 misconduct on 
various occasions, especially in the Burmese war. Never- 
theless all this is suffered to continue ; all is sacrificed to 
the anxiety to procure patronage. And the security of 
that overgrown empire is risked from an obstinate ad- 
herence to errors and prejudices. 

' It is obvious that the present extent of the Company's 
territory, the increase of its native military force, and 
above all the spirit of insubordination which has been 
manifested by portions of it, require an amalgamation of 
European forces. Nevertheless this is strenuously resisted. 

* It will shortly be seen what Sir Edward himself thought on this 

t Chairman of the Directors of the East India Company. 


And the opposition of the Court of Directors is encouraged 
by some of its officers of distinguished reputation, and 
acknowledged talent and experience : who must, there- 
fore, be supposed to suffer selfish views and prejudices to 

overpower their better judgment 

' I am happy to acquaint you that the Duke of York's 
health is essentially improved, and I trust that with 
proper care H.E.H. will soon recover from every effect 
of his serious indisposition ; great weakness and want of 
appetite being now the chief evils. Torrens has had the 
gout, and been generally out of health, though improved 
of late ; but he is grown miserably thin. I am very hard 
worked, but neither sick nor sorry ; and my business goes 
on satisfactorily. I hope you approve of our recent 
arrangements for giving rewards to old officers, and 
efficiency to corps by the promotion and removal of 
brevet officers. This, and the sale of half-pay, has reno- 
vated our ranks. — Believe me to be, with the best wishes 
for your welfare and success, my dear Sir Samford, 

' Most truly and faithfully yours, 

' H. Taylor.' 

'Major-General Sir Samford Whittingham, K.C.B.' 

The following letter proves that Sir Edward Paget was 
a friend in deeds as well as in words. His generosity is 
obvious, and needs no comment : — 

From Sir Edward Paget to Mr. Davis. 

1 Sandwell, Birmingham, 12th September, 1826. 

' My dear Sir, — Your letter of the 6th instant, addressed 
to Sandhurst, reached me at Lord Bagot's, at Blithfield, 
the day before yesterday ; and I instantly wrote to Lord 
Bathurst a letter, of which what follows is an extract. 
" Having heard that the two Major-Generals, Ee}aiell and 
Nichols, have been recommended by Lord Combermere 
for the honourable distinction of Knights Commanders of 



the Bath, I should feel myself guilty of a very great 
neglect of duty and friendship, if I omitted to entreat 
your Lordship to give a favourable consideration to the 
claims of Major-General Sir Samford Whittingham for 
admission to the same honour. 

' " Of his services generally, your Lordship is no doubt 
to the full as well aware as I am, and that they have ob- 
tained for him diverse badges of distinction. But I may 
be permitted to observe with reference to the fall of 
Bhurtpore (at the siege of which he assisted, and also got 
a hard knock) that neither your Lordship nor Lord 
Combermere are probably aware, how mainly the success 
of that enter-prize was clue to the indefatigable zeal and 
industry of Sir Samford Whittingham in preparing — 7" 
may safely say, in creating the means by which it was 
obtained." * 

' I grieve that I did not get your letter some days 
sooner, though if my feeble voice can have any influence 
in this question, I trust it will be heard in time to have 
its effect, as Lord Bathurst (if in London) will have got 
my letter this morning.' 

* In his noble generosity Sir Edward forgets that it was he himself who 
set to work and encouraged and directed that indefatigable King's officer in 
his labours. 







Edward's present of genuine h ay annahs— thanes of the house 
of commons — sir edward's generous disclaimer of thanks— -wil- 
loughby cotton's affectionate letter — a model of what a man 
ought to be — willoughby cotton's opinion of sir edward paget 
— the principal promoter of the passage of the douro — lord 
combermere's kind letter — lord william bentinck's arrival — 
his request — sir herbert taylor's opinion of sir e. paget — the 
confidant of three successive kings — lord combermere's proof 
of confidence — sir edward's affection — sir samford's greatest 

Whilst the pleasure-bearing letter which closed the last 
Chapter was on its tedious voyage, unwonted gloom and 
despondency oppressed its future recipient, accustomed as 
he had so long been to the favour and confidence of his 
superior officers. 

On the 4th January, 1827, the Quartermaster- General 
of the King's army in India was inditing letters full of 
grief at the reports which were circulated, that he alone 
of the Major-Generals at the siege of Bhurtpore, had not 
been recommended for the Command ership of the ' Bath ? 
and was considered to have been then only a Colonel on 
the Staff, having received no command as yet as Major- 
General. In the first supposition, however, he was in 
error, for Lord Combermere had made no recommenda- 


tions for any particular honour for anyone. But it was 
true that the Commander-in-Chief considered the Quar- 
termaster-General as on the footing of the other staff 
officers who held similar positions, though with inferior 
army rank. 

That Sir Samford Whittingham instead of being re- 
stricted, according to custom, as a King's Staff Officer to 
very limited duties, had been the right-hand man, the 
friend and counsellor of the late Chief, was of course no 
claim on the new Commander ; and, moreover, the latter 
in the first instance was probably not aware of the facts, 
which the just and excellent Sir Edward had impressed 
on Lord Bathurst on the 12th September, 1826. 

There can be no doubt now, that Lord Combermere 
only followed the then usual rule and custom of India, to 
subordinate the King's Staff's influence to that of Bengal, 
in spite of the generally superior army rank of the former. 
And though highly offensive to the King's army, there 
were not wanting excellent reasons for the practice, if 
the matter be impartially considered. King's officers 
newly arrived as strangers from England, and belonging 
to a then comparatively uneducated army, could not vie 
in knowledge and experience with the local army ; at 
least as a general rule, in spite of the patent defects of 
the Bengal military system. And, moreover, the excep- 
tional claims of Sir Samford Whittingham on Sir Edward 
Paget, were not transferable to a new Chief under the 
circumstances. But enough of the temporary cloud of 
discontent alluded to ; since it passed away as rapidly as 
a twelvemonth's post (for it took nearly a year to be 
answered from England in India) would permit. 

On that same 4th January, 1827, at the Eoyal Military 
College in England, another letter was being written, as 
follows : — 


From Sir Edward Paget. 

' Sandhurst, 4th January, 1827. 

' My dear Whittingham, — I am roused from my lethargy 
by reading in the Gazette this morning the name of my 
dear, good, but neglected friend amongst the batch of 
K.C.B.'s. I congratulate you on this distinction with all 
my heart and soul ; and wish you all health, happiness, 
and length of life to enjoy it and all other honours that 
may fall to your lot In the midst of these dis- 
cordances I find my friends of the India House have 
been voting you all chests, and cotton bags of thanks, for 
your performances at Bhurtpore, and only introducing 
my name for the purpose of vilifying it, as the author of 
the wanton massacre at Barrackpore. This brings me, my 
dear but neglected friend, to thank you, though late, for 
the curious and interesting account of Lord A.'s generous 
proceedings on the occasion of the panic, with which he 
was seized at first hearing of his recall. . . . 

'January 6th. — Alas! my dear Whittingham, the ac- 
count has reached me to-day of the death of the poor 
Duke' [of York], 'who after several fainting fits in the 
course of the day, breathed his last at nine o'clock last 
'night. Every man, whose esteem is worth possessing, 
must deeply lament his loss — to me it is irreparable. 
During the long period of two-and-thirty years I never 
received from him aught but acts of kindness, condescen- 
sion and consideration. Father and steady patron of this 
College, his demise will in all probability rouse its enemies 
and the sticklers for economy to new acts of hostility. 
But I will not anticipate evils ; but still hope I may have 
your two dear lads under my eye. I saw them about 
three weeks ago, and nothing could appear in a more 
prosperous condition. Who is to succeed the poor Duke 
as Commander-in-Chief, nobody appears to know. Some 
talk of the Duke of Cambridge ; some of the Duke of 


Wellington ; others of a Military Board, heaven defend us 
from this last ! . . . God bless you, my very dear Whit- 
tingham, and with the warmest regards of my good wife, 
believe me ever most affectionately yours, 

'Edward Paget.' 

We must now return to India. 

Sir Samford Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

'Meerut, 10th January, 1S27. 

' My dear Davis, — The intelligence of the loss of poor 
Captain Seymour [38th Eegiment] reached me this morn- 
ing ; and it would be in vain for me to attempt to 
describe my feelings ! Sent to this country under my 
especial care, I have ever considered him as a son ; and it 
would have been my pride and glory to have proved 
myself a second father to him ! Assure my dear and 
beloved friend Sir William [Knighton] how deeply I 
sympathize in his affliction.' 

In this month, Colonel Willoughby Cotton was the 
guest of Sir Samford Whittingham ; for in a letter elated 
the 20th, he thanks him for his hospitality. Colonel 
Cotton was on the Staff of Lord Combermere, and also 
aide-de-camp to the King. He died in 1860, as Sir 
Willoughby Cotton, G.C.B. 

On the 31st January he writes from Kirkondah, twenty- 
four miles from Meerut : ' I left this morning on my 
march to Cawnpore, where I expect to find the order for 
my taking the command of that division. Lord Cam- 
worth goes home in the " Prince Regent ," General Pine 
is appointed to command the Presidency division in his 
place, and I am to command at Cawnpore.' On his 
march to the latter he writes on the 12th February, 
'1 have received the kindest, the most affectionate letter 
from Sir Edward Paget ! His letter is dated 27th July ; 


yet others have arrived in India dated the middle of 

Long after he was gazetted as Commander of the Bath, 
he was lamenting that he had not been thought worthy of 
his promotion. The telegraph has put an end to similar 
trials at the present day. 

On the 20th February, his brother-in-law's letter of the 
6th and 12th September, 1826, reached him, and rejoiced 
his heart with the intelligence that there was every reason 
to hope that he would not be left unrewarded. Later 
letters of the 14th and 17th September reached him, and 
on the 3rd April, 1827, he writes, 'Sir Edward Paget's 
letter to Lord Bathurst, is the most honourable testimony 
of service I could possibly have received. My mind,' Sir 
Samford adds, ' is now quite at ease, and my position in 
India all I could wish.' 

It may be here stated, that on being appointed to the 
Cawnpore command, Sir Samford Whittingham selected 
as his aide-de-camp the gallant lieutenant who had so 
distinguished himself at the siege of Bhurtpore, William 
Caine, a man without interest and with nothing but his 
merit to recommend him. The letter continues : ' the 
four battalions of infantry I have with me at Cawnpore 
are encamped about five miles off. Every morning I rise 
at half-past three and do not return till nine : the whole 
of that time, deducting the space for going and coming, 
being employed in drilling and manoeuvring the troops ! 
I am thus every morning on horseback for five hours ; 
and Sunday is my only day of rest.' 

The details of Lord Combermere's stay in Cawnpore 
are not recorded in any letters which have reached the 
Editor. But two survivors, one a general officer of the 
Indian army and the other then aide-de-camp to Sir Sam- 
ford, well remember the circumstances of that visit. 

His Lordship arrived on the 29th November, 1827, and 
left the station on the 6th December. During his week's 


stay, lie and all his Staff were the guests of Sir Samforcl 
Whittingham. Moreover all the superior officers, and 
such others as Lord Corubermere desired to see, were 
invited on each day to dinner. Those of the Staff and 
their servants for whom there was not room in the house 
pitched their tents in the General's own ground. The 
expense of such a visitation may be imagined. 6 It was 
the talk of the garrison' * 

Sir Samford accompanied Lord Combermere to Luck- 
now. In a letter from that city dated 11th December, 
1827, he writes : ' We arrived here this morning amidst 
the crash and jostling of 150 elephants, all pushing for- 
wards at the same time, to enter a narrow street of 
about two miles long, which leads to the palace of His 
Majesty the King of Oude. About half my howdah was 
carried away. One elephant was pushed over a bridge ; 
and divers were the mishaps which occurred. But I am 
happy to say, no serious evil resulted from the scramble. 
We breakfasted with His Majesty of Oude; and tiffed f 
with the Eesident, with whom we are also to dine. 5 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' Cawnpore, 27th December, 1827. 

c Many happy returns of the season to you and yours, 
and to all the dear circle. The important news of the 
death of Mr. Canning, and of the appointment of the 
Duke of Wellington to be Commander-in-Chief at home 
and of that of Lord Combermere to be Viceroy of 
Ireland J has just reached us. Lord C. will I believe 
return immediately to Calcutta to embark for England. 
His behaviour to me, since his stay with me at Cawnpore, 
has become uniformly that of a sincere and affectionate 
friend. It is the reaction of a generous mind, which 

* The words of an eye-witness. Sir Samford, however, invited his Lord- 
ship, who preferred a good house to his own tent, 
t Luncheon is called tiffin in the East. 
\ This report was wholly unfounded. 


feels it had been imposed on and deceived. The canaille 
at Calcutta had made him believe that I was a very 
dangerous monster, from whom it behoved him to keep 
quite clear. Now that he knows me well, he has seen 
that I had not merited the honour done me by my kind 
good friends in the city of Calcutta. And like an honest 
man, he endeavours to repay by unlimited confidence the 
injury done me by the false impression that had been 
made on his mind. I rejoice at this, for I am really 
glad to be honoured with Lord Combermere's good 
opinion .... 

; Nothing could have given me more sincere pleasure 
than the appointment of Lord William Bentinck.* I love 
and admire my old commander and am quite happy at 
the idea of again serving under his orders.' 

In the meantime at home, in the spring of 1827, Sir 
Edward Paget had been rancorously attacked in par- 
liament by the ardent partisans of what may be called the 
Indian mutiny- coaxing system ; but he was victoriously 
defended, though the supporters of the system were 
powerful enough to postpone for years the necessary 
reforms, which would involve a painful loss of patronage 
and power to themselves. Sir Samford rejoiced, as may 
be supposed, in Sir Edward's triumphs at home. 

In a letter of Sir Edward's dated, c Sandhurst, 17th 
July, 1827,' after apologizing for his laziness with his pen, 
he continues, ' Instead of looking back, however, I will 
look forward ; and I trust I may do it with confidence. 
For, as I am to have your brave boy here [as a college 
cadet] in the course of next month, I am greatly mistaken 
if he don't give an activity to my pen, the want of which 
you have sound reason to complain of. 

6 You have long known the fate of Hume's motion on 

* As Governor- General. During the last two years of his stay in India 
his Lordship was also Commander-in-Chief— a veritable King of India. 


the Barrackpore question ; and before this, must be in 
possession of the wonderful events which have produced a 
change of administration, &c. One of the appointments 
arising out of the recent changes, is that of Lord William 
Bentinck to India. I have had one long talk with him, 
and I think the probability is that I shall have more, and 
I promise you, my dear friend, that you will not escape 
the severity of my criticisms. He is in the expectation of 
starting some time in the month of September. 

6 The last letter I received from you grieved me to the 
soul. A moment's consideration, however, soon set me 
at ease, as it satisfied me that very shortly indeed after it 
was written you must have become acquainted with the 
fact that your merits and services were better known and 
appreciated at home, than they were by your friends in 
India. If you want any proof of this you may read the 

c I am off for Cowes, to pass a day or two with my 
brother, who has escaped from the Ordnance Board, to 
enjoy a few weeks' sailing. I hear and believe that he is 
destined to succeed Lord Wellesley in Ireland. Lady 
Harriet, with some of the children, is also on the move, to 
pass a week with her mother at Blackheath. These are 
holiday times at Sandhurst, which we are turning to 
account. In truth, I may say that the whole is holiday 
time to us. For we like our situation here exceedingly, 
have a delightful house, garden, and grounds. And I 
have just enough to do, to be interested without being 
oppressed; and daily chant the Te Deum, at having 

escaped from W , S , C , S , and Co.; and 

from the pestilential vapours of Chowringhee with a mens 
sana in corpore sano. 

' Hoping, my dear Whittingham, that you still find 
health and comfort in a cigar, I this day dispatch a cargo 
of real and genuine Havannahs to Hart Davis, with a 

* The enclosure has disappeared. 


request that he will take the best means of forwarding 
them to you. I have also sent in the same box, Sir 
Walter Scott's " Life of Napoleon," which struck me as a 
book you would like to read. I will beg of him to let 
you know by what ship the box is sent. 

' God bless you, my dear and excellent friend ! And 
believe me, in spite of my idleness and neglect, your 
sincerely attached and affectionate friend, 

'Edward Paget.' 

[P. S.] ' Lady Harriet charges me with the best wishes 
and affectionate regards to you.' 

In a letter signed, c Combermere,' dated c Head- quarters 
Calcutta, 15th October, 1827,' and addressed to Major- 
General Sir S. F. Whittingham, K.C.B., the thanks of 
the House of Commons were conveyed to the latter, his 
Lordship writes, ' for the meritorious and gallant manner 
in which you performed the duties which were assigned 
to you in the late operations against Bhurtpore.' Though 
quite official, it ends somewhat unusually with very sin- 
cerely^ your obedient servant. 

The following proves the nobleness of Sir Edward 
Paget's mind : — 

To Sir Samford Whittingham. 


' Sandhtjkst, 10th December, 1827. 

4 1 assure you, my dear good friend, you greatly over- 
value the step I took in representing to Lord Bathurst 
your just claim to the Bath, as I am quite certain that 
you would have got it, at the very time you did, though 
I had been altogether silent upon the subject. It is the 
will and not the deed, therefore, that you must lay to my 
account.' * 

* He had done his best with Lord Bathurst and the President of the 
Board of Control, to get the Bath for Commodore Hayes ; and had failed. 


6 God bless you, my veiy dear and excellent friend. 
Take care of yourself, and don't think that you can des- 
pise the rays of the sun with impunity .... and 
believe me ever 

4 Most affectionately yours, 

'Edward Paget.' 

The year 1828 opened more cheerfully to Sir Samford 
Whittingham than had its predecessor. The system of 
brief extracts from the fraternal correspondence will be 
continued, omitting (except on rare occasions) the politics 
of India, that have lost their interest : — 

' Cawnpore, 6th January , 1828. 

c How many things call for our present gratitude to the 
Great Disposer of all things ! My position in this country 
could not be happier or more comfortable. Peace and 
harmony reign throughout the whole of my command ; 
and I have every reason to believe that the commander 
of the Cawnpore district is not less popular than was the 
governor of Dominica ! Lord Combermere writes to me 
in really affectionate terms, and my old friend and com- 
mander, Lord William Bentinck, is on the point of arri- 
ving. My health was never better, and my mind is quite 
at ease.' 

General Whittingham had invited Colonel Willoughby 
Cotton, then on the Staff of his relative, Lord Comber- 
mere, to accompany him on a tour of inspection who, 
however, could not obtain his Lordship's leave, but sent 
an excuse full of the most flattering affection, from which 
a brief portion is here extracted (dated January 2 3rd, 
1828) : — ' Nothing on earth could have given me so much 
pleasure as to have accompanied you. I never flatter, 
but truth must be spoken, and I have the highest opinion 
of your head and heart. Your ideas are all those of the 

It was not then usual to give the K.C.B. to anyone under the rank of Rear- 
Admiral or Major-General. 


high-bred gentlemanly officer, and depend upon it all 
you want is opportunity ; whenever that offers the result 
is certain.' Colonel Cotton alluded to the opportunity of 
a large command in war. The letter ends thus : ' There 
is a report the Duke of Wellington has appointed nie, 
immediately on re-entering office, Quartermaster-General, 
vice yourself. I have reason to think this is true. God 
bless you, and believe me always with the truest sincerity, 
your faithful and affectionate friend, 


Sir Samford Whittingham to Sir Edward Paget. 


' Cawnpore, 6th February, 1828. 

6 My dear General, — Many, very many thanks for 
your kind letter of the 17th July ; and for the very 
acceptable present of Havannah cigars, and the " Life of 

'No one knows better than I do, how little letter- 
writing is a hobby-horse with you. But as long as I con- 
tinue to hold the same place in your affections, I shall 
be happy and contented though I should not hear from 
you above once a year. I shall write to you as often as 
anything occurs worthy of your attention. I cannot tell 

you how happy I am at the idea that C. and will 

be formed into manhood under your guidance and direc- 
tion.* My old opinion is in nowise changed ; and I look 
upon it as the greatest blessing that could have befallen 
me and them, that they should have such a model of 
what a man ought to be before their eyes ! Davis will 
have told you all about Lord Combermere's visit to 
Cawnpore. . . . 

' Nothing that I can recollect in the whole course of my 

* That is a general superintendence. The Governor of the College inter- 
fered but little in the petty details, which were under the charge of subor- 
dinate officers beginning with a Lieut.-Governor. 


life has given me such heartfelt pleasure as the assurance 
of the complete happiness you and Lady Harriet enjoy 
at Sandhurst. 

'I have long ceased to exist for myself, but I have 
great and serious duties to perform, and there is in the 
very performance of your duty a source of real and 
permanent enjoyment. Besides I enjoy perfect health ; 
and when I look around and compare my lot with that of 
others, I bless God and am thankful. 

c Adieu, dear and beloved friend. To feel that I have 
a right to call you by that endearing name is the delight 
and solace of my exile, and gilds the thought of my 
return to my native land. Once more adieu. 

' Ever your most devoted and attached, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

On the 5th April, 1828, Colonel W. Cotton wrote to 
Sir Samford, amongst other things : ' When you write to 
Sir Edward Paget pray offer him my best, warmest, and 
most humble remembrances. I like him and esteem him 
as one of our best officers 

c The whole arrangements were formed for the siege of 
Bhurtpore by Sir Edward. The execution fell into Lord 

C 's hands, which if done by Sir Edward would have 

given him the peerage, and 60,000Z. His unfortunate 
capture lost it [the peerage] to him with Lord Welling- 
ton's army. He deserved it for the passage of the Douro ; 
at which I was present and can safely aver that it was 
owing to the admirable celerity with which he seized 
the vantage ground on crossing, that the Duke gained 
the victory that day.' 

When years later the ' Wellington Dispatches ' were 
published, they amply confirmed the above opinions of 
the late Sir Willoughby Cotton. At page 329 of the 
fourth volume of that immortal work, Sir Edward is done 
full justice. Here there is room but for one sentence. 


After reporting his brother's wound to the Hon. 
Berkeley Paget, Sir Arthur Wellesley continues : ' I can- 
not express to you how much I regret the loss of his 
assistance, or how much the joy of the whole army on 
account of this success has been damped by the mis- 
fortune of him who has been the principal promoter of 
it. I hope, however, that he will soon recover.' 

The enthusiastic affection, and esteem felt by Colonel 
Willoughby Cotton for Sir Samford Whittingham is proved 
by many letters in the Editor's possession. 

They are all very similar in tone to one dated ' Camp, 
December 9th' (probably in 1828) which thus begins, 
'Many thanks for yours, this day received by me. It 
contains as all your letters do, most valuable opinions, 
couched in most forcible and gentlemanly terms.' 

On the 24th of June Lord Combermere writes to Sir 
Samford : ' What changes have taken place at home ! 
The Duke will be everything ; and I hope he will recol- 
lect his old and steady friends. Hill is named as Com- 
mander of the Forces. But our friend Paget (who is 
senior to Hill) is much more fit for the situation.' 

In his private notes,* his Lordship never signed his 
name in full. This one ends : ' yours my dear Whitting- 
ham, most truly, C 

Viscount Combermere to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


'Simla, 30^ June, 1828. 

6 My dear Whittingham, — I rejoice to hear that you 
are so much better. I did not like to tell you, before 

you had recovered, that Lord C h was trying hard 

through C 1 (no friend of yours) to get the Govern- 
ment to put him on the Staff of Bengal. I think it 
rather cool of Lord C. requesting me to send you to 

* In one of these notes Lord Combermere candidly tells Sir Samford that 
he has no reason ' to complain of Dame Fortune ' and mentions his obtain- 
ing i this command ' as one of the best specimens of his good luck. 

A A. 


Madras, and to remove Pine in order to make room for 
him at Barrackpore. I shall protest against it. I had a 
letter from Torrens. He says I should have been Com- 
mander-in-Chief had I been in England.' 

From the Same to the Same. 


' Simla, ISth July. 

6 It is too late now for me to think of going home 
this year. I have sent my resignation home, and have 
requested that my successor may be at Calcutta by the 
end of October [18] 2 9 ; and I am bound to remain till 

4 I fancy by Paget not having been appointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief, that he was told it would be only tem- 
porary or perhaps it was offered, and he refused to take 
it upon the terms on which Hill holds the situation. 
Any General Officer would have been glad to take the 
College for him, with an understanding that Paget was to 
return to it upon his giving up the command of the 
army. But you will no doubt hear from Sir Edward, or 
from Mr. Davis by the " Undaunted^ 

>5 ) 

Lord William Bentinck landed at Calcutta on the 4th 
July, 1828. Soon afterwards Sir Samford sent him a 
congratulatory letter, and expressed the sincere pleasure 
he felt ' at being again placed under his command.' — His 
Lordship replied as follows : — 

Lord William Bentinck to Sir Samford Wliittincjham. 

' Calcutta, 19^ July, 1828. 

'My dear General, — I assure you that it gives me very 
oreat pleasure to come again in contact with you. I 
never entertained other than the most sincere esteem and 
respect for you; and I am confident that I shall find 
nothing in your Indian history, which will not increase 
my former good opinion. 


c I have to ask of you the favour of naming to me 
two or three officers of my own regiment,* from the 
Captains and subalterns ; from whom I may select an 
A. D. C. Among others, I should be glad to know your 

opinion of Captain M e. ' I need not describe to you 

the character required ; but as Lady William is with me, 
it is very important to have a gentleman in every sense 
of the word, who will not be disagreeable to us as an 
inmate; and who will be civil and respectful to all who 
have access to the house. I naturally should have asked 
this question of [Brigadier] General Sleigh, f for whom 
I have always entertained feelings of respect. But I learn 
with regret that there have been great dissensions in the 
Corps ; and I should rather like to have an opinion en- 
tirely impartial. As I do not mean to be a prisoner at 
Calcutta, and am of opinion that I can best judge of the 
state of things by personal inspection and information on 
the spot, I trust at no great distance of time, to have the 
pleasure of seeing you. In the meantime believe me, 
my dear Sir, 

c Ever most sincerely yours, 

' W. Bentinck.' 

1 Major- General Sir SamfordJ "VVhittinghain, K.C.B.' 

Of the reply to the above letter the Editor has no copy. 

From the Same to the Same. 


' Calcutta, ISth August } 1828. 

c My dear Sir, — I feel much obliged by the kind and 
friendly manner in which you have so fully and satis- 
factorily entered into the question I took the liberty of 

* The 11th Light Dragoons, now Hussars. 

t Though a local Brigadier- General, Sleigh was the Commanding 
Officer of the 11th Dragoons. 

J Curiously enough in the original letter Lord William has written 
Sandford instead of Samford, exactly as George IV. did in the letter of in- 
troduction to Sir Edward Paget. 

A A 2 


putting to you. I have offered the situation to Captain 
Mansell. The favourable opinion expressed by you has 
been fully confirmed by the reports of others.' 

The Editor has omitted to allude in its proper place to 
a letter from Sir Herbert Taylor to Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham, which must have reached India in the spring of 
1828, being dated 23rd October, 1827. It consists of no 
less than fifteen pages of old-fashioned letter paper. In 
it he says : ' Thank God, I am released from a drudgery 
which nothing but a feeling of attachment to the Duke 
of York, and to the King in the first instance, and a sense 
of duty in the next, could have enabled me to get 
through. I have resigned my office to a most trust- 
worthy and amiable man,* and I trust that he will not 
be embarrassed by any of my proceedings when I held 
it.' In this interesting letter Sir Herbert attributes to 
' the zealous and disinterested exertions of Sir Edward 
Paget,' the success of the Burmese campaign. He also 
gives him credit 'for the preparations which ensured suc- 
cess in the attack on BlmrtporeJ adding, ' I have always 
regretted that our friend did not stay and reap the bene- 
fits of these exertions.' 

Sir Herbert also expresses his approval of Sir Sam- 
ford's plans of Indian reforms. The whole voluminous 
letter shows how this able and trusted confidant of 
(eventually) three successive Kings of England respected 
and esteemed the subject of this Memoir, as well as his 
noble friend Sir Edward Paget. 

Viscount Combermere to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


' Simla, 17 th August, 1828. 

' My dear Whittingham, — Davis's next letters will be 
most interesting. We must have April ships in soon. 

* Lord Fitzroy Somerset, afterwards Lord Raglan. 


f 1 could not carry his friend Lord C li through. 

Lord William Bentinck, I am glad to find, does not con- 
sider the Colonel his oracle, as Lord did. Several 

things that had been refused by Colonel C 1 in Lord 

's and Bailey's administration were brought before 

Lord William by my desire for consideration, and all 
have been granted 

'I am going to send you a Eegiment (44th) in Novem- 
ber, which will require a deal of surveillance. Colonel 

S n is a very gallant officer ; but his officers are either 

bad or he does not know how to manage them. How- 
ever you will find all this out, and I trust you will make 
this corps what it ought to be. You had better not 
mention my intention respecting this change of quarters, 
except (confidentially) to Colonel Frith.* 

' In haste, my dear Whittingham, most truly yours, 


Enough has been shown of Lord Combermere's letters 
to prove how friendship and confidence had replaced the 
coldness which had been at first infused into his mind, 
by jealousies, which after all were only too natural, under 
the circumstances, which had formerly thrown into the 
hands of a King's Officer the influential Staff duties 
usually performed by two or three Company's officers. In 
the opinion of a surviving General, a man of sound sense 
and ability, who then served the Company in a subaltern 
capacity, (and whose judgment therefore cannot be biased 
in favour of the King's officer) the state of the Head 
Quarter Staff had perfectly justified Sir Edward Paget in 
departing from the then usual practice. But it was not 
to be expected that those who actually lost power and 
influence would be contented, and it was certain that 

* Lord Couibermere no doubt feared that the General from whose com- 
mand the regiment was moved to be put in order might take offence. There 
is reason to believe that the commanding officer of the regiment was chiefly 
to blame, if not entirely so. 


their discontent would be generally sympathized with by 
the Company's officers. But though the jealousy and 
hostility was natural, the affair was not the less creditable 
to the zeal and talents of the King's officer. The good 
sense by which Lord Combermere rescued himself from 
the influence of a powerful clique, and admitted Sir Sam- 
ford Whittingham to his confidence, and, even friendship, 
is perceptible in his later correspondence, where he is 
ready to combat for the interests of the very man whom 
at the outset he had treated with a coldness approaching 
to discourtesy. 

Far away in England, his late Chief still retained his 
ardent affection for Sir Samford Whittingham : — 

Sir Edward Paget to Mr. Hart Davis. 


' Sandhurst, 25th November, 1828. 

; My dear Davis, — A thousand thanks for your most 
kind letter. It grieved me to the soul to hear that my 
most clear, most excellent., but alas ! neglected friend, has 
had so serious an illness at Cawnpore. God grant that 
he may be entirely recovered, and that your next letter 
may bring you the grateful tidings. Pray, pray, let me 
hear from you when they arrive. I know not the indi- 
vidual out of my own family, whose loss would so deeply 
wound me. Would that the time were arrived, at which 
he could withdraw himself from that infernal land of 
cholera. His life is of infinitely more value to his family 
and friends, than lacs of rupees, and I hope you will join 
me in telling him so.' 

Sir Samford Whittingham to his Brother-in-law. 

1 Cawnpore, 5th December, 1828. 

8 The Duke of Wellington, in my humble opinion, 
possesses more of sterling British good sense, and real 
sound judgment than any man I have ever yet known. 

sir samford's ambition. 359 

Sir George Murray you will find a most able man of 
business, and the new Secretary-at-War,* with whom I 
was at High Wycombe, possesses very superior abilities. 
I have received a letter from Finucane, as late as the 
18th June, in which he says that you were again quite 
well. How nobly your friends at Bristol constantly be- 
have ! Tell our old friend, Mr. Bush, that I have got his 
son attached to a regiment at Cawnpore, and that I will 
do everything in my power to serve and take care of him. 
In January, I shall meet Lord Combermere at Keitah — 
take leave of him — inspect the troops at Bundelkund and 
return to my camp of instruction at Cawnpore, on the 
1st February. Brigade and field days will occupy that 
month, and the greater part of March. Four battalions 
of infantry, eight squadrons of cavalry, and twelve pieces 
of artillery, will be the manoeuvring force. I will send 
you one of my field-days, to show my good friend Tor- 
rens.f To many people, all this would be tiresome. I 
confess I delight in what I contemplate as merely neces- 
sary preparation for some great and glorious day. " My 
fortune's on my saddle-bow ", and my greatest ambition 
an honourable grave on the field of battle.' 

* Sir Henry (afterwards Viscount) Hardinge. 

f Sir Henry Torrens had been dead some months when Sir Samford wrote 

these words. 







' Calpee : 3rd January, 1829, 50 miles from Cawnpore. 
— I am thus far on my route to Keitah, to meet Lord 
Combermere, and have been passing some days with Mr. 
Saunders, one of the civil servants of the Company, and 
commercial resident for them here.' [He speaks most 
highly of this gentleman's skill, zeal, and management; 
and enters copiously into cotton details, unsuited for this 
Memoir ; then after repeating and dwelling on his unalter- 
able belief on the subject of the transfer of authority in 
India, he ends with] — ' So strong, indeed, is this the con- 
viction of my mind, that I know of nothing in public life 
that would give me more pleasure than to hear that 
India, civil and military, was placed at the disposition of 
His Majesty.' 

' Banda : 29th January. — This morning I took my 
final leave of Lord Combermere, who has been kind 
and attentive to me beyond expression. He proceeds 
through Cawnpore, &c. to Calcutta ; and I am on my re- 


turn to Cawnpore, where I expect to arrive on the 3rd 
February. On that day I inspect the artillery. Yester- 
day's letters and papers brought us the melancholy news 
of the death of our old and much esteemed friend, Tor- 
rens ! I do not know any event that has more com- 
pletely affected me. To Sir Herbert Taylor, who succeeds 
him,* I have written a few lines, enclosed in this letter. 
I rode eighteen miles to breakfast this morning, without 
the slightest fatigue. Indeed, I never recollect to have 
been in better health. Lord William Bentinck is travel- 
ling dak about Bengal, but his movements are so com- 
pletely kept to himself, that we have no certainty as to 
his real intention. I wish he may come to Cawnpore, I 
shall be delighted to see him. Lord Combermere goes 
home about the middle of next November.' 

About the middle of 1829 Sir Samford Whittingham 
must have received from his brother-in-law the following 
note, written by Bobert Southey : — 

Mr. Southey to Mr. Hart Davis, f 

1 Keswick:, 15th January, 1829. 

6 Sir, — I have this day been favoured with your oblig- 
ing note, and the papers from Sir Samuel F. Whittingham. 
In the course of the present year, I hope to produce the 
facts contained in these papers in a manner which will 
satisfy Sir Samuel, by representing the true case. Indeed 
he had put me in possession of them before he left Eng- 
land ; and they had enabled me sometimes to render 
him that justice in private which I shall with great plea- 
sure render him in public. I never write with more 
pleasure than when rendering due honour to the living 
or the dead. 

* Sir H. Taj lor was appointed Adjutant-General on the 25th August 1828. 

t This note of Southey's came into the Editor's possession only after he 
had finished writing this work as far as Chapter XX. It amply confirms 
directly the conclusion which he had already arrived at indirectly. 


' Many years have passed since I have been connected 
with Bristol in any other way than by a family burial- 
place in Ashton churchyard. But I love my native city 
dearly, am proud to be noticed as a Bristolian by you its 
worthy representative, and shall continue to labour while 
I can, in the hope and belief that I may leave a name 
which may be held there in good remembrance. I have 
the honour to remain, Sir, 

c Your obliged and obedient servant, 


But in addition to the information that Southey obtained 
direct from General Whittingham, he must certainly have 
obtained, as explained in the preface, the most important 
of the letters which the latter addressed to the successive 
Military Secretaries at the Horse-Guards. 

A long letter (to Mr. Davis of the 17th June) narrates 
the reduction in the pay and allowances of the military 
officers made by Lord William Bentinck, and its effects, 
and adds : c The Governor-General is unpopular to a de- 
gree beyond belief, and I am really afraid he will receive 
open marks of disrespect in his journey through the Upper 

' Caionpore, 18th July, 1829. — My aide-de-camp, Cap- 
tain Caine, H.M.'s 41st Eegiment, has been out on a 
shooting party lately ; and, with two companions, killed 
forty-three tigers, and twelve young ones. He begs you 
to accept of two skins, truly the largest and finest I ever 
saw ; and which I send to you by Cornet Hindman, of 
H.M.'s 11 th Light Dragoons. He has promised to take 
great care of them, and to deliver them to you. He is a 
gentlemanly young man, who will, I think, rather please 
you. In order that you may have some idea of Caine, 
I forward you a copy of the statement I gave Lord 
Combermere of his conduct at the storming of Bhurt- 
pore, where he had acted as Brigade-Major to Brigadier- 


General M'Conibe. Such very extraordinary gallantry 
should be made as public as possible, and I know that 
you will peruse the statement with interest and pleasure. 
I spoke to Lord Combermere in his favour, and his Lord- 
ship gave him very shortly afterwards a Company in the 
41st, which has, to my great delight, been confirmed by 
Lord Hill.'* 

1 Cawnpoke, 25th December, 1829. 

[Alluding to past gifts he writes to Sir Edward Paget] — 
' The hookah is the admiration of everyone who has seen 
it. The little Admiral is still the darling pet. The hats, 
the tonjon, the iron chest, all are mementos of the man 
whom of all others I have most esteemed and loved.' 

The following is to his Brother-in-law : — 

'Cawnpore, 1st January, 1830. 

4 The compliments of the season to all the dear circle ! 
Will you send these compliments, which truly come from 
the heart, to our dear friend, f and all his amiable family; 
and also to my much loved friends Sir Edward and Lady 
Harriet Paget. I enclose a Calcutta paper containing an 
account of our mode of carrying on the war at Cawn- 
pore. J I am proud of the universal harmony which now 
prevails at a station famous in former days for a very 
opposite spirit. I enclose also Lord Combermere's last 
letter to me, written in a tone of friendship, which de- 
lights me, and will I am sure highly gratify you. Lord 
Combermere is one of the best soldiers I have known, 
and a man of great sense and judgment ; I sincerely love 

The re-action caused by the change in Lord Comber- 
mere's treatment of him, filled his warm and affectionate 
heart with gratitude ; and it is to be regretted that this 

* Vide Appendix C. Surely the Victoria Cross might be back-dated and 
given to such veterans as Colonel Caine. 
t Sir William Knighton. 
| This paper is not forthcoming. 


letter of his Lordship has been lost or mislaid. But it 
was already quite evident from previous letters, that both 
Chief and subordinate understood and appreciated one 
another, and were on very friendly terms. 

In the beginning of 1830, Sir Samford was anticipating 
official visits from Lord William Bentinck, the Governor- 
General, and from the new Commander-in-Chief, the Earl 
of Dalhousie. In the letter mentioning the above facts, 
occur the following natural lamentations : — ' Nothing is 
to me so grievous in India as the slowness of our corre- 
spondence. From the date of my writing to you, my 
beloved brother, till the receipt of your letter in answer, 
seldom less than a year elapses ; and it is impossible to 
get rid of the idea that a thousand things may have 
happened between the date of your letters and their re- 
ception by me. ' * 

Voluminous letters about the education and prospects 
of his children abound this year. He has also hopes of 
effecting a pleasant change of military command. 

' 10th March, 1830. — Lord Dalhousie has promised that 
I shall succeed Sir Jasper Nicholls at Meerut. Sir Jasper 
resigns in January 1831. He would stay longer, but a 
large family of daughters requires his presence in Eng- 
land. I am very glad of this change ; the climate of 
Meerut is better than that of Cawnpore, and it is so near 
the hills, that a change of air if necessary can be procured 
in twenty-four hours.' 

He was taken ill this spring, and removed for change 
of air to the Hills : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

< Mussotjrie in the Himalayan - Mountains ; six miles above 
Dhoon Deyra, ] 40 miles from Meerut, 9th May, 1830. 

'You will I know be greatly rejoiced to hear that my 
health is already perfectly restored by this most delightful 

* He lived himself just long enough to witness great modification of this 
evil, by the establishment of the overland postage to India. 


climate, I never breathed so pure an air. The thermo- 
meter ranges from 62° to 65°. I sleep under a double 
blanket, and we seldom pass a day without lighting a 
fire ; yet this is the hottest season of the year. On the 
1st of November, I shall return to Meerut, where I assume 
the command. 

6 Lord Dalhousie is better, and keeps to his resolution 
of sailing up the Ganges for these upper provinces in July 
next. I shall see him at Meerut instead of Cawnpore ; 
and I shall have hard work in November and December, 
to get the troops in as good order as I had them in at 
Cawnpore. Lord William writes to me in the same kind 
and friendly style he has ever done. I expect he will be 
at Meerut in January.' 

To the Same. 

1 Mtjssotjtiie near Landour, 22?id May, 1830. 

6 In regard to I would not upon any account that 

he should come out to India, which I look upon as the 
worst school into which a young military man can be 
thrown. Habits of idleness, dissipation, and great expense 
are almost invariably acquired ; and but seldom corrected 
by that spirit of subordination and strict military dis- 
cipline which is so forcibly inculcated in our regiments 

in Europe. I am sorry B s* is placed in the th. 

It is a particularly good fighting regiment; but I am afraid 

so admirable a young man as you describe B s to .be, 

will find but little congenial to his feelings amongst the 
officers of that corps. I am particularly anxious that 

, when he has passed his examination at Sandhurst, 

should obtain a commission in the Eifie Brigade, and if no 
opportunity should offer of his obtaining it gratis, I would 
purchase him his first commission rather than see him 
enter any other corps. Pray talk this matter over with 
Sir Edward Paget ; and tell him at the same time, how 

* Now Major-General, lately commanding the Cork district in Ireland. 


much I feel gratified and honoured by his choosing me 
godfather to his little boy. 

' When I came to these heavenly mountains, I purposed 
residing with my old and good friends Mr. and Mrs. Grant. 
But the sudden death of Mrs. Grant changed all my pro- 
jects, and threw me upon the wide world with the least 
preparation for such an unexpected change. Dr. and Mrs. 
Daunt of H. M.'s 44th, who are here for their health, 
kindly took compassion upon me ; and I am now living 
with them (and with Dr. and Mrs. Magrath, who form 
part of the' family), with more real comfort than I have 
enjoyed since my arrival in India. It is delightful to 
meet with such estimable friends, in this far distant land, 
and close to the snowy range/ 

The following extract from a letter to Mr. Davis is a 
proof of the activity of the writer's mind, who even when 
on leave in the hills could not be idle : — 

'Mussourie, 28th May, 1830. 

c When Lord Hastings left India, the surplus revenue ex- 
ceeded 800,000/. per annum. The deficit is now 1,400,000/. 
per annum. This evil must be remedied ; but not by such 
trifling means as cutting 15,000/. per annum from the 
army. In my opinion the great evil arises from the un- 
productive territory of the Presidency of Bombay. All 
territory not productive costs enormous expense, which 
must be paid by the Presidency of Bengal. Such terri- 
tory should be divided between and given to petty rajahs, 
under a trifling rent, which however small, would be so 
much clear gain, whilst all expense on our part would 
cease. The enclosed queries I drew up and sent to a 
high civil servant to be answered. I extract a part of his 
letter to me in answer, and if you think it worth your 
attention, pray call for such records of the House of 
Commons as may bear upon them ; you will thus acquire 
much more positive information than it is in my power to 


send you. My friend says : " Without books and papers 
I cannot answer distinctly these questions. In either the 
second or third report of the committee of the House of 
Commons previous to the last charter, there are numerous 
accounts from which the matter might be collected. In 
the c Asiatic Journal,' some of the late accounts annually 
laid before Parliament were printed. I have not with 
me any of the Accountant-General's annual estimates and 
reports on accounts, which are the foundation of all the 
accounts of India. For the last three years, these accounts 
have been withheld from us." 

' It is only therefore in the records of the House of Com- 
mons that full and authentic information can be acquired. 

' Sincerely yours, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

This year he carried on a most friendly demi-official 
correspondence with the Secretary-at-War, Sir Henry 
(afterwards Viscount) Hardinge, on the subject of sol- 
diers' pensions, and quartering troops on the hills. 

On the 2nd of August, he writes to his brother-in-law : — 
' I am glad to see Lord Clare's appointment to the go- 
vernment of Bombay, inasmuch as it will insure Lord 
William's coming up the country, which might have been 
prevented had Sir Charles Metcalfe been appointed as was 
here reported. Sir Charles is a member of council, and 
an old and experienced Civil servant; and Lord William 
might not have felt it expedient to have left the council 
without him. I hope to have many a long conversation 
with Lord William on the interesting subjects of those 
hills. I shall quit them [the hills] with deep regret, and 
return to them with infinite pleasure. They have per- 
fectly restored my health ; and they have afforded me an 
existence of quiet and tranquil happiness, such as I have 
never experienced since I left home.' 

' 20th August. — My exchange with Sir Jasper is in orders 
to take place on the 1st November.' 


6 Meerut, 6th November. — Here I am again on the plains, 
in perfect health and vigour; full of business and prepara- 
tions for our great men — Lord William first; and then 
Lord Dalhousie. I shall give them first a review of a 
brigade of infantry ; then of four regiments of cavalry, 
and thirty pieces of horse artillery; and then of the whole 
together : each day commanded by S. W. Be assured, 
my dearest brother, they shall not see the like in India. 
Imagine to yourself with what delight I shall ride my 
favourite hobby.' 

' Meerut, loth November. — I am occupied from morn 
till eve, and delighted with my new situation. My health 
is perfect.' 

' Meerut, 1st December.' — [In this letter he explains his 
anxious desire to have his command, which would be com- 
pleted on the 26th January, 1833, prolonged to the 26th 
January, 1836, giving various reasons : his desire to see 
his civil and military sons, soon about to embark on their 
careers, around him, and his belief that the expected 
demise of Eunjeet Singh, would at last give him that 
active command in the field at the head of British troops 
which was now the great object of his zeal and labours. 
He continues] — ' To be called away from the field just at 
the moment of commencing operations would absolutely 
break my heart. I entreat you therefore, clearest brother, 
to use every influence in your [power] to obtain this boon 
for me, and be assured of my eternal gratitude.* The 
late brevet has doubled my chance of a high command, 
should the troops take the field, and made me a thousand 
times more anxious to remain at my present post. The 
Duke of Wellington would perhaps listen to the suppli- 
cation of an officer who has had the honour of serving 
under him.' 

* The influence of Mr. Davis, the Conservative Member of Bristol, soon 
about to vanish under the crash of the great Reform Bill, was at this time 
very considerable with the Ministers. 


Well would it be if parliamentary interest were never 
exerted in a worse cause than in endeavouring to give 
to a brave, zealous and skilful officer an opportunity of 
actively serving his country ! Providence alone can fur- 
nish the desired opportunity ; but the hope may always 
exist and thus keep active and able minds, so long as 
life and strength are granted, from stagnation and fatal 

E B 




visits of the earl of dalhousie, and of lord william bent1nck — 
the duke of Wellington's repeated observation to mr. hart davis 
regarding general whittingham — wholly adopted and rejoiced 
in by lord william bentinck — the duke's declaration against 
reform — the duke's loss of office injurious to sir samford — 
the rival champagnes — a candid noble sportsman — lieutenant 
(now sir henry) durand — one of the duke's last official acts — 
lord william bentinck's opinion of daniel o'connell — his con- 
fidence in his countrymen — a characteristic letter by ' the 
duke' — lord hill's opinion of sir samford. 

How Lord Qoinberniere would have been recalled, had 
he not resigned, has been explained in his Memoirs, by 
Lady Combermere and Captain Knollys. He opposed 
himself to those retrenchments in military expenditure, to 
which Lord William Bentinck was pledged, and which 
the then peaceful aspect of affairs facilitated. 

We continue the extracts from the fraternal corre- 

4 Meerut) 29th January, 1831. — Your dear letter of the 
28th July, with extracts from the newspapers, relative to 
your election at Bristol reached me yesterday, and gave 
me greater pleasure than I have words to express. It 
is most delightful to see the constant, and warm, and firm 
attachment of your friends at Bristol ; because that feel- 
ing arises from the fullest conviction of your merits, and 
not from the feasting system, which so greatly captivates 
John Bull. By doing your duty ably, punctually and 
graciously, you have conciliated all the amours propres 


in your favour, and you have admirably preserved your 
own dignity, without neglecting the humblest of your con- 

' Meerut, 10th February. — What a magnificent triumph 
you have obtained my dearest brother! * As far as honour 
can confer happiness, we have abundant reason to be satis- 
fied. It would not be reasonable to expect all the good 
things of life together. Lord Dalhousie will be here on 
the 20th, remain here 21st and 22nd, and leave on the 
23rd. Lord William will arrive on the 24th, and go from 
hence to Hurdwar, whither I shall accompany him as well 
as to the hills of Landour. I hope to show both their 
Lordships first-rate specimens of cavalry and artillery. 
My infantry is broken up for the season by the departure 
of the 31st Kegiment for Kurnaul. But next cold weather 
I hope to give them some line movements.' 

The letters recording Lord Dalhousie's visit are not 
extant, but there is no doubt that all passed off satisfac- 
torily. Sir Samford accompanied Lord William Bentinck 
to the Mussourie hills ; and whilst there he received the 
following convincing proof that his constant exile had not 
obliterated him or his services from the memory of the 
greatest of Englishmen : — 

Richard Hart Davis^ M.P. to Sir Samford Wliittingham. 


t [38] f Conduit Stkeet [Hanovek Square], 

'ZSth September, 1830. 

c I delayed writing for a day or two expecting to have 
a communication from the Duke of Wellington respect- 
ing your regiment. This has taken place ; and what will 
delight you above the hopes of having the regiment soon, 
is the observation which the Duke made " that we had not 
such another officer in the army" as yourself, " and that 

* Mr. Davis, unable to bear the expenses of an election, had again been 
returned in 1830 at the expense of his constituents. 

t Then a handsome private house ; now a tailor's shop. 

B B 2 


you ought to have a Eegiment, and that you should have 

one quickly." 

' I forgot to say that the Duke of Wellington twice re- 
peated " that we had not such another officer in the army " 
as yourself.' 

Mr. Davis's letter having reached Sir Saniford whilst 
he was in the camp of the Governor-General, he at once 
sent it on to Lord William, evincing thereby much confi- 
dence in the generosity of the latter, considering the great 
military seniority of his Lordship, under whose command- 
in-chief he had served in the Peninsula. 

The following was the truly magnanimous as well as 
kind reply of that distinguished nobleman : — 

Lord William Bentinck to Sir Samford Whittingliam. 

'Camp, 20th March, 1831. 

c My dear Sir Sam. F. (sic) — It would be paying you a 
poor compliment to apply the same comparison in refer- 
ence to this Presidency, as the greatest of all authorities, 
in a manner so exceedingly gratifying, has made in your 
favour in respect to the army at large. In fact no other 
officer has had the same large means and varied oppor- 
tunities of improving his own military talents, and of 
employing them for the benefit of his country. / wholly 
adopt the Duke's sentiments, rejoicing and proud of them 
as an old friend, and delighted moreover in having the 
benefit of those services in a country where they are so much 

wanted. May they long be continued in India* 

' Ever, my dear Sir Samford, 

' Most sincerely yours, 

' W. Bentinck.' 

This flattering letter emboldened Sir Samford to re- 
quest his Lordship's kind aid with Lord Ellenborough, 

* Thus the liberal Lord William, emulated the generosity of the con- 
servative Sir Edward Paget's striking letter to Lord Bathurst (see page 340). 


then President of the Board of Control, to procure the 
prolongation of his command in India. Lord William 
replied as follows : — 

< Camp, 23rd March, 1831. 

' My dear Sir S. Ford, — When you have such a friend 
in the Chief,* any interference on the part of myself or of 
Lord Ellenborough, were he ever so well- disposed to give 
effect to my wishes, seems useless ; but the letter, as you 
desire, shall be sent to Lord E., and dispatched by this 
day's dak. I hope it may be of more use than I expect. 

' Ever sincerely yours, 

C W. Bentinck.* 

Lord Wilham appears to have continued his tour soon 
after the above, whilst Sir Samford returned to Meerut. 
He now uses the word ' Samford ' instead of * S. Ford ' in. 
his next letter to Sir S. Whittingham : — 

From Lord William Bentinch 


'Camp Einjoar. &h April, 1831. 

c My dear Sir Samford, — I have to thank you for your 
letters of the 31st, and 2nd April 

' I have received from Lord Clare a file of "Galignani," 
from the beginning of November to the 11th December. 
These I have sent to Lord Dalhousie. The only three 
English papers I received are herewith transmitted. I 
have no copy of the King's speech at the meeting of 
Parliament : but I see by the papers that it contained 
a strong declaration against Eeform, which had made the 
Duke extremely unpopular. There seems to be little 
doubt, that had the. King gone to the Lord Mayor's 
dinner — the intention having been abandoned only the 
day before — there would have followed great tumults. T. 
have a letter from Lord Clare, dated Bombay, 20th March, 
in which he says : ' You will have been as much surprised 

* The Duke of Wellington. 


as I was to hear of the change in the English adminis- 
tration. Before I left London on the 8th September, it 
was known that the elections had gone against the Duke's 
friends ; and as it was believed he intended to meet Par- 
liament without any accession of strength to his Govern- 
ment, so the stability of it was very generally doubted.' 

' The D. of Northumberland has resigned the Blues and 
is succeeded by Lord Hill. I should think the D[uke of 
Wellington] will return to his command of the army. He 
and Lord Grey were always well together, and as I have 
heard, nothing but the late King's positive refusal pre- 
vented the D. from taking him into his cabinet. In the 
Duke's case I would not take the command. It would be 
a false position. A rival having the ear of his Sovereign 
would be suspected, let his honour and integrity be ever 
so undoubted. 

4 Sir Edward Paget, and Sir Willoughby Gordon are 
variously stated as Master-General of the Ordnance ; the 
former is the most likely, Lord Anglesea * (sic) having 
accepted the Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland. 

6 Sincerely yours, 

' W. Bentinck.' 

The removal of the Duke of Wellington from power, 
as he did not revert to Commander-in-Chief, was a great 
blow to Sir Samford Whittingham, pledged as his Grace 
was to give him an early regiment. 

The following anecdote being familiar to the Editor of 
this work, and again lately confirmed by two surviving 
witnesses, exemplifies the excellence of Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham's dinners, especially the wines. In this he had 
formed a great contrast to one exalted official who on his 
tours of inspection was mainly indebted to the guns of 
his Staff and of Captain Caine for eking out his scantily 
supplied table. But this observation by no means applies 

* The c Peerages ' have Anglesey, not Anglesea. 


to Lord and Lady William Beutinck, who always gave 
excellent dinners. It was about this period that Lord 
William invited Sir Samford to dinner expressly that he 
might taste some superior champagne, which had been 
sent as a present to Lord William by his good friend Louis 
Philippe, King of the French. Now the General had long 
obtained all his French wines direct from France, where 
they were selected by his old friend Count Turenne, for- 
merly employed in the household of the great Napoleon. 
When his Lordship asked Sir Samford's opinion of the 
citizen King's wine, he replied, that he would give him 
better if his Lordship would honour him with his company 
to dinner. 

Soon after this, Lady William Bentinck gave a station 
ball at Meerut, and borrowed for the purpose the officers 
of the artillery's mess-house. At the same time, that she 
might have leisure to superintend the preparations, her 
Ladyship desired to escape the trouble of having to pro- 
vide the same evening the dinner of her Lord and his 
Staff, and she therefore requested Sir Samford to take this 
opportunity of settling the disputed champagne question. 
There had been much previous joking, and Lord and 
Lady Bentinck were both certain that it was impossible 
to surpass the wines of French royalty. 

The dinner took place accordingly. Amongst the guests 
were Doctor and Mrs. Magrath, the latter of whom is now 
a widow, residing in London. To the good-humoured 
discomfiture of the Governor-General, even his own Staff 
awarded the palm to Sir Samford's wine, nor did his 
Lordship himself impeach the verdict. His Staff had not 
always been so candid. On one occasion when they were 
attending Lord William out tiger shooting, an enraged 
tiger sprang on his Lordship's elephant, when the unerr- 
ing gun of Captain Caine (who was of the party) came to 
the rescue and disabled the animal. His Lordship, who 
had been cool and calm to an exemplary degree, now 


gave the finishing shot. The moment the beast fell, the 
officers of the Staff shouted out ' The Lord clone it, the 
Lord done it ! ' * But Lord William quickly replied : 
' No ! Captain Caine, luckily for me, killed him, and I by 
no means liked the unpleasant predicament in which I 
was placed.' 

In a letter to Lord Wilham Bentinck, dated Mussourie, 
25th July, 1831, Sir Samford encloses a plan of the chain 
of heights upon which Thannah Toongra is situated, drawn 
by Lieutenant Durand of the Bengal Engineers. Before 
entering into the details, Sir Samford calls his Lordship's 
attention to the very able manner hi which Lieutenant 
Durand had executed the plan of the ground. 

This able officer thus specially brought to the notice of 
the Governor-General, is now the well-known Sir Henry 
Durand, who blew up the gates of Ghuznee in 1839, and 
whom, as a member of the Supreme Council in India, Sir 
John Lawrence, the present Viceroy of India, invested at 
Simla on the Queen's birthday in 1867, with the Knight- 
Commandership of the Star of India, accompanied by an 
eloquent panegyric on his past services. 

To explain the next letter, the reader must know that 
Sir Samford's eldest son had, by the deaths of certain 
gentlemen, lost two successive nominations to Bengal 
writerships, which was a grievous disappointment to his 
father, after the special and expensive education which 
he had received to fit him for the appointment. One of 
the great Duke's last official acts was to give to Sir Sam- 
ford's son, through Mr. Davis, the only appointment of the 
kind left in his gift, but which unfortunately was a Madras 
instead of a Bengal writership ; so that the father could 
no longer cherish the hope which had long cheered him, 
of ushering his son into civil official life under his own 

* When Governor-Generals, or minor Indian Governors were noblemen, 
their Staff, usually spoke of them as t The Lord. 1 It certainly was done at 
Madras less than 30 years ago, as the Editor can testify. 


eye, and with the immediate and powerful protection of 
the good and great Lord William Bentinck : — 

From Lord William Bentinck. 


1 Simla, 18th April, 1831. 

' My dear Sir S. Ford, — Thanks for yours of the 28th. 
I am glad of your success in the writership ; and I hope 
you may have the same good luck as to the Staff. The 
artillery report is very satisfactory; and not less so that of 
Thanna Toongra. Two days' march will bring it within 
convenient distance of the plains. The state of England 
itself is represented by all letters as very perilous. O'Con- 
nell seems determined to produce an insurrection in Ire- 
land, of which I trust he may be the first victim.* I 
have before seen a union of protestants and catholics, as 
is the case at present. But it was then, as it will be now, 
of short duration ; and the old feud and animosities [will] 
prevail over those which O'Connell may endeavour to 
arouse against the English connection. Catholic, a patriot 
and a man and religion, was a much more popular banner 
than the repeal of the Union can ever be.' 

From the Same. 


' Simla, 26th September, 1831. 

'My dear Sir S. F. — I thank you for the interesting 
extract from H. Davis's letter. The transaction is in its 
results more honourable to him than a successful election. 
It shows the force and the power of the prevailing feeling 
The Government henceforth will be directed by a Eepub- 
lican influence, little under the constraint of that which 
has hitherto mainly directed the councils of the country ; 
namely the aristocracy and clergy. I think we could not 
have gone on without great changes, to which these latter 

* It is curious to see how frightened even some Liberal Whigs were 
then, of the democratic spirit they had helped to raise. 



interests would never have consented. Whether those 
that will be brought about by the former, may not greatly 
outstep the just limits of our wants, is another question, 
which time alone can solve. My confidence has always 
been in the united sense and courage of the country, and, 
as the experience of near forty years' actual intercourse 
with mankind has led me to the conclusion that there is 
now infinitely more knowledge and morality, than in my 
younger days, so I cling witli confidence to a rather 
favourite maxim with me, Nil desperandum. I believe 
that all we see going on in England and Europe will 
combine to the eminent good of the human race. To 
those who have the most wisdom and firmness, these 
benefits will the earlier come. To the rest, who, for no 
fault of their own, but from bad government, have been 
sunk under all the evils of ignorance, superstition, and 
immorality, they, like the Eepublics of S. America, will 
have to go through all kinds of suffering, before they 
reach the goal. This is a cruel dispensation of provi- 
dence in appearance, but so it is in fact, and probably 
or rather certainly for the very best reasons, could our 
limited faculties dive into these great mysteries. 

' I send herewith a book, in which your first intro- 
duction upon the military stage of the Peninsula is flat- 
teringly mentioned. It is probable that you will not have 

seen it.* .... 

' Yours sincerely, 

' W. Bentinck.' 
The following letter is truly characteristic of its 
writer : — 

The Duke of Wellington to Mr. Davis. 

' London, 15th August, 1831. 

'My dear Sir, — I return the enclosed letter. I know 
that there is a positive rule at the Horse-Guards that a 

* The Editor will be greatly obliged to any person who can inform him 
of the title of this book, apparently published in 1831. 


general officer shall not be employed on the Staff more 
than six years. I have carried this rule into execution, 
and so has my successor. I can have no objection to his 
departure from it ; but I am convinced that you will see 
that I cannot with propriety make myself the solicitor for 
such a departure. I hope that you will excuse me, and 
will not ask me to take a course so inconsistent with what 
is the line of my duty. 

' Believe me, yours most sincerely, 

' Wellington/ 

( ~R. Hart Davis, Esq., 

' Conduit Street.' 

On the 21st December of same year, Lord Hill wrote 
officially to the same effect to Lord Ellenborough, who 
transmitted the decision to Lord William Bentinck. In 
his letter Lord Hill who had never met General Whit- 
tingham in Spain, nor had ever been in communication 
with him there, yet, writes : * I entertain a very high 
opinion of Sir S. Whittingham, and believe him to be 
fully entitled to the encomiums passed upon him by Lord 
William Bentinck. ' 





commander-in-chief's death warrant — the duke's DICTUM ON 


The extracts from private letters to his brother-in-law 
must, from the limited space left, be henceforth fewer 
and briefer than hitherto : — 

c Mussourie, 4th May, 1832. — I have been up on these 
delightful hills nearly a fortnight. We are now nearly 
in the hottest season of the year, and the thermome- 
ter ranges in the house from 66° to 68° ! Lord and 
Lady William Bentinck, Sir Edward and Lady Barnes,* 
and their respective Staffs, are all at Simla, enjoying the 
climate as much as I do. How much I wish the consent 
of the directors may be obtained to the building of bar- 
racks for one King's Eegiment at Thannah Toongra and 
at Dumoultrie.' 

' Mussourie, 22nd June. — I send you a plan of the 
house, garden, and fields at Meerut. The house is one of 
the best built houses in India, and the garden produces, 
in the greatest abundance, strawberries, peaches, grapes, 

* Sir Edward Barnes succeeded Lord Dalhousie as Commander-in-Chief 
(See Appendix E.) 


apples, pears, and all sorts of vegetables. The oat-field 
produces oats for twelve horses. The whole extent of 
the ground is about twenty acres. Lord Dalhousie was 
particularly pleased with the beauty and comfort of the 
house and all its appurtenances.' 

' Mussourie, 1th July. — Education and experience will 
form any man to all the duties of our noble profession, 
with one solitary exception. The Commander-in-Chief 
must be formed by nature. Such men as our immortal 
Duke are born, like poets, and not made. Everything 
short of that highest pinnacle of glory is to be acquired 
by a strong and determined resolution to neglect nothing 
connected with our duty ; and that duty we shall never 
neglect, if we constantly keep in mind that the lives of 
thousands may become the sacrifice of either ignorance 
or indifference on our part ! 

' Because some of the greatest men have had the mis- 
fortune to write very ill, many silly dandies have had 
the weakness to try to imitate them. They might as well 
fancy they were imitating the greatness of Alexander by 
getting drunk.'* 

4 Mussourie, 20th September. — What I most desire is 
always to be employed somewhere. Once laid upon the 
shelf, and a man is lost. My health is so perfect in this 
delightful climate, that I walk from five to six miles every 
morning, and ride from ten to twelve every evening. 
Business and general reading employ the rest of the clay. 
I always dress by candle-light, and am generally out of 
the house soon after five [a.m.] My occupation at Meerut, 
during the cold season, will be incessant. Ten squadrons 
of cavalry, and twelve pieces of horse-artillery, will en- 
able me to give Sir Edward Barnes some good reviews. 
And by the time he returns from Lucknow I shall have 
four battalions of infantry ready for him, which will 

* This general remark was appended to some strong criticisms upon the 
penmanship of one of his sons. 


enable ine to give him some field-days of the three arms 

From a letter from Lord William, dated 'Simla, 21st 
October, 1832,' his Lordship expected to meet Sir Sam- 
ford at Delhi, soon, and probably did so ; but no letters 
of the period are at hand. 

Lord William Bentinck to Sir S. Whittingham. 


' Gwaliok, 10th December, 1832. 

c I have letters to-day of an old date (June) from Eng- 
land. They speak, like their predecessors, gloomily of 
affairs present and in prospect ; and of the loss of respect 
which our institutions have suffered. One tells us that we 
must expect to find England Americanized by our return. 
The King is said to dislike very much his Whig ministers, 
as I supposed. I never saw this so directly stated before. 
It cannot be otherwise. I fear he has neither discretion 
nor silence to get well through the difficulties with which 
he is beset, and much imprudence may compromize the 
very throne itself. I hope you have succeeded with your 

cavalry plan. 

4 Ever sincerely yours, 

' W. Bentinck.' 

[P.S.] ' Since I saw you, your Chief's new order about 
King's commissions has appeared. Unless he has great 
luck, and great protection, that order may prove his death 

This postscript reminds the Editor of an appropriate 
anecdote, which Sir Samford Whittingham often narrated. 
A certain Commander-in-Chief, very fortunate, but not of 
the very highest mental calibre, propounded to the Duke 
of Wellington this important question, before sailing for 
his new command : ' Supposing that the Governor-General 
and I should not agree, what would happen ? ' To which 


his Grace quietly and deliberately replied : ; If the Com- 
mander-in-Chief and the Governor-General were to dis- 
agree, one of the two would go to the wall. I leave you 
to decide which of the two that would be ! ' 

The General is said to have retired quite dumb- 

Lady William Bentinck, one of the best and most 
amiable of ladies, also occasionally corresponded with 
Sir Samford Whittingham, who from his almost Quixote- 
like pure and chivalrous feelings, manner, and conduct 
towards all the fair sex, was naturally rewarded by uni- 
versal popularity in that quarter. But limited space for- 
bids entering; into such matters. 

We come now to the greatest trial of Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham's long and arduous career. Although he had 
been far from being what could be called one of For- 
tune's favourites, and had had to work his way against 
great difficulties to the distinction which he had acquired, 
yet that distinction in 1831 had been very great and very- 
gratifying to his feelings. That the great Duke had not 
forgotten his merits, more than confirming by words what 
he had, sixteen years earlier, declared in writing; and that 
Lord William Bentinck, his former Commander, and pre- 
sent ruler of India, should in writing have confirmed and 
adopted the great Duke's opinion, were priceless honours 
calculated to turn the head of their recipient. Perhaps, 
therefore, it was as a lesson of humility, that Providence 
within a twelvemonth of vouchsafing the honours, de- 
livered on the General's head its severest blow, or at least 
permitted its infliction. 

Of all the readers of ' Napier's History/ probably not 
one sat down to peruse it for the first time with greater 
interest and pleasure than the subject of this Memoir. 
Certainly, very few were as capable, by natural and 
acquired military talent, and by ardent military zeal, to 
appreciate and relish its great merits. The volumes of 



that work came out one by one, and already when the 
two first were out, it was evident how little justice General 
Whittingham could expect from that brilliant but preju- 
diced writer. 

True it is that ignorance might partly account for the 
injustice. The greater part of the 'Duke's Dispatches' 
were still sealed to the public, and their use was refused 
to Colonel Napier, unfortunately, probably, for the cause 
of truth and impartial justice. But this was only a partial 
excuse. The dispatches of victory had been published in 
the ' Gazettes,' and these at least might have been quoted 
as the best authority for history. The first man of the 
age had given in his ' Talavera Dispatch ' an honourable 
place to Brigadier-General Whittingham, mentioning both 
his wound and the fact of its being received whilst leading 
two battalions of Spaniards into action. Not the slightest 
allusion to either of these facts did ' Napier's History ' 
make ! Such was the justice of the man, whose third 
volume, (the first edition of which came out in 1831), 
with his account of the battle of Barrosa, must have been 
seen by Sir Samford Whittingham at Meerut in the early 
part of 1832. Captain (now Colonel) Caine remembers 
the extreme indignation with which the General came to 
his aide-de-camp's room to point out what he then con- 
sidered to be a vile calumny. And though he afterwards 
modified his opinion, his first judgment was not far wrong, 
if a fact true in itself may be so unfairly stated as to leave 
a calumnious impression on the reader, which was certainly 
applicable to Napier's description. 

But the absent are always in the wrong. And General 
Whittingham was not only absent, but separated from all 
those documents the study of which proves him free of 
blame, and confirms the Duke of Wellington's repeatedly 
expressed opinions of his merits and services. 





Lord William Bentinck to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


' Calcutta, 21st March, 1833. 

' I hear that our Commander- in- Chief returns to Simla 
on the 1st of April, (an inauspicious day) but I doubt 
whether his preceding discussion can be so soon brought 
to a close. I am happy to say that so far our councils 
have passed off with great harmony : and all that has 
happened would never have occurred, had we started all 
together in council, where he would better have under- 
stood the business of the Government, and the absence 
of all disposition on our parts to trench upon his just 
authority. His ignorance of all these matters, and his 
unwillingness to be informed by those about him here led 
him into much present annoyance, and possibly to very 
unpleasant future consequences.' 

c c 


Sir Samford wrote this year a ; Memoir on the Com- 
petency of the Bengal Army, 5 which bears the date of 
1 Meerut, 22nd February, 1833/ Its more appropriate 
title would have been : c The Present Military and Poli- 
tical State of Bengal and its Future Prospects.' There is 
no space to touch on this pamphlet, which embraced 
Europe as well as Asia in its discussions. 

In a letter dated 'Calcutta, 7th April, 1833,' after an 
able commentary on European politics, Lord William 
writes : ' I am still confident as when I last wrote, that 
there will be no war. Your Chief is still here, and will 
remain till further intelligence arrives. This place and 
its gaieties suit him better than the monotony of Simla. 
He has been fighting all his battles with the council o'er 
again, but with of course the same success. I suppose 
you are by this time snug in your cool cottage at Mussourie. 
With best wishes ever sincerely yours, 

6 W. Bentinck.' 

We revert to the correspondence with Mr. Davis : — 

' Meerut, Sth March. — C appears to apply as we 

could wish to his studies at Madras, and Sir Frederick 
Adam * has been very kind to him. I have been very 
busy of late preparing the field-day for the Commander- 
in-Chief on his return to Calcutta. I have to show him 
three battalions, ten squadrons, and twenty-four guns ; 
and I think he will be pleased. I cannot tell you how 

anxiously I am looking out for 's name in the Gazette. 

I expect to be relieved on the 29th July. Should this be 
the case, I shall go down to Calcutta and stay a little 
time with Lord William, then proceed to Madras to see 
C , and home ! ' 

' Meerut, lhth March. — I have written to you to-day 
with my best thanks and fullest approbation of every- 

* Sir Frederick was then Governor of Madras, after having been Lord 


thing you have done about Colonel Napier ;* but my 

mind is so troubled at the idea of 's being sent to 

the West Indies, that I have no rest and send you these 
few lines by another conveyance, to request you will im- 
mediately wait on Lord Hill and beg and entreat he will 
exchange him into a regiment at home. I have not in the 
last thirty years spent one year at home. My children do 
not know me. I have been ten years in the East Indies 

and two in the West I should not have courage 

to bear up against such a disappointment.' 

c Meerut) 2nd April. — I yesterday received your letter 
of the 20th October. Colonel Napier's answer is con- 
clusive, and the matter must now rest till my return. 

' What I complain of in Colonel Napier's statement is, 
not the fact of the non-co-operation of the Spanish cavalry, 
which depended upon the repeated orders of the Spanish 
Commander-in-Chief, but of the sneering manner in which 
he has been pleased to introduce my name, and which 
leaves me no choice but to convince him on the field of 
honour that my conduct did not proceed from any want 
of resolution.' 

The ' Wellington Dispatches,' yet unpublished, and the 
absence of all his papers, and the lapse of some twenty- 
two years, made him overlook more tangible injustices 
than a mere sneer, namely great misrepresentation of his 
rank, position, and command on that day, and of his em- 
ployment (as General of the advanced guard) in protect- 
ing the right flank, which he had reported in writing to 
La Pena, and, more succinctly, verbally to Graham. Les 
Absents out toujours tort applied too truly to the case. 
That very year came out in London, the second edition 
of that third volume, which the permanent edition now 

* Mr. Davis had written that Napier's account of Barrosa was 'an un- 
founded calumny ' in General Whittingham's opinion, for which he would 
demand satisfaction as soon as he returned to England. 

c c 2 


used entirely follows ; and the injustice is thus perpetuated 
for ever ! ' 

In a letter from Lord William, dated Calcutta, 15th 
June, 1833, addressed to Sir Samford (then on the Mus- 
sourie hills) and marked ' private ' and full of local politics 
and of his difference with Sir Edward Barnes, occurs this 
friendly passage : ' Pray let me know when you expect 
to be in Calcutta. We shall be most happy to receive 
you whenever you come.' 

At the Mussourie hills on the evening of the 26th 
June, 1833, Sir Samford Whittingham was taking his even- 
ing ride, with a party of ladies and gentlemen, amongst 
the former of whom was the wife of Doctor Magrath. 
At a narrow and dangerous part of the road, a Euro- 
pean without hat, jacket, or cravat, came riding at a 
furious pace. Most of the persons who saw him con- 
sidered him drunk. He nearly ran against some of them, 
and frightened several ladies. The General was riding 
with four or five of the party at the time, when the 
European in question rode up against him and nearly 
knocked his pony over the precipice. Sir Samford, feel- 
ing indignant at this outrage, and conceiving the offender 
to be some low European, in a hasty moment, struck him 
with his whip. The person rode on without taking any 
notice, and the General sent an officer after him to see 

who he was. He was discovered to be Ensign H , 

26th N.I., then on leave at Mussourie. 

This officer, it appears, on learning who had struck 
him, revenged himself by sending round next day an 
abusive circular against the ' person on horse-back ' who 
had assaulted him, justifying his outrageous language 
under the pretence of having been unable to discover 
the aggressor. 

The General sent his aide-de-camp, Captain Caine, to 
call out the Ensign, and the meeting was arranged for the 
next morning. That evening Sir Samford had a dinner- 


party, at which he was as gay and agreeable as usual, as 
if nothing serious had occurred. Mrs. Magrath was one 
of the party, and had no suspicion whatever of any im- 
pending evil. She knew indeed of the circular; for a 
Colonel of infantry, almost with tears in his eyes (so 
affected was he by the insult to his Chief), had acquainted 
her with the circumstance ; but she doubtless never sup- 
posed that a General Officer would fight a duel with an 
Ensign. Her younger brother, a youth who was await- 
ing his commission in the army, through the interest of 
the General, had, however, his suspicions, and following 
the duellists unperceived on the morning of the 28th June 
witnessed the result of the meeting, and hastened to his 
astonished sister not long afterwards, with the joyful ex- 
clamation, ; The General is safe ! ' 

Ensign H fired at Sir Samford without effect ; who 

in return fired in the air ; he who it has been said could 
snuff a candle with a pistol ball, and to whose skill as a 
shot the late gallant Lord Fife has borne his spontaneous 
testimony.* The General then told the Ensign, that 
having now met him as a gentleman, he had no hesitation 
in saying that when he (Ensign H.) rode up against him, 
he (the General) could not have supposed him to be an 
officer. In fact he had taken him for some low drunken 
European, and under that impression, added to the irri- 
tating attendant circumstances, had struck him. The 
General added that private satisfaction having been af- 
forded, they resumed their relative positions, and he 

ordered Ensign H to go to his room and consider 

himself in arrest. The young gentleman then expressed 
great contrition for his offence. He said he did not know 
the General at the time and that he ; felt highly honoured 
by the handsome manner in which Sir Samford had 
behaved to him.' 

In this duel, the General who was very stout in person, 

* Vide Preface. 


astonished his second by unexpectedly presenting his full 
and broad front to his youthful antagonist. Colonel Caine 
writes (on the 16th July, 1867, to the Editor) : ' The 
opponents were placed by me with their right sides facing 
each other, and on giving the signal to fire I was aston- 
ished to see Sir Samford coolly change position by offer- 
ing his entire front to his adversary. Before I could 

interpose, Mr. H fired in the direction of the General, 

and the latter discharged his pistol in the air.' 

The General observing that his aide-de-camp did not 
look pleased at the affair ending with an arrest, kindly 
explained to that officer < that by thus taking the matter 
into his own hands, the three Lieutenant-Colonels who 

had been desirous to try Mr. H by court-martial, 

would now be disarmed.' So that the aide-de-camp was 
(to quote his own words) ' fully satisfied that the General's 
reasoning; was sound and kind/ 

Ensign H afterwards sent to Captain Caine a writ- 
ten apology to Sir Samford, and a request for lenient con- 
sideration, accompanied by another apology to the ladies 
and gentlemen concerned. On Captain Caine delivering 
the two apologies to the General, he, in consideration of 

Mr. H 's youth and inexperience, and his being the 

son of General Sir M. H , governor of Castle, 

pardoned and released him from arrest.* 

It appears that on the 17th August Sir Samford sent 
Lord William Bentinck an account of this affair of honour 
that never reached its destination ; so that he had to 
write again. The following was the reply of his Lord- 
ship : — 

* Calcutta, 28th September, 1833. 

' My dear Sir S. Ford, — I am sorry to say that I have 
not received your letter of the 17th August ; and as being 

* This account (so far as relates to the contending parties) is abbreviated 
from one of the formal copies of the full proceedings made out by Captain 
Caine on the 1st July, 1833. The greater part of Colonel Caine's recent 
letter only contains the same statements which he signed in 1833. 


upon a question in which your own person and honour, 
all, in short, upon which a friend ought to feel the most 
anxious and concerned, I do indeed lament that I did 
not sooner express the feelings I entertain. But in this 
case particularly, and with all such cases, all's well that 
ends well. It appears to me that the first sally apart, 
which it might be almost too fastidious to find fault with, 
no Mend of yours could have wished a different decision 
upon any of the incidents which occurred in this trans- 
action. It was a disagreeable predicament ; but as long 
as the opinion of the world holds its present sway, and 
toleration, in these matters, I think you could not have 
acted otherwise than you did. 

c I have said to you nothing of the honour, which, 
according to report, has been thrust upon me ; because, 
except where some necessity might compel me to act 
otherwise, delicacy required me to be silent. I have had 
no letter from London till to-day later than the 14th May. 
This day, by the "Anna Maria" I received an official 
letter from the Adjutant-General informing me of the 
King's having appointed me to command his forces in 
India. . . . This is a feather in my cap ; it is a mark 
of confidence which, as I must soon make my bow to the 
public, I am well pleased to receive. But there may be 
much trouble, and no advantage to myself, that I at pre- 
sent foresee. I say there may be much trouble, for if I 
take only as much as two of my three predecessors — 
perhaps I may say of the third also — save and except the 
time spent in altercation, the office would be very much 
of a sinecure. I cannot do as much as I could wish, or 
I ought ; but what remains of zeal, health, and strength, I 
shall not fail to put into the work. But my career is too 
near its end to enable me to deal efficaciously with some 
evils, the nature of which you know better than I do. 
This event makes me regret more than ever your depar- 
ture from India. But why expend lamentation upon an 



evil, which it has been attempted in vain to remedy. I 
have no conception how Sir Edward [Barnes] will like 
this order. I have been in the predicament,* and I know 
therefore how unpleasant it is. I sent him by express 
the earliest intelligence of the fact, which I had first re- 
ceived from Sir F. Adam. I think he will take kindly 
my having done so ; though it is not quite a certain mat- 
ter of calculation what he will say or do, even on points 
where the greater number generally coincide. But I 
hope he may. For though his impracticability has been 
an annoyance, yet his fine qualities interest and please. 
He, no doubt, will think himself the worst used man in 
the world. It would give me sincere pleasure [to find] 
that he was going to the Cape. But I doubt the truth of 
the report. That appointment must have been filled up 
before the causes leading to Sir E.'s recall could have 
been known. 

' Ever sincerely yours, 

' W. Bentinck.' 

Before this letter was written, viz., on the 20th Septem- 
ber, Sir Samford had written from Mussourie to congra- 
tulate the new Commander-in-Chief, and to ask to be his 
Military Secretary, being anxious for his children's sake 
to prolong his stay in India. But Lord William had 
already offered the post to his old friend General Sleigh, 
the late Lieut.-Colonel of the cavalry regiment of which 
his Lordship was Colonel. 

From Lord William Bentinck. 


< Calcutta, 19$ October, 1833. 

' My dear Sir S. Ford, — [After explaining why Briga- 
dier-General Sleigh had been offered the Secretaryship, 
Lord W. writes :] ' You certainly occurred to me. But 

* His Lordship in his younger days had been recalled from the govern- 
ment of Madras. 


I did not imagine that the appointment, curtailed as it is 
likely to be, would be acceptable to you.' [He then pro- 
mises it if Sleigh should refuse it, and adds :] ' Your 
acceptance of it will be very agreeable both to myself 
and Lady William. Our long acquaintance — our mutual 
friendship — your experience and knowledge of the Indian 
army — are all circumstances combining to make me con- 
template the event with great satisfaction.' 

Lord William, in a letter dated ' Barrackpoor, 23rd 
October, 1833,' reminds Sir Samford that all ostensible 
business in India passed through the Company's, not the 
King's, staff officers; and that merely as military secre- 
tary, he could not be of much use to Lord William. His 
Lordship continues : ' Your value to me will arise from 
your filling a very different character, that of friend and 
counsellor ; whose capability to give the most useful assist- 
ance is derived from great knowledge of India and of 
her armies, coupled with great practical experience in the 
art of war and the formation of armies. This estimate 
is formed upon no conjecture, but upon my long personal 
acquaintance with you; to say nothing of the valuable 
papers, upon all subjects, which you have had the goodness 
to give me from time to time.' 

We see that the cold and calm Dutchman* (the great 
civil and military ruler of India) could almost rival Sir 
Edward Paget in esteem for Sir Samford Whittingham ; 
and hard it certainly was that the man thus highly 
honoured and esteemed by so many successive chiefs and 
rulers, was driven eagerly to desire once more to risk a 
life so valuable to his children and so useful to his coun- 
try, to vindicate his honour and that good name which 
by word and pen Wellington himself had established — or 
at least had endeavoured to establish ! 

General Sleigh accepted the Military Secretaryship ; 

* So he was called in allusion both to his ancestors, and to his own 


but owing to the sickness of Mrs. Sleigh, at first delayed 
his journey to Lord William, and Sir Samford therefore 
acted in his stead, and thus became one of the Governor- 
General's family for nearly all the rest of his stay in 

His private correspondence this year with his brother- 
in-law is chiefly taken up with domestic matters. But in 
one letter of 30th November he repeats more at large 
his intentions of calling out Colonel Napier, — without 
returning his fire, however, — and only to convince him 
of his courage. 

General Sleigh took up his appointment as Military 
Secretary, and Sir Samford prepared to sail to Madras, on 
his way to England, as he had now no employment in 
India. To his brother-in-law he writes : 

' Calcutta, ^th January, 1834. — I thought I should have 
Ions since sailed for Madras, but Lord William has de- 
tained me on business ; and as I shall accompany him to 
that presidency, and may be detained there some months, 
I fear the time of our meeting is more distant than we 
had both hoped. My only consolation is that it will give 

me time to become acquainted with dear C— , in whose 

fate I take the deepest and most lively interest. In his 
correspondence with me he is amiable beyond expression. 
All that he appears to me to want is more confidence in 
himself. I am living at Government House, and I am 
treated more like a brother than a guest.' 

General Sleigh preferring to remain at Calcutta, Sir 
Samford accompanied Lord William Bentinck, as acting 
Military Secretary. 

' Calcutta, 9th January, 1834. — I go with Lord William 
to Madras, and shall carry home his dispatches. We shall 
leave this immediately after the arrival of Sir Edward 
Barnes, who is expected in a few days.' * 

* Though recalled, Sir Edward Barnes was allowed to await his suc- 



The following official letter testifies that the word 
neglected, which Sir Edward Paget was so fond of ap- 
plying to his ' dear and excellent friend' was becoming 
more applicable than ever, as far as regarded the Home 
authorities : — 

To His Excellency General the Bight Honourable 
Lord William Bentinck, G.C.B. fyc. 

i Calcutta, 10th January, 1834. 

c My Lord, — The friendship with which for upwards of 
twenty-five years you have been pleased to honour me, 
leads me to hope you will have the goodness to submit 
the following statement to the favourable consideration 
of Lord Hill. 

' The whole of my military career has been in the 
cavalry. I have never done a day's duty with any corps 
of infantry. I began in the Life Guards, and held a troop 
in the loth Light Dragoons on the breaking out of the 
Spanish war. In Spain, I had under my command twelve 
regiments of cavalry ; and the ' Book of Tactics for Bri- 
gade Exercises,' which I arranged and published at my 
own expense, for the use of the Spanish cavalry under my 
orders, was adopted for the whole of that arm in Spain. 

c During the eleven years of my service in India, my 
time and attention have been directed particularly to that 
branch of the army, and during the last cold season ten 
squadrons were assembled at Meerut, by your Lordship's 
direction, for the purpose of Brigade exercise under my 
command. I was promised a regiment by the late Duke 
of York, by his late Majesty George the Fourth, and by 
the Duke of Wellington. 

' The chances of life * have prevented the realization 
of these promises. But if your Lordship should be pleased 
to recommend me to the Commander-in-Chief for the first 
regiment of cavalry that may become vacant I love to 

* The deaths of the two first, and the removal from office of the third. 


hope [that] my claims might be taken into favourable 

' I have the honour to be, 

' My Lord, 
c Your obedient servant, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

'Madras, 6th February, 1834. — My dearest Brother, I 
arrived here yesterday morning, after a tedious voyage 
from Calcutta, which I left on the 17th of last month. I 
found my dearest C. in rather better health than I ex- 
pected, and am now lodged in the comfortable mansion 
of Colonel Monteith, who is so complete a soldier that 
I am quite delighted with him. Mrs. Monteith, who is 
a worthy daughter of her admirable parents,* received 
me as the friend of her early days. She is looking quite 
well and very happy, and as fond of India as I am, which 
is saying a great deal. I knew her instantly. But of 

C I had not the smallest recollection ; when he came 

into the room, I said, '" are you C ? ? ' and when he said 

'■ ves " I could scarcelv believe him ! I know 

of no career in any part of the world to be compared to 
the civil service of India.' 

; Banqalore, Wth March. — A severe indisposition of 
Lord William renders it advisable to look out for a change 
of air ; and we are in consequence all going with him up 
to the Xilgherry Hills. I am with him as his acting 
Military Secretary, and cannot of course leave him till he 
returns to Calcutta. . . . 

< C is here by order, and employed in the office of 

the Governor-General's Private Secretary. 

'It was truly kind in Lord William to propose this 


In a letter dated * Bangalore, 12th March, 1834/ Sir 
Samford sends Lord William a rough copy of his inten- 

* Mr and Mrs. Murdoch, of Portland Place, very old friends of Sir Sam- 
ford Whittingham. 


tions regarding the writing of an ' Expose of the State of 
Indian Affairs.' 

The scene now changes to England : — 

Sir Edward Paget to Mr. Davis. 

1 Royal Military College, 18t h March, 1834. 

' My dear Davis, — The observations on Cavalry Move- 
ments, mentioned in Whittingham's letter, I have sent to 
the Editor of the ' United Service Journal.' You see all 
the doctors have not yet done much for my feeble arm.' * 

The following letter was enclosed in Sir Edward's 
note : — 

Major Skadwell Clerke to Major Procter. 

1 Athen^ium, 20th March, 1834. 

' My dear Procter, — I have just received and, though 
late in the month, shall make a point of inserting in the 
next (April) Number of the Journal, the striking sugges- 
tions of Sir S. Whittingham on Cavalry Tactics. 

c Assure Sir Edward, with my best compliments, that I 
receive this communication with much satisfaction both 
on account of the medium through which it is offered, 
the recommendation of Sir Edward being in any case 
conclusive with me, and also as giving earnest of further 
contributions from the same eminent and competent 
quarter. Perhaps Sir Edward would do me the favour 
to state my hopes on this point to his experienced cor- 
respondent, whom I should feel pride in numbering 
amongst the Paladins of the U. S. Journal. . . . 

' In haste, but ever truly yours, 

' T. H. Shadwell Clerke.' f 

* His left, the only one he had, which it appears had been ailing j and 
which fact was visible in his hand-writing. 

t Major T. H. Shadwell Clerke, K.H. ; had lost a leg in the Peninsular 
war. The monthly he edited is now styled < United Service Magazine. 1 
Thirty years ago it had a great circulation in the army. 


At the commencement of 1834, Sir Edward Paget 
sent to Lord Fitzroy Somerset, General Whittingham's 
last Memoir on India. On the 11th January it was re- 
turned with thanks, and with the observation : 'Our friend 
Whittingham's views are very extensive.' We return to 
India, and the fraternal correspondence. 

6 Bangalore, 17 th March, 1831. — Lord William left us 
on the 15th for the Nilgherry Hills. Colonel Casement 

and his party follow to-morrow. C is with us, and 

attached to the office of the Governor-General's Private 
Secretary. I am with Lord W. as his " Acting Military 
Secretary," as Sleigh, Torrens, Lumley, &c, have re- 
mained with their respective offices at Calcutta. My 
employment is ample, but I like everything connected 
with Lord William, and never think I have too much to 
do. Since our arrival here his Lordship has been dan- 
gerously ill ; but he is now quite recovered, and only 
wants change of air. Lord William is most anxious to 

render C every service in his power ; and I could 

not be kinder to him than is Sir Frederick Adam. Lord 
William and Sir Frederick really take as much interest in 
C as I do.' 

In a letter dated c Outacamund, 13th April, 1834,' he 
gives the Governor-General his opinion on ' the late short 
campaign with the Eajah of Courg,' and on its results 
and their general importance, observations much in the 
style of those which Lord William had before so flatter- 
ingly appreciated. 

On the 29th April he thanks his Lordship for trans- 
mitting for his perusal two interesting minutes of the 
26th March, 1831, and of the 27th January, 1834. It 
was a case of contention between the Governor-General 
and the Court of Directors, who objected to certain 
necessary new roads on the score of expense. Sir Sam- 
ford as usual takes the opportunity of criticizing the Com- 


pany's system, in which he had the full sympathy of his 
noble and able correspondent. 

* Outacamund, 9th May, 1834. — I do not recollect at 
any period of my life to have been more busily and con- 
stantly employed than at present. But I am so sincerely 
attached to onr excellent Chief, that I go through the 
work with pleasure. 

' Outacamund, \±th Jidy. — I cannot tell you in what 
month I shall embark for England. I leave my move- 
ments entirely to the decision of Lord William, to whom 
I every day feel a stronger attachment, and whose kind- 
ness to me is unbounded. 

6 His Lordship's health, and that of all the party have 
found infinite benefit from our residence in this cool cli- 
mate, where the thermometer at no part of the summer 
has exceeded 65° in a room with a fire. The Supreme 
Council of India has commenced its sittings in these re- 
mote mountains. Mr. [Babington] Macau] ay has arrived 
and taken his seat. He lives with his Lordship, and is 
assuredly one of the best informed men I ever met with. 
Your old friend, Sir Frederick Adam, is also up here, and 
a temporary member of the Council. It is to me a 
source of great delight and comfort, having C. with me 
under the same roof. His room adjoins to mine, and he 
forms one of his Lordship's family.' 

Soon after this, a vacancy occurring amongst the Gene- 
rals of Madras, General Sleigh received the appointment, 
and the acting Military Secretary was, on his return to 
Calcutta, to obtain the permanent appointment during the 
rest of Lord William's stay. Hitherto he had done all the 
duties gratis, receiving ' no pay from any one.' 

Sir Samford Whittingham to Sir Edward Paget. 


' Bangalore, 5th October, 1834. 

< I send you rather a long Memoir in three parts, the 
result of twelve years' meditation on a most interesting 


subject.* I know you will read it for niy sake, and I beg 
you will make what use of it you please. You will see 
that it is quite of a confidential nature. I have given a 
copy of the Memoir to Lord William, who has been 
pleased to call it excellent, and to say that every word 
contained in it is true. To you and to him, as the two 
best friends I have in the world, I have submitted it, but 

to no other person 

c It is now settled that I am to remain with Lord Wil- 
liam as his Military Secretary till he quits India. He is 
now on his way down from Outacamund, on theNilgherry 
Hills, and I expect he will arrive to-morrow. I came 
here yesterday. We shall soon proceed to Madras, and 
we hope to be in Calcutta in the course of the month of 
November. His Lordship's health is quite restored by his 
sejour on the hills.' 

Eeverting to the fraternal correspondence : — 
' Calcutta, 16th November, 1834— I accompanied Lord 
William Bentinck to this place from Madras, and landed 
on the 12th instant. I have derived no other benefit 
from acting as Military Secretary than that of making 
myself useful to a man I so highly respect and admire. 
But it was not in his Lordship's power to give me pecu- 
niary remuneration of any kind.' 

< Calcutta, Mth November.— General Sleigh will be put 
in orders in a few days to succeed Sir J. Barns at Poonah, 
Bombay ; and I shall then be put in orders as Military 
Secretary, and will commence the first pay I shall have 
drawn since the 1st of last August twelvemonth. I cer- 
tainly never was more honoured and distinguished than 
under my present Chief; but my case is somewhat like 
that of Gil Bias with the Duke of Lerma, < y la hambre 
corre parejos con la gala.'f If they don't give me a 

* The Editor is uncertain in regard to the subject of this Memoir. (See 

Appendix F.) , 

t ' And hunger runs in couples with display. 


regiment on my return home, I know not what to do ; 
for it is late in life to look out for another trade ! ' 

' Barrackpore, 30th November. — C was to join his 

station at Cuddalore on the 1st January next. His 
health was good, and he appears now to prefer the 
Madras Presidency to this. Nothing can exceed Sir 
Frederick Adam's kindness to him. Sir Frederick is now 
here on a visit to Lord William.' 

' Barrackpore, 2nd February, 1835. — As I am most 

anxious that should pass at least a year at Potsdam,* 

I purpose taking him there within a month of my arrival 
in England, if I can obtain Lord Hill's leave to do so. 
Will you procure, from Mr. Frere, the necessary informa- 
tion as to the best mode of settling at Potsdam under the 
care of some old Prussian officer, who is in the habit of 
taking a limited number of pupils ? I consider this finish 
to his education as of great importance to . 

' From this date I receive pay. Before not a rupee. I 
had the honour and labour, but not the profit. I was 
a hardy volunteer in the ranks of his Lordship, whom I 
have known for twenty-seven years. I was employed by 
him in the year 1808, in his negotiations with the Spanish 
Government at Aranjuez. I served under his orders on 
the eastern coast of Spain, and now in India. By the 
enclosed letter and statement, which both his Lordship 
and Sir Frederick Adam have seen and approved, you 
will perceive that I ask my good friend Sir Edward 
Paget, to arrange a meeting between me and Colonel 
Napier. It is a military business altogether, and I feel 
satisfied Sir Edward will not refuse my request, f Pray 
send the letter and statement to him immediately, and tell 
him that I will, with his permission, go direct to his home 
from the place of my landing in England, and from 

* In numberless letters he had repeated this determination, so high was 
his opinion of the Prussian military system. He did not, however, go to 
Berlin himself. 

t In this he was mistaken ; nor can anyone blame Sir Edward Paget. 

D D 



thence to the meeting, wherever it may be appointed 
to take place. 

' I return to England in the " Curaqoa" with Lord 
William Bentinck. We shall sail at the latest by the 
middle of March, and only touch at the Cape, so that, it 
is thought, we shall be at home very early in July.' 

To judge fairly on points of honour thirty or forty 
years ago, the reader must remember facts then con- 
sidered natural, which if they occurred now would excite 
mingled ridicule and indignation. A few years before 
Sir Samford returned to England, the Duke of Wellington 
had, when Premier of England, challenged and fought 
with the Earl of Winchelsea, on account of a hasty and 
not very insulting remark on the part of the latter peer. 
And Sir Eobert Peel had frequently displayed his eager 
readiness to resort to the arbitration of a pistol-shot. In 
this case both Lord William Bentinck and Sir Frederick 
Adam had approved of the determination taken by Sir 
Samford Whittingham — a fact which should be remem- 
bered in forming an opinion on the matter : — 

Sir Samford Whittingham to Sir Edward Paget. 

' Calcutta, 7 th February, 1835. 

'My dear General, — I avail myself of the friendship 
with which you have so long honoured me, to request 
you will have the goodness to arrange a meeting between 
me and Colonel Napier, and accompany me to the 


'The enclosed statement, which I will thank you to 
deliver to the Colonel, after the meeting shall have taken 
place, will explain the cause of this appeal, and the object- 

I have in view. 

' It is not my intention to return the Colonel's fire, and 
if I fall I request that no proceedings may take place 


against Colonel Napier. The affair is exclusively my own 
seeking, and neither blame nor responsibility should 
attach to him. 

This circumstance* could alone justify my application 
to you in your position as a father and a husband. I 
feel confident you will not refuse an old friend the 
only favour he ever asked at your hands. I am anxious 
the meeting should take place with the least possible 

' Ever, my dear General, most sincerely yours, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

< General The Hon. Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B., 

1 &c. &c. &c.' 

The ' Curaqoa ' must have sailed in February, probably 
soon after the above letter was written, for it arrived in 
England in the early part of July, and a voyage was 
rarely less than five months at that period. 

He thus returned to England, after an absence in India 
of nearly thirteen years, passed in continuous hard labour 
— mental and bodily — in the service of his King and 
country, under the orders of six successive Commanders- 
in-chief, all of whom he had served to his own credit, and 
to their complete satisfaction. His popularity with his 
subordinates, in spite of his great professional strictness, 
was a matter of general notoriety ; and, as the late Lord 
Cowley said of him at his departure from Spain, it might 
have been said in regard to India : fi He leaves this 
country with the testimony of all ranks in his favour.' 
The completion of Lord Cowley's remarks as to the 
absence of rewards for his c valuable services ' would 
equally have applied to his long services in India. 

* Not returning his adversary's fire"; and thus lessening the responsibility 
of his second. 

» r> 2 





mr. da vis's letter to sir e. paget — sir edward declines to take 
part in a duel — sir ritfane donkln's decisive conduct approved 
by sir edward paget — a double breach op faith— a question left 
to the judgment of the reader — interviews with 'the duke' and 
lord glenelg men of no party apt to be neglected — the com- 
piler of the immortal ( dispatches ' consults sir samford— lord 
Auckland's invitation — his lordship's notes to sir samford — 

the hon. admiral fleemlng — lord elphinstone lord william 

bentinck's dinner to lord auckland — lord george benttnck — 
royal presentation — the king's questions — william iv. 's flat- 
tering finale — sir h. taylor's letter on the death of sir william 
knighton — the duke of wellington on the same subject — sir 
samford whittlngham's reply to his grace — sir edward paget's 
farewell — lord william bentinck's farewell — his lordship's 
philosophy — correspondence between sir samford and lord pal- 
merston — portsmouth hospitalities — embarkation. 

Mr. Davis to the Hon. Sir Edward Paget. 

[Fenton House] ' Hampstead Heath, Sth July, 1835. 

1 My dear Sir Edward, — The enclosed papers from clear 
Whittingham reached me this day. I forward them 
without a moment's delay, as we may now expect his 
arrival from day to day. Whittingham has mentioned 
this affair to Lord William Bentinck and to Sir Frederick 
Adam. They both approve of the mode our friend has 
taken to vindicate his military character. If you accept 
the office, the time and place must be determined by 
your own convenience. Make use of me in any way in 
which I can be made serviceable. I shall feel deeply 


until this painful affair is at an end, and I pray God that 
the result may be favourable. 

' Ever, my dear Sir Edward, 

' Your affectionate friend, 

'K. Hart Davis/ 

Sir Edward Paget to Mr. Davis. 

t Cowes Castle, 9th July, 1835. 

c My dear Davis, — I have this morning received your 
letter, and the inclosures from Whittingham, which caused 
me the greatest uneasiness. To refuse anything to him or 
to you, who have been to me such warm and zealous 
friends, is one of the severest trials I have had in my life. 
But I have no help for it. My position (which my 
circumstances will not permit me to abandon) impera- 
tively forbids me to take part in this affair. Whittingham, 
in his letter to me, most kindly considers my situation as 
c a father and a husband ;' but he quite overlooks (which 
I imagine is also your case) the public position in which 
I stand at the head of the Eoyal Military College. In 
fact, I am reduced to the necessity of divulging to you 
that this consideration compelled me advisedly to decline 

a similar proposal made to me by Lord C S 

some years ago. And I will tell you further, that fore- 
seeing the possibility of the present case arising, I could 
not satisfy myself without confidentially consulting Sir 
George Murray on the subject — an old and tried friend 
and before me Governor of the establishment — who gave 
it as his fixed and deliberate opinion, that it was im- 
possible for me (consistently with my tenure of the 
appointment) to engage in such an affair. 

' Thus, my dear Davis, you have the fact ; which I will 
not clog with reasonings, which, I have no doubt, will 
occur both to Whittingham and yourself, the moment the 
subject is proposed to you. Under these circumstances, 
I have nothing for it but to return to you the written 



statement which accompanied Whittingham's letter to me, 
and to intreat you, when you return it to him, to place 
this letter in his hands at the same time. Heaven protect 
him ! 

' Ever, my dear Davis, yours affectionately, 

< E. p; 

Sir Edward Paget to Mr. Davis. 

<K. M. College, Uth July, 1835. 

'My dear Davis, — I have received this morning the 
duplicate of the letter and statement, which you sent to 
me on the 8th instant. It has the Portsmouth postmark 
upon it, and is dated " Calcutta, 7th February." I see in 
the papers the arrival of the " Curaqoa" on Sunday at 
Portsmouth; but am left in doubt whether the letter 
came by that ship, or whether Whittingham himself is a 
passenger in her. This would add perplexity to my 
sorrow and vexation of spirit, if I did not feel certain that 
you will be the first to see him on his arrival, and 
will show him at once how I am circumstanced with 
respect to the matter he writes to me upon. Pray put 
me out of doubt on the question of his arrival, by return 
of post. The kind and considerate letter which I received 
from you on Sunday has afforded me the only moment of 
comfort I have had since your letter of the 8th instant 
reached me at Cowes. Your son will have told you 
before this reaches you that your nephew has passed 
his examination, and is placed in the same company with 


' Ever affectionately yours, 

' Edward Paget.' 

The reader is aware that Sir Samford did arrive in the 
c Curaqoa.' On learning at Mr. Davis's house, that Sir 
Edward could not be his second, he appears to have 
immediately applied to Sir Eufane Donkin, his old Penin- 
sular friend, to whom he had formerly afforded a friendly 


countenance and support, when virulently attacked by 
a brave but impatient British admiral, about the Tarra- 
gona affair. Sir Eufane took the matter into his own 
hands, settled it his own way and having obtained the 
sanction of Mr. Davis — who was naturally inclined (if 
possible, with honour), for a peaceful solution — he, in 
a manner, ignored the wishes of his principal altogether. 

On the 24th July, Mr. Davis wrote to inform Sir 
Edward Paget that ' this day the affair between Sir S. W. 
and Colonel N. has been arranged to the mutual satisfac- 
tion of each party.' But this was rather a sanguine view 
of the matter in regard to his brother-in-law, as the 
following letter will establish : — 

Sir Samford Whittingham to Sir Edward Paget. 


[38] < Conduit Stkeet, 2§th My, 1835. 

4 My dear General, — I will not" apologize for not 
answering your letter with greater punctuality, because it 
has not depended upon myself. 

'When I placed my statement in the hands of Sir 
Eufane Donkin, and requested him to arrange a meeting 
with Colonel Napier, he gave me his opinion without 
hesitation — that it was too absurd to be thought of, and 
that he must be allowed to come to an explanation with 
the Colonel (his particular friend) on the subject 

c A long correspondence ensued, and the result is that 
Hart Davis has withdrawn his accusation of unfounded 
calumny ; and that Colonel Napier will state my explana- 
tion of the peculiar circumstances under which I was 
placed at Barrosa, in the third edition of his work on the 
Peninsular War, now about to appear. 

6 1 have yielded a reluctant consent to this arrange- 
ment, because I conceived, and do still conceive, that 
after what had passed, the explanation would have been 


more proper, and certainly more in harmony with my 
feelings, after I should have received the Colonel's fire. 

' Once again let me thank you, from the very bottom of 
my soul, for the deep interest you have taken in my wel- 
fare. Your friendship and esteem are the glory and 
honour and comfort of my life. I know of no earthly 
advantage against which I would exchange them. 
' Most devotedly and affectionately attached, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

Sir Edward Paget to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

1 R. M. C., 29th July, 1835. 

'Accept, my dear good friend, my most sincere and 
cordial thanks for the gratifying letter received from you 
this morning. In spite of your personal feelings, you 
must allow me to say that I cannot admire sufficiently 
the judicious and off-hand course pursued by Sir Eufane 
Donkin on this occasion. Neither was it possible for 
Hart Davis to do otherwise under the circumstances of 
the case than he has done. I will not attempt with pen 
and ink to talk over this long and interesting history 
with you ; but let me hope that the day is at hand, when 
I may have the happiness of seeing you under this roof 
with our dear and excellent friend Hart Davis. Arrange 
your own time with him, but let it be before the 10th 
August, as I have engagements after that day for a 
fortnight, over which I have no control. Lady Harriet 
most cordially joins in my petition to you both, and I 
rather fancy there is up at College a certain little A 17 * 
who will not be sorry for such an arrangement. 

'E. P.' 

* Richard Hart Whittingham, youngest son of Sir Samford, was then a 
college cadet. He did not survive his father two years, hut as Adjutant of 
the 71st Highland Light Infantry, he had already obtained the affection and 
esteem of his Commanding Officer, Lieut-Colonel (now General) the Hon. 
Charles Grey, and of his brother officers to an astonishing degree, as was 
communicated after his death to the Editor, on the part of the regiment. 


There is every reason to believe that neither Sir 
Edward Paget nor Sir Samford Whittingham were ever 
made fully acquainted with the details of the negotiation 
which was carried on, almost in spite of Sir Samford, 
between Sir Eufane Donkin and Sir William Napier, in 
which the former went so far as to betray the intention of 
Sir Samford Whittingham not to return the fire of his 
adversary ! Indeed, as Sir Eufane was resolved at all 
costs to impede the duel, he would naturally, as involving 
his own breach of confidence, conceal from Sir Samford, 
those details which under a half transparent veil have 
been published in the Life of Sir William Napier, after 
the deaths of all concerned. Otherwise the affair could 
not possibly have ended so peacefully as it did. That 
Mr. Davis was to withdraw his accusation of unfounded 
calumny, and that an explanatory note was to appear 
in future editions about Barrosa, and that at least partial 
justice was to be done as regards Talavera, was it appears 
all that Sir Samford or Sir Edward Paget were ever told 
of Sir Eufane Donkin's proceedings ; and no direct com- 
munications ever took place between Sir William Napier 
and Sir Samford Whittingham. 

It is quite as erroneous therefore, as it is improbable, 
to suppose that Sir Samford was ever made acquainted 
with the style and tone of Sir William's conversations 
with Sir Eufane. Till the publication of the life of the 
former, the matter appears to have been kept secret 
between the two officers concerned ; and it is to be 
regretted that it was ever divulged. 

But what is certain is that there has been a most 
lamentable double breach of faith. Not only has the 
explanatory note printed in one edition since disappeared 
for ever ; but no attempt it appears was ever made by 
Sir William Napier to fulfil the other promise made to Sir 
Eufane Donkin (as recorded in the ' Life of Sir William ') 
to render at least a partial justice to Sir Samford Whit- 


tingham in regard to the battle of Talavera. The fact 
of this breach of promise is not denied by the editor 
of Sir William Napier's Life, whose defence is that it 
must have been caused by accidental forgetfulness ; and, 
for the reasons mentioned in the Preface, the Editor of 
this work would gladly take a charitable view of the 
question. But all he can do with honour, under exist- 
ing circumstances, is to leave the matter to the judg- 
ment of his readers. Justice and love of fair play are 
supposed to be precious in the sight of Englishmen, and 
it is to be hoped that the old Eoman saying still holds 
good in a Christian country, that, ' truth is great and 
will prevail.' 

Before the affair with Napier was settled, Sir Samford 
applied for an interview with the Duke of Wellington. 
The following was the reply : — 

The Duke of Wellington to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

[Apsley House] ' London, 20th July, 1835. 

6 My dear General, — I shall be very happy to see you 
if you will call here on Wednesday at 12 o'clock. 

6 Ever yours most faithfully, 

6 Wellington.' 

1 General Sir S. Whittingham, K.C.B., 

' No. 38, Conduit Street, Hanover Square.' 

What took place on this occasion has never been re- 
corded, at least as far as the Editor is aware. Indeed so 
little given to boasting was the subject of this Memoir, 
that his own children would now know very little of his 
merits, had these not been so liberally done justice to in 
the writings (lately come to light) of others ; and these 
the great and distinguished amongst men. 

Another interview took place the following month, as 
testified in the following note : — 


' Coloniax Office, 10^A August, 1835. 

' Lord Glenelg presents his compliments to Sir S. Whit- 
tingham, and begs he will favour him with a call here on 
Wednesday, at 12 o'clock.' 

The General was still desirous of employment in the 
colonies ; his pecuniary losses, chiefly from causes over 
which he had no control, though partly owing to his too 
great generosity and hospitality, prevented his deriving 
any permanent advantage from his long service in India. 

This interview with Lord Glenelg did not lead to any 
immediate employment. Mr. Davis was no longer in Par- 
liament, and the great Duke had long since retired from 
the command of the army. The regiment which the 
Duke had, in September 1830, assured Mr. Davis should 
be quickly given to Sir Samford Whittingham, was still 
withheld, from want of sufficient interest to press the 
point. Not that his political opinions interfered with his 
advancement. His friend, Lord Wilham Bentinck, was of 
the Liberal party, and his Lordship had convinced him — 
so far as he meddled with politics — that moderate pro- 
gress and reform was the wisest and safest course in 
England. But in truth he belonged to no party, and 
such men are apt to be neglected. 

While waiting for employment in London, he carried 
out his favourite plan of sending his eldest military son to 
Berlin, his admiration of the Prussians and their system 
being always very great ; and surely recent events have 
strikingly manifested the prescience of his judgment in 
this particular case.* 

Towards the close of this year Sir Samford must have 
received the following rather hurried note from the com- 
piler of the ' Wellington Dispatches': — 

* At this time, excepting an officer attending on the Duke of Cumberland 
(now Sir Charles Wyke late envoy at Hanover) there was not another British 
officer in Berlin, so little was the merit of the Prussian system then ap- 
preciated in Great Britain ! 


Lieutenant-Colonel Gurwood * to Sir Samford 


( Portsmouth, 4th December, 1835. 

c My dear General, — I am much obliged to you for 
the paper enclosed in your letter of the 2nd, the perusal 
of which was very instructive. I wish I could have had 
it [in time] to insert [it] in its proper place, in the 
4th volume, just published ; although not being of the 
Duke, I should be subjected to criticism. But the memo- 
randum elucidates points not elsewhere defined. Do you 
wish me to return it ? If so I will, when your pleasure 
on the subject is made known to me. Previous to my visit 
to Paris in September I waited upon Mr. B. Frere to 
request he would have the goodness to copy, or have 
copies [made] of Lord Wellington's letters to him when 
Charge d'Affaires at Seville, after Marquis Wellesley's 
departure. There are thirteen of them, of which I gave 
him the heads taken from the Duke's Indexes, and they 
are of December 1809. All the Duke's papers of that 
month and of the following year were lost in the Tagus ; 
and the only means I have of filling up the vacuum is by 
applying to those to whom they were written. Mr. Frere 
had the goodness to tell me that he would search for 
them. As you are so near a neighbour to him in Savile 
Row, would you oblige me by presenting my compli- 
ments to him, and ascertaining] whether he has yet had 
the opportunity of visiting his papers for those in ques- 
tion? I will also trouble you, as a Spaniard, to tell 
me how' Cazalegas or Casalegos, near the Alberche, is 
written. In the names of places, I always adhere to 
Lopez when I am in doubt. Notwithstanding, I find 
in the hurry and annoyance of correcting the press, the 
following errors have escaped me, which is the more 

* Colonel Gurwood was also one of the many officers who had reason to 
complain of the injustice or inaccuracy of the great military historian. See 
United Service Magazine of February 1868. 


stupid in me, as I pledged myself to adhere (in the 
preface) to the exact spelling of the country : 

Naval Moral for Navalmoral. 
Fuente Duenas for Fuentiduena. 
Zarga Mayor for Zarza la Mayor. 
Puente de Arzob for Puente del. 
# Brigel for Brujel. 

Casalejos for Cazalegas. 

Albuquerque for Alburquerque. 

Fuente del Mestre for Fuentes del Maestro. 

All these I should have put right with more attention 
to Lopez. Your letter staggered me about Albuquerque ; 
but on referring to three of his own letters to the Duke of 
Wellington, in 1810, 1 found it Albur, the correct spelling 
of the town in which I was quartered in 1808. 

c Very sincerely yours, 

' J. Gurwood.' 

< Major-General, Sir S. Whittingham, K.C.B.' 

On the 24th August, 1835, Sir Samforcl received an 
invitation from Lord Auckland, then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, to dine at the Admiralty the following Wed- 
nesday, to meet the Hon. William Osborne,* his Lord- 
ship's nephew, and the friend of the General ; but tem- 
porary indisposition prevented the meeting. 

Lord Auckland to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


'Admiralty, 27 th August, 1835. 

' My dear Sir, — I was sorry yesterday not to have had 
the pleasure of your company to dinner, and trust that 
the cause of your absence will not be of long continuance. 
If you should be well to-morrow, perhaps you would 
favour me with a visit between one and two o'clock. 

* Mr. (now Lord) William Godolphin Osborne was about to re-enter the 
army as Ensign 26th Cameronians, to become Military Secretary to the 
Governor-General of India. 


Otherwise I would endeavour to find you at home on 

' I am, most faithfully yours, 

' Auckland.' 

The Editor was at this time on the Continent, and was 
ignorant of the cause of these meetings. Probably Lord 
Auckland was already appointed to the Governor-General- 
ship of India, or contemplated its acceptance, and was 
therefore glad to obtain information from so experienced 
and able an Indian as Sir Samford Whittingham. No 
copies of the letters of the latter to Lord Auckland are 
now extant. 

From the Same to the Same. 


' Admiralty, 6th September, 1835. 

6 My dear Sir, — I have to thank you for the letter 
which I have received here this morning, and to express 
my regret that I did not see you when we interchanged 
visits on Sunday. But I will give my best attention to 
the suggestions I have from time to time received here in 
writing from you, both in regard to persons and to 
measures ; though with the latter I am afraid that con- 
siderable hesitation must be felt in any case where they 
are liable to be attended with great expense. 

6 Most faithfully yours, 

8 Auckland.' 

It was not till July 1836, that Sir Samford was offered 
any employment. He then accepted the command of 
the Forces in the Windward and Leeward Islands, which 
was now separated from the civil government, and there- 
fore so wretchedly paid, that the mere outfit required 
would absorb more than the first year's salary. Otherwise 
the appointment was a flattering one, as it was pointed 
out that the regiments scattered over the extensive com- 


mand were many of them in a slack state of discipline, 
and required an energetic and able commander to remedy 
the evil. He was moreover to have the local rank of 
Lieutenant-General, with a military secretary and two 
aides-de-camp. In thanking Sir Herbert Taylor, who 
appears to have been instrumental in obtaining the em- 
ployment, Sir Samford pointed out to him that however 
gratifying to him the manner of his appointment, it was 
in a pecuniary point of view very unsatisfactory. More- 
over, he took that opportunity of alluding to the long- 
deferred promised Eegiment. But his patience on that 
matter was still to be further tried, though five years had 
elapsed since the memorable promise of the great Duke to 
Mr. Hart Davis. 

In 1836 Sir Samford and his son, who had returned 
from Berlin, passed some days at Sheerness, as the guests 
of the Hon. Admiral and Mrs. Fleeming, at the Admiral's 
official residence. There they met for the first time, the 
Admiral's nephew John, thirteenth Lord Elphinstone, 
who had just been appointed Governor of Madras, and 
whom the Admiral's eldest son was one day to succeed 
for a very brief space as fourteenth lord. Lord Elphin- 
stone was then a tall handsome aristocratic-looking 
Captain of the Blues, and his selection for so high a post, 
whilst still so young and inexperienced, created a con- 
siderable sensation both in England, and in India. 

Before embarking for Barbadoes, a dinner at which 
Sir Samford and his son were present is worthy of 

It took place on a Friday in the season of 1836, at 
the Clarendon Hotel,* when Lord William, the ex- 
Governor-General of India, entertained Lord Auckland, 
his successor, and about a dozen other gentlemen several 
of wiiom had been, or were about to be, Governors. 

* The private note of invitation has no date but ( Clarendon Hotel,' and 
asks Sir S. Whittingham and his son for the following Friday. 


Lord Elphinstone, and Mr. Mountstuart Elphinstone, and 
]\li\ Cole, brother to Lord Enniskillen, were amongst the 
gubernatorial guests. Lord George Bentinck, then a 
handsome young gentleman of sporting celebrity, was 
also present ; but no one then imagined the important 
position which he would one day hold in the political 
world. It was a very interesting party, and the kind and 
unaffected manners of the distinguished host extended 
its genial influence over all the guests. It is probable 
that Lord Burghersh (the late Earl of Westmoreland) 
was present at this dinner, though the Editor does not 
remember the fact. It is certain that Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham met his Talavera friend at Lord William Ben- 
tinck's table about this period. 

Before leaving England, Sir Samford Whittingham was 
presented to King William IV. by Lord Glenelg ; and he 
has left in his own handwriting a memorandum of the 
interview with His Majesty. It does not state the 
locality, but it was probably at Windsor that it took 
place. The King was personally unknown to him. In 
comparison with George IV. it was ' a King that knew 
not Joseph': — 

' On the 5th October, 1836, I was presented to His 
Majesty by Lord Glenelg, to kiss hands on my appoint- 
ment to the command of His Majesty's forces in the 
Leeward and Windward Islands. 

' Upon kissing the royal hand, and returning thanks 
for the honour of the appointment and the rank of 
Lieutenant-General, the King was pleased to say, 

6 " Your rank of Lieutenant-General was a necessary 
consequence of your appointment to the command of the 
largest body of troops I have in my colonies, except the 
East Indies. It is, next to the East, the most important 
command I have to give.' 1 

'His Majesty here paused for a short time, and then 
continued : 


4 " What events may take place, in the course of a few 
years, in the West Indies it is impossible to say. But 
I feel quite sure, that in any and every case, the com- 
mand of my forces in the Leeward and Windward Islands 
could not be in better hands than yours." 

' The King then asked in what regiment I had com- 
menced my services, I said, "in the 1st Life Guards, 
and then in the loth Light Dragoons, in which regiment 
I was Captain when I sailed with Brigadier Craufurd, 
as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General, for South 
America. After the failure of the attack on Buenos 
Ayres I returned to England." 

; " I knew you had been in the 13th Light Dragoons," 
said the King, " though some one said not ; and after 
your return from South America where did you go?" 

6 " To Spain, Sire, where I was present at the battle of 
Baylen under General Castanos, and at the battle of 
Talavera under Sir Arthur Wellesley. From that time 
I served till the end of the war on the Eastern Coast ; 
having under my command a corps cVarmee of Spanish 
troops, composed of ten regiments of infantry, twelve 
of cavalry, and a considerable train of horse and foot 
artillery. After the peace, I went to the West Indies as 
Governor of Dominica." 

' " I knew you had been in the West Indies," said His 
Majesty, "but I did not know in what Island." 

'"I remained in the West Indies two years, and then 
went to the East as Quartermaster-General of the King's 
troops. On my promotion to the rank of Major-General, 
I was appointed to the military districts of Cawnpore 
and Meerut. In the first, I had 24,000 men under my 
command ; in the second, 26,000. After thirteen years' 
service in India, I returned fifteen months since, to 
England. Your Majesty has now been graciously pleased 
to appoint me to the command of your army in the 
Leeward and Windward Islands, and assuredly no effort 

E E 


on mj part shall be wanting to the faithful and effective 
discharge of the duties of the high post with which your 
Majesty has been pleased to honour me." 

c " I am fully satisfied," said the King, " I could not 
have made a better choice ; and you carry with you 
my best wishes for your health, happiness, and success." 

c " I hope you are satisfied," said Lord Genelg, on our 
returning from the presence.' 


Of course in so brief an interview Sir Samford had not 
time to give the King more than an outline of his services, 
confined to what he could remember on the spur of 
the moment. He left out indeed the most important of 
them ; his having raised, organized, and led to victory, 
the Majorca division. 

At this period Sir Samford Whittingham lost one of 
his best and most estimable friends, the late Sir William 
Knighton, so long the friend and confidant of George IV. 
The letter which he wrote to Sir Herbert Taylor, an- 
nouncing the probably approaching end of that amiable 
and distinguished man is not forthcoming, but the follow- 
ing was the reply : — 

Sir Herbert Taylor to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

1 WrapsoK Castle, 9th October, 1836. 

c My dear Sir Samford, — I feel very grateful to you 
for your kind attention in writing to me respecting our 
poor friend Sir William Knighton, and I sincerely la- 
ment that your account of his state is so unfavourable, 
and holds out so little hope of recovery. I shall deeply 
regret his loss as I love and respect him ; and I am 
greatly indebted to him for many and unceasing acts 
of kindness and friendship to myself and mine, and 
of confidence under circumstances which proved his 

' You have done me a real favour by expressing to this 


excellent man my feelings towards him, and my sympathy 
in his present state of suffering ; especially as the close 
attendance to which I am doomed here and elsewhere 
deprives me of the facilities of calling personally in 
Stratford Place to enquire after him. There is, however, 
no day that I do not receive an account of him. I hope 
that poor Lady Knighton is able to bear up. I heard 
that it was not till very recently that she was made aware 
of poor Sir William's critical state. It is satisfactory to 
know that he received the sacrament yesterday, which 
would so much contribute to the ease and comfort of 
his mind. 

' Believe me to be, ever, my dear Sir Samford, most 
sincerely yours, 

4 H. Taylor/ 

1 Major-General Sir Samford Whittingham, K.C.B.' 

' P.S. — I made the communication which you wished 
me to make to the King, who received it kindly. His 
Majesty also entered with kind interest into the situa- 
tion of our suffering friend.' 

Sir Samford Whittingham appears soon afterwards to 
have transmitted to the Duke of Wellington the news 
of Sir William Knighton's death, as proved by His Grace's 
reply : — 

The Duke of Wellington to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

1 Walmer Castle, 12*7* October, 1836. 

' My dear General, — I sincerely lament with you the 
loss of our friend Sir William Knighton. 

' I beg you to take an opportunity of presenting my 
best respects and condolence to his afflicted family. 

' I shall have occasion hereafter to communicate with 
his son upon the late King's affairs. I am not acquainted 

£ £ 2 


with him excepting from the report of his poor father ; 
and I entertain a great respect for him. 

' Believe me, ever yours most faithfully, 

6 Wellington.' 

1 Lieut. -General Sir Sainford AVkittingham, K.C.B.' * 

Sir Samford Whittingham to the Duke of Wellington. 

' United Service Club, 14th October, 1830. 

' My Lord Duke, — I took an opportunity this morning 
of obeying your Grace's orders by presenting your best 
respects and condolence to the afflicted family of the 
late Sir William Knighton ; and, at the same time, 
of informing his son, that you would, hereafter, have 
occasion to communicate with him upon the late King's 
affairs. He desired me to express to your Grace how 
much he feels honoured by the flattering mention you 
are pleased to make of him, and to say that at an early 
period after the funeral of his poor father, he will be 
ready to attend your pleasure. 

'I have the honour to be, your Grace's most obedient 
humble servant, 

c Samford Whittingham.' 

( His Grace the Duke of Wellington, K.G., 

' fcc, Sec, &c.' 

The following letter alludes to one of the visits which 
Sir Samford had paid to Sir Edward and Lady Harriet 
Paget since his return to England, no other records of 
which now exist. The worry and anxiety which the 
Napier affair had given to Sir Edward Paget had evi- 
dently not cooled his affection for his dear and valued 
friend, any more than the poverty of his circumstances 
which made employment, however badly paid, indispen- 
sable to him : — 

* The Duke in the original wrote l G.C.B.' by mistake, for Sir Samford 
did not live long enough to have the A^.C.B. converted into (7.O.B. 


1 Royal Mllitaky College, 18/A October, 1836. 

' Many thanks to you, my dear Whittingham, for your 
letter of the 15th ; which somehow or other has only 
reached me this day. As you must go, I will only say 
that I am glad that " everything is at last settled," and, 
I ardently hope and pray — in a manner much more 
suitable to your interests than you gave me any reason to 
expect when I had the happiness of last seeing you at 
Sandhurst. When I make use of this word " happiness," 
I pray you to consider it as exclusively applicable to the 
sight (perhaps the last) and society of one, whose ardent 
and unmerited friendship and attachment to me, I never 
can be sufficiently grateful for. Au reste I must acknow- 
ledge, that your departure for the West Indies, the inade- 
quacy of the means afforded you to maintain the high 
position in which you are placed there, the circumstances 

which led you to accept of this command 

have occasioned me a degree of sorrow and distress of 
mind, which nothing alleviates but the contemplation of 
the noble and buoyant spirit which enables you so 

manfully to defy the shafts of adversity It is 

most kind of you to think of writing to me from the 
West Indies. ... I will ascertain and let you know 
whether Polchet * has received your cigars. Poor old 
fellow, he is nearly done. I ought to have written and 
thanked you a fortnight ago for the beautiful specimen 
you have sent us, through Grrey,f of your military draw- 
ing of Hampstead and its neighbourhood. I had no 
idea till I saw it of your powers in this way. It will be 
framed and hung up in the office in the good company of 
some of old Jarry's best performances. 

* A professor of the Senior Department, Sandhurst, who had also held 
a similar situation at High Wycombe, when Sir Sam ford was there as 
a pupil. 

f Then a subaltern in the 83rd regiment (as was Sir Samford's son), now 
the well-known Governor, Sir George Grey. He was at this period a 
student at the senior department of the College. 


c God bless you, my dear good friend, and with kindest 
regards from Lady Harriet, believe me ever 

'Most faithfully and affectionately yours, 

' Edward Paget.' 

Another friend did not conceal his surprise at Sir Sam- 
ford's acceptance of so wretchedly paid a post, as may be 
seen by the following letter : — 

Lord William Bentinck to Sir Samforcl Whittingham. 

1 Welbeck, 22nd October, 1836. 

' My dear Sir S. Ford, — So you are again about, after 
so many wanderings and gallant adventurings, to set out 
upon a new course, which I sincerely trust may obtain 
for you all the honour and gratification that you can pos- 
sibly desire. For riches you have shown your contempt, 
and there are few men who go to the East who possess 
this noble self-denial. One may regret, though one 
cannot but admire, this singular quality: and I hope, at 
any rate, this additional claim, which this new service 
gives to distinction, may ensure an early appointment to 
a regiment. I am glad you were well pleased with His 
Majesty's reception. There cannot be a better hearted 
man than our gracious Sovereign ; and his decided, and 
above all his equal patronage of the two professions entitle 
him to the gratitude and respect of every soldier and 

' I am sorry to say that Lady William is not so well 
as she was, and we fear she will be obliged to go to 
some warmer climate, and we think of Tours. It is not 
far removed either from Paris or from England ; and 
it must be equally dry with Paris if not warmer; with 
less temptations to exposure and fatigue. In the early 

spring we may yet make a march upon Paris 

' Yours ever sincerely, 

' W. Bentinck.' 


One more letter from Lord William, Sir Samford re- 
ceived before sailing for Barbadoes : — 

Lord William Bentinck to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


1 Welbeck, 6th November, 1836. 

' My dear Sir S. Ford, — Although in the midst of the 
hurry of your departure, I must still be allowed to 
occupy a moment of your time, with my acknowledg- 
ments for your most kind and friendly letter. The 
contents of it have given more pleasure to Lady William 
than myself, who feels a great deal more for my repu- 
tation than I do. I look for no praise and for no public 
gratitude. The curse of India is that private interest not 
only predominates over that of the public, but [that] it is 
exclusively the reigning power. It is a foreign dominion 
without any control from the voice of the governed. 
And it is nominally controlled by those in Europe, with 
whom private interest is as much so as in India, the 
exclusively reigning power. I have just gone counter to 
all these sordid and selfish interests, and in this genera- 
tion, I must have the natural reward, odium, calumny, 
and ill will. But these principles, like all others of 
reform founded on reason, moderation and the general 
good, which I have upheld, must have their triumph in 
the end. And I am quite satisfied in the meantime with 
the satisfaction of my own conscience, and the certainty 
of these results upon the happiness of the Indian Empire. 
Pardon so much egotism. 

...» • . 

c Ever with great regard, 

' W. Bentinck.' 

Sir Samford Whittingham appears to have had some 
interviews with Lord Palmerston before leaving England, 
and to have presented him with a copy of his Me- 
moir on Eussia and British India. The following is a 


copy of a letter he subsequently addressed to that popular 
statesman, then Minister for Foreign Affairs : — 

Sir Samford Whittingham to Viscount Palmerston. 

' United Service Club, Pall Mall, 7th November, 1836. 

6 My Lord, — The accompanying map, which comprises 
in one sheet the country between Constantinople and the 
Burmese empire, was published a short time before I left 
Calcutta. It should have accompanied the Memoir I had 
the honour of presenting to your Lordship. 

In the sketch of the Russian empire her immense 
latter acquisitions are brought to notice by being coloured 
with green. 

' Will your Lordship permit me to beg your accept- 
ance of both these maps, of little cost, but of much 
convenience. I have the honour to be, my Lord, 

6 Your obedient humble servant, 

'Samford Whittingham/ 

' The Lord Viscount Palmerston.' 

The following was his Lordship's reply : — 
Viscount Palmerston to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

1 Stanhope Street,* 8th November, 1836. 

'My dear Sir, — I beg you to accept my best thanks 
for the very interesting paper which you left with me 
the other day, and which I have read with all the atten- 
tion due to the importance of the subject of which it 
treats, and to the ability with which it has been drawn 
up. The local knowledge and the military experience 
which have been brought to bear upon the matters which 
you have discussed, render the Memorandum peculiarly 
valuable. I am also much obliged to you for your per- 

* Stanhope Street is the address written on the back of the letter, in 
Sir Samford's hand, but the writing in the note itself is illegible. 


mission to keep the two maps which you sent me yes- 

4 My dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

' Palmerston.' 

' Lieut-General Sir S. F. Whittingham, &c, &c.> &c.' 

Before sailing for Barbadoes contrary winds detained 
the General and his Staff for many days at an hotel in 
Portsmouth, where, by his invitation, his son's friend 
Thomas St. Aubyn of the 83rd f joined the party. The 
Lieutenant-Governor -Sir Thomas MacMahon, and (es- 
pecially) the Port-Admiral Sir Philip Durham, lightened 
the tediousness of delay by their hospitalities. At the 
table of the former the travellers met the second son 
of the Duke, the late Lord Charles Wellesley then 
quartered with his regiment in the garrison. Captain 
Considine of the 69th Eegiment (formerly of the 52nd 
Eegiment) the Military Secretary to Sir Samford, who was 
one of the best officers in the army, though amongst 
the least fortunate in promotion, joined his Chief at Ports- 
mouth, as did Lieutenant Henry B s, who then com- 
menced his long and fortunate career on the Staff as 

After embarking in the ' Tulloch Castle? towards the 
close of November, baffling winds occasioned a return 
of the party to Portsmouth, and it was not till the 22 nd 
December that the wind became fair enough to allow of 
quitting the harbour. 

* Brother of Lady Knollys. 





It was in an exceptionally important command that Sir 
Samford Whittingham served for the second time in the 
West Indies ; and although on this occasion his post 
was nominally only a military one, he was really also 
much employed by Government in matters of a civil 
nature. Moreover, according to the best authority, the 
then large garrison of the Windward and Leeward 
Islands was generally in rather slack order, and required 
a firm and able hand to restore due discipline and 
military efficiency. In some of the stations the military 
Commander was also ex officio the civil ruler, and if 


found unfit in the latter capacity (in the eyes of the 
Governor-General at Barbadoes, or of the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, at home), the only remedy was to 
remove him from his military command, which gave rise 
to unpleasant complications in one instance, accompanied 
by a most harassing and voluminous correspondence. 

Again, the Governor-General at Barbadoes was a 
general officer, acting solely in his civil capacity, and as 
such superior in authority to his senior military officer, 
the Commander of the Forces. In such a situation (to 
which a truly wise and prudent Administration should 
never expose any person), a high sense of duty, great 
temper, and a certain modest abnegation of self, became 
indispensably necessary, on the part of the military com- 
mander, to the successful management of business. The 
only rational course would have been, to have had one 
instead of two generals, and to have united the civil 
and military administration in his hands ; or, if that 
was undesirable, to have appointed a civilian Governor, 
to act with a military commander. But the exigencies 
of patronage too often set at defiance all the dictates 
of reason and experience ; and in this particular case, 
the exceptional character of the Commander of the 
troops saved the British Government from reaping that 
discord which it had inadvertently clone its best to 
sow. Lieutenant-General Sir Samford Whittingham and 
Major-General Sir Evan Murray Macgregor were excel- 
lent friends both publicly and privately during the whole 
period in which they acted together ; nor did the 
former ever make the slightest difficulty in marching past 
and saluting his junior officer on the Eoyal birthday 
with all the respect due to the representative of his 

In preparing the West Indian negroes for emancipa- 
tion, the Colonial Secretary of State and the Secretary-at- 
War (as he was then styled) gave plenty of occupation to 


the military as well as to the civil commander. In 1837 
the prospect was that in 1838 domestic apprenticeship 
was c to cease altogether, and in the year 1840 the 
field labourers were to participate in the same advan- 
tages, and the whole population to become free.'* But 
eventually the Island Assembly decreed the total eman- 
cipation on the 1st August, 18^8. 

Meantime, Sir Samford's private affairs were in a 
bad way; and remembering the great Duke's speech to 
Mi'. Davis in 1830, few readers will wonder if some 
despondency had at last possessed the mind of one of 
the most sanguine of mortals: — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

1 Barbadoes, Ylth April, 1837. 

' As to the Regiment, I really have lost all hope. And 
were I not surrounded by those I so much love, and who 
look to me for aid, assistance, and support, I should give 
up the service altogether ; for a Commander of the Forces 
on 2000/. per annum cuts, I am sorry to say, a de- 
plorable figure. In a former letter to Hart I have 
entered into minute details on financial matters, and have 
pointed out the hardship of imposing poverty, in addition 
to a bad climate, on the few remaining years of an 
old soldier's life. And, having said my say, I shall 
not again refer to the subject ; but, on the contrary, 
repeat what I have so often said, that we are as happy a 
quartet as ever yet met together; and whilst we all do 
our duty to the very best of our power, we shall con- 
tinue, under God's blessing, to sit at ease, and hope 
for better times. For myself there is no merit in all this. 
I am never so happy as when living amongst soldiers, 
and doing everything in my power to mitigate the suffer- 
ings and evils to which they are of necessity exposed. 
They now get, five days in the week, fresh provisions ; 

* Letter to Mr. Davis, dated ' Barbadoes, 23rd February, 1837.' 


and I am doing everything in my power to exempt 
the European soldier from those distant night duties 
which have proved so very detrimental to his health. 
If the suggestions contained in the letters I have sent 
to Hart * be attended to, I have no doubt of making the 
troops of this command a model of good discipline, whilst 
the mortality will be, under God's blessing, reduced to 

one-half ! ' 

On the 21st May, he recapitulates to Mr. Davis the 
advantages which he hopes to gain for soldiers and 
their families in the West Indies. 'The men, women, 
and children will have fresh provisions instead of salt ; 
distant night-duties will be done by black troops instead 
of white ; the white troops will be removed from the 
most unhealthy islands. The garrison of Barbadoes will 
be the reserve of this army, and a real school of in- 
struction. All this and more I hope to see realized 
before I again embark for old England. Do not think 
that I am building castles in the air. To the best of 
my power and ability, I do my duty in that station of life 
unto which it has pleased God to call me ; and my 
ambition is " to live and die in the saddle," in conform- 
ity to my duty to my country and to my children/ f 

In another letter he tells the same correspondent that, 
even with the greatest economy, he could not hope in 
five years to save enough in this command to repay 
the cost of his outfit ! Assuredly he was not one of 
the Sovereign's hard bargains. 

His Military Secretary, Captain Considine, an excellent 
and highly esteemed officer, was now obliged from illness 
to return on sick leave to England, from whence he kept 
up a copious and interesting correspondence with his 
Chief in Barbadoes. 

* He had sent to his nephew a copy of the suggestions he had sent to the 
official authorities. 

t This wish was granted, but sooner than the asker intended. 


This year was marked by a mutiny of the black troops 
in Trinidad, very easily put down by a company of 
the 89th Regiment, but necessitating a court-martial, 
which condemned three men to be shot and a few others 
to be transported. 

In a letter dated ' Unionville, 30th July,' he reverts to 
the standing grievance in these words : c The mystery 
of the Regiment I cannot solve ! I suppose they think I 
can live upon sweet words.' 

His high sense of duty when the Military Secretaryship 
vacated was exhibited in an almost old Roman man- 
ner. His son and aide-de-camp had for change of air 
and scene volunteered to be a member of the General 
Court-Martial at Trinidad, appointed to try the mutineers, 
and was therefore absent when Captain Considine left on 
sick leave. An aide-de-camp's duties are whatever the 
General chooses to employ him upon. Having had from 
long absence actually to make the acquaintance of his 
son, on return to Europe, almost as a stranger, a mutual 
shyness at first subsisted. Finding that he was not con- 
sulted on business, and considered as devoted to pleasure, 
the son resigned himself to his fate, and doubtless some- 
what too willingly, youth being fond of pleasure. The 
General, therefore, in the absence of him he deemed 
an idler, appointed his other aide-de-camp, a most excel- 
lent and exemplary officer, to the vacant Secretaryship, as 
he was most fully justified in doing. The only rebuke, 
which the Editor believes Sir Samford ever gave to his 
beloved brother-in-law, was for his interference in this 
matter. Mr. Davis and his clever eldest son regarded 
these matters as nearly everyone does ; that if an advan- 
tage is available, a son should have the preference, if not 
unfitted for the situation. And as they had brought 
up their young relative, they thought that they might 
express their opinions in his favour. And this Mr. Davis 
evidently did, although the letter is lost. 


The following was Sir Samford's reply : — 

To his Brother-in-law. 

'Barbadoes, list October } 1837. 

c I grieve that you should have entered into a question 
purely military, and the discussion upon which must be 
exclusively left to the judgment of every general officer 
commanding, for upon him the whole responsibility of 
everything connected with his command must rest. No 
private considerations, however strong or closely con 
nected, must even for a moment be put in competition 
with his views of what his duty exacts. This has been 
my creed through life, and as a public servant I have 
never deviated from it.' [He then describes how he was 
obliged at once to name some one present, and named 
his senior aide-de-camp, who most generously desired 
it should be only ' till further orders,' and continues] : ' It 

was Considine's opinion that would not accept, 

because he would subject himself to the extreme drudgery 
of an office the most difficult and most laborious in 
the army, and particularly as he had never from his first 
arrival at Barbadoes taken the smallest interest in any 
military concern whatever. However, I am happy to 
say he appears to have now made up his mind to dedicate 
himself entirely to the execution of his manifold duties/ 
[He then notifies his intention of appointing his son 
Acting Military Secretary from the 1st of the next 

month, and adds] : ' If chooses to give up his 

whole time and exclusive attention to his military duties, 
he will ever find me most anxious to promote his wel- 
fare ; but as a general officer in command, I must act 
according to my views of the good of the service.' 

On the 1st December, 1837, he writes, ' is work- 
ing hard, and constant in his attendance at the office,' 
and so the General and father was satisfied. Owing 


to the number of islands and dependencies, and also 
because so many of the commanding officers were also 
Governors, the Military Secretaryship required not only a 
good man of business, but one of sound judgment, and 
the Chief was therefore justified in requiring other quali- 
ties than relationship to himself as a recommendation 
for the appointment. 

Before this time Sir Samford must have received a 
letter from Captain Considine, dated '20, Duke Street, St. 
James's, 22nd October, 1837,' containing amongst other 
things the account of a long conversation which he 
had just had with Sir John Macdonald, the Adjutant- 
General, 6 who pronounced the highest eulogiums on 
you, for ability, tact, prudence ; and wound up by declar- 
ing emphatically, " Whittingham is the best inspecting 
General we have. His Reports, all are excellent. We 
are much pleased with him, and pray tell him so from 

' He then got into good humour, praised your letters, so 
good, so well put together, called you " a clever fellow," 
and said a number of kind things, " it was a shame 
you had not a Regiment, one you must have very soon." 
Warmly praised your judgment in settling so well " that 

fool" — as he termed him — Sir 's business, and 

expressed the highest satisfaction, when I told him on 
what friendly terms you and Sir Evan Macgregor were. 
This, he said, would delight Lord Hill, please the Colonial 
Office, and that you were just the prudent man to get on 
with these Governors.' 

In the same voluminous letter occurs this passage : 
c You will be pleased to learn, for Sir John slipped it out, 
that Cutlar Fergusson is actively employed, arranging 
for the sanction of Parliament, a plan to pay Judge 
Advocates well, and employ military men of talent ex- 
clusively, having one at every large station. Sir John 


little knew it was your plan. For it appears, from 
his statement to me, that it is exactly what you recom- 

Another passage is worthy of extraction : ' You have 
seen M. -General George Napier's appointment to the 
Cape. I met him yesterday with his son, who was in 
my company, 52nd [Eegiment], and accompanies his 
father as A. D. C. George Napier is the quiet one of 
the family, — very different from the author of the 
" Peninsula." He asked me about you, and spoke hand- 
somely of your character* He is a fine, generous, nice 
fellow, minus the right arm, but spare and active. He 
tells me that they gave him £600 to find his passage, 
but added he, " they charge me £560 for my commission 
fees as Governor." However, his income, £5000 a-year, 
will fully compensate him.' 

On the 25th October, Captain Considine mentions 
his interview with Lord Fitzroy Somerset : ; His Lordship 
then got on the Trinidad mutiny, and expressed him- 
self gratified at your promptitude in the whole affair/ 

Towards the close of 1837, being applied to from 
Halifax- (during the rebellion in Canada), Sir Samford 
Whittingham took upon himself the responsibility of 
sending there the 65th Eegiment, as a reinforcement. 
This will be best and most briefly explained by the 
following: demi-official letter to him from the brother 
of his dearest friend : — 

Admiral the Hon. Sir Charles Paget to Sir Samford 


f Admiralty House, Bermuda, 2Ath January } 1838* 

'Dear Sir, — I beg leave to seize the first opportunity 
to express to your Excellency my humble thanks for 

* It is pleasant to the Editor to find that even thirty years ago one 
Napier at least did justice to Sir Samford. 

F P 


the admirable decision and promptitude which has been 
manifested by your Excellency in embarking so imme- 
diately the 65th Eegiment on board the " Cornwallis" 
for Halifax, where they were most heartily welcomed 
by Sir Colin Campbell, who was enabled by the arrival of 
that efficient corps, to detach his only remaining regi- 
ment, the 34th, to Lower Canada. 

6 Your Excellency will be further pleased to know that 
you have thus anticipated the intentions of Her Majesty's 
Government ; since I find orders have been sent from 
England to forward the 65th from the West Indies to 
the station where it has already arrived. 

'By the last accounts I have received from Sir Colin 
Campbell, there is every reason to hope that rebellion has 
received such prompt and signal defeat as to make it 
reasonable to believe that no further effort will be made 
to disturb the peace and subordination of those provinces. 
I have the honour to remain, 

' Your Excellency's most faithful servant, 

' Charles Paget.' 

s His Excellency Lieut. -General 
< Sir S. Whittingham, K.C.B., 
' &c, &c, &c.' 

Exceedingly popular with all good officers, Sir Samford 
Whittingham was nevertheless a terror to the inefficient 
and undeserving, in spite of the habitual extreme gentle- 
ness of his manner of proceeding. He had sometimes 
to displace officers from their governments or commands, 
and sometimes to report them for unfitness for their duty. 
He was averse to that system where there is one law 
for the officer, and another for the non-commissioned 
officer and soldier. He was not afraid (as many Generals 
are) to do his duty, and the authorities in our easy-going 
system sometimes considered him too severe to effete and 
inefficient commanders. He scorned to gain popularity 
at the expense of discipline and efficiency. Neither, how- 



ever, did he go to the other extremity, which has been 
witnessed, that of courting the men by publicly telling 
them that their insubordination was the fault of their 
officers. It was this conscientious performance of his 
duty and distribution of equal justice, that justified the 
praise given to him by the Adjutant-General of the army, 
speaking of course the sentiments also of Lord Hill. All 
the voluminous documents concerning his command in 
the West Indies would, if investigated, bear out this 
judgment. Indeed his merits were never denied. It 
may be truly said of him, that few men ever got more 
praise, or less rewards. 

The Eegiment came at last, late though it was. He 
was appointed Colonel of that regiment, at the head 
of one of the battalions of which (having two battalions in 
the Peninsular war) his early friend the gallant Henry 
Cadogan had fallen at Vittoria ; thus losing, in the service 
of his country, the earldom that awaited him. 

Captain Considine to Sir Samford Whittingham. 


1 Cargreen, Cornwall, 1st April, 1838. 

6 Nothing which has occurred for many years has 
afforded me more pleasure, than seeing in the ' Gazette ' 
of the 30th March, your appointment to the colonelcy of 
the 71st [Highland] Light Infantry. I do most sincerely 
felicitate you on the occasion, as Lord Hill could hardly 
have selected a finer regiment to place you at the 
head of. The longed for event has been a tardy boon; 
but you have every reason to be satisfied with the 
71st! Charles Grey,* its Lieutenant- Colonel, is an excel- 
lent promising young chief of battalion, and he already 
knows your predilection for light troops from my cor- 
respondence with him, and will, I am persuaded, be glad 

* A younger son of Earl Grey ; the Premier of the Reform Bill, now 
Major-General, and well-known member of the Royal Household : also the 
Editor of " The Early Days of the Prince Consort" 

F F '2 


to see your name on the top of the list of the 71st. They 
embark on the 12 th.' 

From Sir John Macdonald, Adjutant-General. 

' House-Guards, 2nd April, 1838. 

'My dear Whittingham, — Pray accept my heartiest 
congratulations upon your appointment to the Colonelcy 
of the 71st, one of the finest regiments in the army; 
an appointment which cannot fail to be gratifying to 
you in the extreme, and which has given me the sincerest 
pleasure. I am happy to be able to assure you, that 
all your measures, in your high and responsible situation, 
have hitherto given Lord Hill the utmost satisfaction, and 
I can say, as head of this department, that all your inter- 
course with it is most creditable to you, and highly 
beneficial to the interests of the public service. 

'Your regiment is in splendid order, and all but on 
the beach for Canada. Your Lieutenant-Colonel (Grey)* 
is a clever capable young fellow, that has been bred 
in the best schools (the 60th and 43rd) and thoroughly 
understands his business. Always my dear Whittingham, 

' Most faithfully yours, 

' John Macdonald.' 

The Hon. Sir Edward Paget to Sir Samford 


1 Royal Hospital, CnELSEA,f 31st March, 1838. 

' My dear Whittingham, — I now, thank God, can write 
and thank you for your letter of the 19th January, 
with a light heart. Yesterday's Gazette announced your 
appointment to the Colonelcy of the 71st Eegiment ; and 
I verily believe I do not deceive myself in thinking 
that the event will not be more joyous to you than it 
is to me. You have too long waited for it: but it 

* General Grey is now Colonel of the same regiment himself, 
f Sir Edward had left the Military College, and been appointed Governor 
of the Royal Plospital, Chelsea. 


has come at last, and may you long live to enjoy the 
honour, and its emoluments. It is no trifling gratification 
to me moreover to learn, that your services in the 
West Indies are duly appreciated at the Horse-Guards. 
I promise you that your zeal and ready acquiescence 
in the appeal made to you by my brother Charles for aid 
to Canada, are estimated by him as they deserved to be, 
and drew from him the heart and soul remark, " Would 
that I could always find a Whittingham in my hour 
of need." We talked you well over before he left this 
country, and I shall rejoice to hear that you have 
met ; for I am greatly mistaken if you do not find 
him a fellow quite to your taste. 

6 Most affectionately yours, 

' Edward Paget.' 

Captain Considine to Sir Samford Whittingham, 


1 Army and Navy Club, St. James's Square, 

< llth April, 1838. 

[After describing some conversations with the influen- 
tial Dr. Hair] — 'I next saw Sir John Macdonald. He 
was very kind indeed. He always has a very long chat 
with me ; and in the present case said : " My friend 
Sir Samford gives me great satisfaction. He is an in- 
valuable Inspecting General. We have none like him 
anywhere employed. Here are some of our distinguished 
men, such as Sir J. Colborne, Sir Lionel Smith, and 
the late poor Ponsonby! from whom we never could 
get more extended information in the way of answers 
to our queries in the Confidential Eeports, than yes I no ! 
to the end of the chapter." 

6 I have seen Sir De Lacy Evans, and dined with 
him.* He asked a good deal about you, and told the 
story Sir Loftus Otway had before mentioned to me, 

* Captain Considine had been Military Secretary to Sir De Lacy, in Spain. 


relative to your having had the power to have made 
[King] Ferdinand, on his return after the war, swear 
to the Constitution, and I explained that it was a mistake 
.... Many other points I dwelt on, which appeared 
to set his mind right about you, and he in conclusion 
expressed himself complimentarily about you. 

' I met at the Horse- Guards Sir James Macdonnel (the 
Hougomont hero), who is on the eve of starting for 
Canada in the " Edinburgh " (74), to command the 
Brigade of Guards. Sir James asked me many questions 
about you and your inspections of the troops. He made 
me describe your person, &c. He is himself a rigid 
inspector and drill man. 

4 Whilst writing Hair has appeared at my side. He 
reiterates his promise of writing to you by the packet : 
but the little man is so occupied with the Duke of Eich- 
mond and Lord Hill, that I know not how to depend on 
his promise.' 

' The little man,' the friend of Lord Hill, and of the 
late popular Duke and Duchess of Eichmond, did keep 
his promise of writing to Sir Samford Whittingham 
better than Captain Considine expected : — 

Doctor Archibald Hair to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

* Hyde Pake: Barracks, London, 16th April, 1838. 

' Dear Sir Samford, — I know not how to tell you how 
much pleasure I feel in being able, at last, to offer 
you my most sincere congratulations on your appoint- 
ment to a Eegiment. I am more pleased and delighted 
than I can tell you, although I am well aware no General 
in the service merits it more than you do. The Regi- 
ment itself must, I am sure, be very satisfactory to 
you. There are few better in the service ; and it is, 
I understand from various quarters, in first-rate order, 

dr. hair's congratulations. 439 

and is commanded by an old friend of Considine's and 
mine, Charlie Grey, than whom there is not a better 
officer in the service. 

'Believe me, my dear Sir Samford, none of your 
friends rejoice more than I do at your appointment to the 
71st Highland Light Infantry. 

c Canada and the Coronation are the chief topics of 
conversation at present. There must be a brevet, I 
should think, but as yet little or nothing is known on the 
subject. With a thousand best wishes for your welfare in 
every respect, believe me to be, with the greatest respect 
and esteem, dear Sir Samford, 

6 Yours most faithfully and sincerely, 

1 Archibald Hair. ' 

The Minister for War and the Colonies also was 
pleased to express his satisfaction on this occasion, to 
Sir Samford's nephew, — in a manner implying that his 
own recommendation of the appointment had not been 
wanting : — 

Lord Glenelg to Mr. Harford. 

< London, 30th March, 1838. 

'My dear Harford,-^I am delighted to tell you that 
Whittingham is to have the 71st Eegiment. 

' Yours ever truly, 
6 Glenelg.' 

< J. S. Harford, Esq.'* 

To resume the fraternal correspondence : — 

' Barbadoes, 9th May, 1838. — It would be impossible to 
express half my grateful feelings to Her Majesty for her 
gracious favour in appointing me to the 71st Eegiment; 
a regiment second to none in the whole army, and 
for which there were so many pretenders. The strongest 
feelino* in my mind is the deepest humility, proceed- 

* Author of the ' Recollections of Wilberforce.' 


ing from the magnitude of the mercies I am daily 
experiencing, and the complete conviction of my own 

' It is most grateful to me to learn that the publication 
of that paper on India has done me no harm with the 
Directors.* It was not my fault; but that in public 
affairs is a poor excuse. India is the land of ambi- 
tion ; but Madras is the spot my heart is set upon. 
For there I have two sons, who would derive great 
advantage from my presence ; at the same time that 
the large force under my command would enable me 
to render the State good service.' 

' Unconville, 22nd May. — I never recollect being so 
absorbed in business as in the last few weeks. Nor 
is it to be wondered at when we recollect that this is the 
year '38, and that the complete emancipation on the first 
of August next, though adopted here and in many other 
colonies, is still rejected in others ; where, in consequence, 
a bad feeling may arise, and produce mischief. But 
the blessed work of emancipation will assuredly find 
favour in the sisrht of our Lord ; and success will attend 
those efforts which are constantly and firmly directed 
to the extension of Christianity. 

4 We dine with the Bishop to-morrow ; and I shall 
have a long talk with Mrs. Coleridge and his Lord- 
ship on the subject of schools. I have received Sir 
William Knighton's Life, but have not a moment to spare 
as yet.' 

' Barbadoes, 2Qth June. — I should not like to quit this 
command before the spring of '42, when I trust all Lord 
Glenelg's just and honourable plans will be consolidated, 
and placed on such a footing, as to give his Lordship no 
further trouble. The emancipation of the blacks on 

* The Editor cannot explain this affair. The publication, whatever it 
was, took place evidently without the authority of its author, as might 
readily be believed. 

SIR samford's joy at the emancipation. 441 

the 1st of August next will be carried into effect, I have 
no doubt, throughout this command ; and Jamaica has 
already set the brilliant example ! How would Mr. 
Wilberforce rejoice, how would he bless the name of that 
Colonial Minister, under whose able guidance the great, 
the blessed work of freedom to the poor negro has 
been effected, could he witness the realization of the 
hopes he had from the commencement of his career so 
fondly cherished. I cannot tell you how my soul rejoices 
to see the noble work so nearly completed. You, who 
know me better than I know myself, will enter into 
all my feelings of joy, at having been permitted to be an 
humble instrument in the completion of the great and 
good work ! ' 

On the 21st of June he writes to Lady William 
Bentinck that he had at last succeeded in procuring 
for her a small collection of humming birds, and expected 
a larger supply from Jamaica. 

It has been shown that when he considered his son 
as idle and fond of pleasure, he had delayed appoint- 
ing him to act as Military Secretary in the absence of 
Captain Considine. Perhaps that trial was useful ; or, 
possibly, in spite of his old Eoman theories, his paternal 
feelings got the better of the General. At all events 

he at this time writes of the new acting secretary, 6 is 

become one of the best and steadiest men of business 
I am acquainted with. He never neglects, delays, or 
misunderstands any business I put into his hands. But 
his health has suffered from excess of occupation in 
this trying climate, and he will return to England for six 

or eight months, as soon as Considine and B s arrive. 

I shall go to Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, &c, previous 
to their arrival ; then return to Barbadoes, take them up, 
and proceed to Berbice.' 

Of the official visits of Sir Samford Whittingham to the 


various islands in his command, it will here only be 
observed that about the end of February 1838 he had 
paid his first inspection visit to Dominica, where he 
was w^ell received, and found that the memory of his 
former popularity as Governor there was, after the lapse 
of sixteen years, still green and fresh on the island. 

On the 26th October, 1838, he announces to Mr. Davis 
that his acting Military Secretary is going on sick leave, 
his Military Secretary and other Aide-de-Camp being 
about to return from their leaves ; the Commander of the 
Forces himself alone obtaining no change or relaxation, 
though also needing it greatly. 

In this letter he observes of the Military Secretary- 
ship : — 

6 This command is so extended and the duties so com- 
plicated ; cases are so continually occurring which require 
a clear judgment, the quantity of business is so very 
great, the correspondence so enormous, that I don't think 
a better school could be found in the whole British 

army ; and has now conducted this important 

department for twelve months ! ' 

At this time the civil as well as military correspon- 
dence was very great ; the Colonial Office, and that of 
the Secretary-at-War, having called upon the General for 
a variety of reports relating to the negroes, and to their 
future emancipation and conduct, such as are not usually 
addressed to a military commander. The collection of 
this information from many islands was an arduous task. 
Moreover, Sir Samford was not the man to do a thing in 
a perfunctory manner, just enough to escape censure ; 
but whatever he undertook was thoroughly clone, making 
work enough for himself and his Staff. He however 
invariably took the lion's share, even of the details, his 
capacity for mental labour having ever been perfectly 


That portion of his general Staff, which he appointed 
himself, in the lower grades of the Adjutant-General's 
and Quartermaster-General's department, were invariably 
able and zealous officers, whatever might be the case with 
those appointed from home. Captain Martin — of a family 
of almost hereditary admirals, Captain Trollope, now 
Major-General, and Captain King, now Colonel, were most 
useful, excellent, and laborious assistants, as was Lieu- 
tenant, now Major-General, O'Halloran. 

The head of the Adjutant-General's department was an 
amiable and willing man, and that of the Quartermaster- 
General's department, if not great at pen and ink, was a 
Peninsular hero, and a very popular Amphitryon, from 
whom the General acquired a first-rate receipt for turtle 
soup, and whose dinners rivalled those of his Chief. He 
had been the principal aide-de-camp of Sir Thomas Pic- 
ton in the war, and the manager of his household. He 
had a fund of amusing anecdotes, which he was fond of 
relating at the social board. There was one of a fiery 
and hasty interview between Wellington and Picton, as 
they stood on a high hillock apart from their Staff, who 
could hear their loud voices without distinguishing the 
words ; though they were evidently angry. And the 
narrator greatly amused his listeners by imitating the gra- 
dually increasing loudness of the speakers, up to the part- 
ing climax and hurried separation. 

He also told how on one occasion he had gone on 
ahead, and had ordered a dinner to be prepared for his 
General and Staff at the house of a Spaniard. When they 
had all sat down a few minutes, Sir Thomas became quite 
indignant to find that he was taken little notice of; and 
that all the attentions of the master of the house and of 
his servants were bestowed on the aide-de-camp ; whom 
it turned out, from his handsome and portly appearance 
and cocked hat, had been mistaken for the General. 

In the early part of October 1838, the General's 


English valet named Prior, died of yellow fever. After a 
few hours' illness, the acting Military Secretary was called 
up at two in the morning to see him nearly expiring in 
the convulsions of the black vomit, and he died in the 
course of the day. The Secretary then took fever, though 
not of the same fatal kind ; but his life was saved by 
taking the prescription of a coloured woman — a kind of 
herb tea — which acted, when the medicines of the regu- 
lar practitioners had wholly failed. 

Sir Samford Whittingham to his Niece, Miss Davis. 


' Barbadoes, 15th October } 1838. 

( What a week of suffering and of sorrow this has been. 

In the midst of poor Prior's fatal illness, was seized 

with fever, and for two days he remained in a very pre- 
carious state. He is, however, thanks be to the God of 
mercy, at present out of danger, and I trust will soon be 
convalescent. But it is the opinion of all the medical 
advisers that European air is quite requisite. He will 
therefore sail from hence for Falmouth, on Nov. 11th, at 

4 No sooner had fallen ill than Captain King,* my 

right-hand man in the Adjutant-General's department, 
was also seized with a most serious attack of fever. 

6 In the midst of all these grievous afflictions I am 
truly thankful to God that my own health is quite re- 
stored, and that I feel equal to all the duties which must 
now devolve on me.' 

i 18th October. is now considered out of danger, 

and King is doing very well ; and the uncle is still per- 
mitted to flourish like an old oak, and to resist the trials 
under which so many have fallen. 's infinite applica- 

* Now Colonel King, son of General The Plon. Sir Henry King, and 
nephew to the Earl of Kingston and to Viscount Lorton. An excellent 
officer ; one of the many whose fortune has been below their merits. 


tion and incessant labours have in great measure brought 
on his illness — a clearer or a sounder judgment upon 
every difficult question submitted to him (and in this 
extended command they are innumerable) I never saw. 
As a real man of business is invaluable.' 

From the Same to the Same. 


'Barbadoes, 4th November, 1838. 

4 Yesterday evening, at six o'clock, embarked for 

England. King came back to me at eight o'clock, having 
seen him on board, and reported all well. For the first 
time since the commencement of my military career I 
find myself an insulated and lonely being ! But a due 
humility leads me to the conviction that I have infinite 
cause for gratitude to the Almighty, and that to repine 
at any part of a lot so favoured as mine is a crime. 

4 1 feel that our communion in this world can be but of 
short duration ; for my life must be dedicated to the per- 
formance of those duties which it is not permitted to 
neglect. But I am comforted by the blessed hope that 
we shall meet hereafter.' 

The return of Captain Considine, his able and excel- 
lent Military Secretary, and of his beloved aide-de-camp, 

J3 9 from their sick leaves, soon afterwards, cheered 

the exile ; and the arrival of the famous 52nd Eegiment 
at Barbadoes, to join his command, afforded him much 
pleasure. At the same time he was cheered by a letter 
dated 'Simla, 17th September,' from his friend Captain 
(now Lord William) Godolphin Osborne, giving him, as 
secretary to his uncle, Lord Auckland, the account of Sir 
John Keane's capture of Ghuznee. 

In 1837 Sir Samford had given a gold medal prize to 
every regiment in his command for the best shot, on 
condition that the officers would provide silver ones for 


the best company shots. This was long before Govern- 
ment had instituted any rewards for good shooting. 

On the 17th January, 1839, he writes to Mr. Davis : 
fc All the great people at home express their satisfaction 
at my mode and manner of carrying on the business of 
this command. Some years back so much praise from 
such various and high quarters would have made me love 
my stirrups, and have puffed me up with vanity. In 
the present day, thanks be to God, my good fortune 
only impresses me with a more lively sense of my own 
unworthiness, and a more humble feeling of gratitude to 
the Almighty for all the blessings he has conferred on 
me ! The fever has at length left us, and the garrison is 
now perfectly healthy : but the ravages of the earth- 
quake in many of the islands, and particularly in Guada- 
lupe have been terrible. 

' Everything here proceeds smoothly and quietly. My 
black soldiers are behaving exceedingly well. They mount 
guard with the white troops, and the oldest non-commis- 
sioned officer commands, be his face white or black. 
My own guard alone is exclusively black.* This flatters 
them, and pleases me ; for I have always held that to 
make men trustworthy, you must begin by trusting them/ 

In a letter to Sir Edward Paget, dated 28th February, 
1839, Sir Samford thus alludes to the death by fever at 
Bermuda of Admiral Sir Charles Paget. ' Ere you re- 
receive this letter you will have heard of the sad loss we 
have sustained in the death of your excellent brother. In 
a public as well as a private point of view, deeply and 
justly is the loss deplored. Por the British navy pos- 
sessed not a brighter ornament, nor could our country 
boast a more perfect model of the real English gentleman.' 

' BarbadoeS) 2nd Jidy ) 1839. — Many thanks for your 

* To appreciate this confidence, the reader must remember the previous 
mutiny of the black troops at Trinidad, and the executions which had 


conversation with Lord Hill. I am not surprised at his 
Lordship finding it difficult to supply my place in this 
command. The duties of it are laborious and difficult 
from its extent. But Lord Hill has been so uniformly 
friendly to me, that there is no personal sacrifice I would 
not make to meet his wishes ; and nothing but the duty 
I owe to my children could induce me to oppose them. 
In the meanwhile my trust is in God ; fully satisfied 
that his wisdom and goodness and mercy will ordain all 
for the best.' 

From the reduction of the troops in the West Indies, 
and other causes, the military command of which Barba- 
does is the head-quarters, has of late years much lessened 
in importance, and is indeed the command only of a 
Major-General. But at the period referred to it was 
considered in a very different light, though always greatly 
disliked, and not without good reason. There is little 
doubt that this second service in the West Indies short- 
ened a life, which, from original excellence of constitu- 
tion, had promised to be long. His letter last quoted to 
his brother-in-law concludes with these words : ' There 
is one ambition, however, which still clings to my heart, 
and gains more and more over me. I would wish to 
spend six months at least in the much loved circle, on 
my transit from the West to East. It will probably be 
our last meeting on this side the grave ; and I should 
fervently hope it may be as prolonged as I know it will 
be warm and affectionate. God love you, my dearest, 
best, and oldest friend. Ever your attached brother, 
Samford Whittingham.' 

His relatives in England, most anxious about his health, 
pressed him to resign his present profitless and unhealthy 
command. They feared, moreover, that whilst he re- 
mained there nothing better would be offered him ; as 
the authorities at home were desirous of keeping him in 
a post where he was so useful, and which most officers of 
his standing and merit would refuse to accept. 


' BarbadoeS) 3rd August. — I enclose duplicate copy of 
a letter I have written to Lord Fitzroy on the subject 
of my return to England, in conformity with your 
opinion, and that of Hart and .' 

It must be here observed that the fears of his friends 
in England had arisen from the nature of Lord Hill's first 
reply through Lord Fitzroy Somerset to Sir Sam ford's 
application for employment in the East Indies, namely : — 
4 1 am directed to state that a memorandum will be made 
of your wishes, although his Lordship would regret ex- 
tremely that any circumstance should arise to withdraw 
you from your present command, the duties of which 
you discharge to his perfect satisfaction.' 

The following letter which he received about this time 
from his diplomatic connexion in London, was not calcu- 
lated to lessen his repugnance to remaining longer in the 
country denounced nearly twenty years previously as a 
c pays sans souvenirs et sans esperances :' — 

Mr. Bartle Frere to Sir Sam ford Whittingham. 

1 Savtle Row, 1st July, 1839. 

c My dear Whittingham, — I have to thank you for your 
letter of the 19th April, and its very interesting enclosures, 
since the receipt of which Vaughan [Davis] has been kind 
enough to send me a copy of your Memoir of May 1836, 
which you had requested him to do. 

4 On reading this paper over again at this time, one 
cannot but be struck with the prophetic spirit with which 
it was written. I only wish that you were entrusted with 
the execution of the measures which you recommend for 
averting the danger that you so distinctly foresaw and 
predicted. The Shah's providential failure in the last 
campaign before Herat has given us a breathing time, 
upon which we had no right to calculate. Had he suc- 
ceeded, Eussia would probably not have scrupled to throw 


off the mask, which under present circumstances she does 
not appear to be prepared to do ; and our troops seem 
advancing without opposition to occupy the important 
points of the line of operations. But after all, it is to me 
an appalling consideration, how, with the very limited 
means which we have at our disposal, we are to be pre- 
pared to meet all the exigencies of such a gigantic scale 
of proceedings. 

' and I have at length paid our visit to Alava,* 

who received him very cordially. I think he is looking 
much better for his visit to Paris, of which, no doubt, he 
will have given you a full history. I was sorry to hear 
the melancholy account he gave of Turenne.f I had 
looked to him as a person who would prove his most use- 
ful acquaintance 

' You will have seen by the " Gazette,'' that Richard 
[Frere] has got his Lieutenancy in the loth. His friends 
heard of him lately from an officer of his regiment who 
is returned to England, and who spoke very favourably 
of him. 

c I see there is a Mediterranean mail come in, so I 
shall leave this open till I take it to Downing Street, for 
the sake of learning whether it brings me any letter from 
Don Patricio. 

' Ever, my dear Whittingham, 

c Yours most affectionately, 

' B. Frere.' 

The gallant and truly excellent young Richard Frere 
was destined to an early death, as one of the victims to 
the hardships of the retreat from Cabool. Don Patricio, 
that is Colonel Campbell, was now Consul at Cairo : and 

* General Don Miguel Alava, then Spanish Amhassador in London. 

f According to the testimony of his son (the Marquis de Turenne), the 
health of Count Turenne, the old (and wine- catering) friend of Sir Samford, 
had so broken down by this time as to cause him to live in strict re- 

G G 


on the 14th January, 1839, he addressed a long letter to 
his old Chief, detailing the overland route to India, which 
Sir Sarnford — always anticipating an Indian command — 
at first was inclined to proceed by, though eventually he 
went by sea. The first sentence, therefore, of the gallant 
Consul's letter alone is given ; and, alas, his affectionate 
good wishes were not destined to be realized : — 

' Another year has commenced for us ; and it appears 
almost a dream to think that thirty years have revolved 
since our first campaigns in Spain ; and on the remem- 
brance of which and of yourself, and of my most happy 
days, I always dwell with so much pleasure. May every 
happiness attend you, and may you see many new years.' 

At length, in September, 1839, Sir Sarnford Whitting- 
ham was unanimously appointed by the Court of Directors 
to be Commander-in-Chief of the Madras army ; but he 
was directed to remain in Barbadoes till the arrival of 
his successor. Now at length he had obtained a high 
and lucrative command in the British service. His own 
salary was to be £8,600 a year, with an outfit of £2,000. 
The Staff-pay of his Military Secretary was more than 
£1,000 a-year, and if exchanged to a regiment in India, 
he might draw Indian regimental pay in addition ; so that 
father and son would together draw about £10,000 a- 
year. Two aides-de-camp were also allowed. Everything 
looked bright and hopeful. Health and strength only 
were required for the veteran to finish his career in com- 
fort at least, if not with augmented fame and honours. 
The only question was, had these rewards come too late ? 
Had that second exile to the West Indies shattered a con- 
stitution that promised a longevity equal to that which 
has been obtained by so many veteran soldiers ? 

He had still to tarry, awaiting his successor for nearly 
three months in that detestable climate. Meantime all 
his spare minutes were devoted to correspondence regard- 


ing his future command, and to writing memorandums 
on Indian politics ; civil and military subjects, which pro- 
bably few men living had more deeply studied. To men- 
tion only one of many subjects he was anxious to discuss 
with Mr. James Cosmo Melvill, of the India House : 
'Firstly. The last Burmese War cost upwards of ten 
millions sterling, principally caused by imperfect arrange- 
ments as to means of transport, and to the consequent 
duration of the war. 

c Secondly. A struggle thus protracted with an enemy 
so inferior to us is always injurious to that opinion of our 
irresistible superiority which forms the basis of our power 
in India. 

4 Thirdly. Under existing circumstances, it is of vital 
importance that a war with Ava should be finished in one 

He then enumerates the faults of the former campaign 
in detail, such as beginning the campaign in the rainy 
season ; not brigading the Native and English troops in 
proper proportions together ; not securing by armed 
steamers the command of the Irawaddy ; and neglect- 
ing to protect the ordnance and commissariat stores. 

Want of space forbids any further extracts on this 
subject. Suffice it to say that his whole energies were 
now turned towards effectually serving his country in its 
greatest and most important foreign possession. 

Extract from the Speech of the Governor-General of the 
Windward Islands, Sir Evan Murray Macgregor, 
Baronet, at the meeting of the Legislature in Barbadoes, 
on Monday, the 2bth October, 1839. 

' In former instances you have participated in my 
acknowledgments of the obligations due by the Colony 
for the solicitude which the Lieutenant-General has ever 
evinced in its prosperity. I cordially embrace the last 
public opportunity of recording my high appreciation of 

G G 2 


his Excellency's firm, judicious, and most friendly co- 
operation pending an eventful crisis in these Islands. And 
I feel assured that you will cheerfully unite with me in 
congratulating Sir Samford Whittingham on the mark of 
Eoyal favour graciously manifested towards his Excel- 
lency, in the Lieutenant-General's approaching transfer to 
an important command in the Asiatic dominions of the 

The House of Assembly presented the General an 
address, signed by their Speaker, Mr. E. Bowcher Clarke, 
in which they state that they ' cannot suffer your Excel- 
lency to leave the shores of Barbadoes without giving 
expression to the deep sense they entertain of your ser- 
vices to this Colony, during a period unparalleled in its 
history for difficulty and importance, and their gratitude 
for the lively interest which your Excellency has, on all 
occasions, evinced in the welfare and prosperity of the 
Island. And while they cannot but regret your Excel- 
lency's approaching departure, they beg leave to tender 
their cordial congratulations on the fresh proofs you have 
received of the favour and approbation of your Sovereign, 
and their best wishes for your health and happiness.' 

Sir Samford made a suitable and grateful reply, which 
it is unnecessary to produce. 

To his Brother-in-law. 

' Barbadoes, 16th December, 1839. 

' I love to hope that General Maister must speedily 
arrive. I shall not want forty-eight hours after making 
over the command to him. How I do long to come again 
amongst you ! Could I have returned in the steamer 
which will bring out the General, what a blessing ! But 
I fear that cannot be, as the " Firefly " is destined to this 

He did not, however, sail from Barbadoes till after 


Christmas had passed, and the new year had fairly began, 
and it was not till the 7th February, 1840, that he re- 
landed in Old England for the last time of his life. 
During the last year of his stay in Barbadoes, to his own 
satisfaction and especially to that of his returned Military 
Secretary, Captain Considine, the gallant 52nd, one of the 
crack regiments of the army, served under his immediate 
command at St. Anne's Barracks, and there fully main- 
tained, (in spite of much suffering from yellow fever),* 
its excellent and long-established reputation. 

He left the Island with Cap tarn Considine and Lieu- 
tenant Bates, amidst universal regret and respect, having 
greatly ameliorated the discipline and the comforts both 
of the white and black troops, and having obtained the 
warm thanks and sympathies of the local authorities, and 
the ungrudging approval of the home authorities at the 
Horse-Guards, Colonial Office, and War Office, as ex- 
pressed by Lord Hill, Lord Glenelg, and Lord Ho wick, 
now Earl Grey. 

* Losing several officers and many men. 







Sm Samford Whittingham relanded in England on the 
7th February, 1840, and immediately reported his ar- 
rival from Devonport to the authorities at the Horse- 
Guards. On the following day he, from the same 
place, forwarded a copy of his ' Memoir on the means 
of attack by Eussia on British India,' to Sir John Cam 
Hobhouse then President of the Board of Control; 
acquainting him that it had formerly merited the ap- 
proval of Lord William Bentinck, and had been subse- 
quently presented to Lord Palmerston and to Mr. Melvill 
in 1836 * 

* Vide Appendix F for a list of such of the manuscript memoirs and 
other papers and essays on various subjects as have reached the Editor's 


At the close of this letter he states : ' I arrived here 
from Barbadoes in H.M.'s Frigate "Inconstant" yester- 
day, and the probably short time of my stay in England 
will, I trust, plead my excuse for this early intrusion on 
your time and attention. On my arrival in London, I 
shall be most happy to afford any further information 
you may judge fit. My address will be " Fenton House, 
Hampstead Heath." ' 

He had not landed long, when there commenced that 
rush of applications for appointments to which all high 
Indian officials were especially subject, before the necessity 
of passing any examination for Staff employments had put 
limits to the general desire to obtain them. 

How Sir Samford enjoyed his few months in England 
in the society of his beloved relatives and friends may 
be readily imagined. It was at the end of February or 
the beginning of March that the Editor accompanied him 
to a dinner at the house of his best friend — the excellent 
Sir Edward Paget, at this time Governor of Chelsea Hos- 
pital. Their manners to each other were those of affec- 
tionate brothers. Most of the evening the two friends 
occupied Sir Edward's social double arm-chair shaped 
like the letter S, where vis-a-vis they could carry on their 
conversation privately, undisturbed by the rest of the 


There were romantic circumstances attending that din- 
ner calculated to stamp it on the unwritten tablets of the 
memory, from which it is taken. The lordly heir of a 
great and illustrious inheritance, separated from his wife, 
owing to his own vagaries, was invited to Chelsea there to 
meet his fair young daughter, whom he could only see on 
such occasions. She was a charming person, and married 
a few years later, for love, a younger son and her own 
excellent and handsome first cousin. A few days after 
this dinner, the Editor heard one gentleman mention to 
another the death of a certain Duke, by which the mem- 


ber of the House of Commons at the dinner party was 
transferred to the House of Lords. This fact, aided by 
the ' Peerage,' has enabled the writer to fix within a few 
days, the last time at which he saw together the two old 
friends firmly bound together by the ties of mutual 
esteem and affection. 

Of another interesting dinner, the date has been taken 
from the Eegister of the lady who was its fair and ac- 
complished hostess. On Tuesday, the 25th of March, 
1840, in Hanover Terrace, Eegent's Park, Sir Samford 
Whittingham, with his newly appointed Military Secre- 
tary, and his first aide-de-camp (brother of the hostess), 
had the pleasure of meeting at the hospitable table of 
Mr. Thomas Longman, whose parents were also present 
on the occasion, both Moore and Dickens. The former 
made himself very agreeable. He had a son in India, 
unfortunately in the Bombay instead of the Madras Pre- 
sidency ; but he hoped that Sir Samford might in some 
way or other be of .service to him. Dickens, at that 
time a handsome picturesque-looking young man with 
flowing hair, was very silent on that occasion as compared 
with the poet, but no doubt, he thought a great deal. 
The most lively talker at that dinner was Mr. Hayward. 
In those days it was a great pleasure to hear Moore sing 
his own songs, as he probably did on that occasion also. 

Sir Samford found time one day to go to Greenwich 
to dine with his old friend, Admiral the Hon. Elphin- 
stone Fleeming, whose son long afterwards for a brief 
period, enjoyed the ancient family title. 

The Duke of Wellington held no office of anv kind 
at this time, and Sir Samford Whittingham had conse- 
quently no claim to see him. The Duke was considered, 
even when Commander-in-Chief, very inaccessible to old 
Peninsular officers unconnected with the aristocracy, and, 
indeed, inaccessible generally.* Sir Samford Whitting- 

* Some years later a noble and distinguished General, who insisted on 
seeing his Grace at the Horse-Guards one day, in spite of advice from the 

duke of Wellington's kind note. 457 

ham, owing to almost perpetual exile, had become nearly 
a stranger to his Grace personally, but as in his last brief 
stay in England, so now he sought the honour of a per- 
sonal interview with him whom he ever deemed the most 
illustrious of Englishmen : — 

Sir Samford Whiitingham to the Duke of Wellington. 

1 United Service Cltjb, 7th March, 1840. 

c My Lord Duke, — My departure for Madras to assume 
the command of the troops of that presidency, being 
fixed for the 15th of April, I beg leave to submit how 
highly I should appreciate the honour of being permitted 
to wait upon your Grace previous to my again quitting 
England. I leave town for Chatham on Monday next, 
but shall return on Thursday the 12th instant. 

' I have the honour to be, &c, 

' Samford Whittingham, 

i Lieutenant-General.' 

'His Grace The Duke of Wellington, E.G., 

&c, &c.' 

The Duke of Wellington to Sir Samford Whittingham. 

[Apsley House] ' London, Sth March, 1840. 

' My dear Sir, — I shall be at all times very happy to 
receive you. Friday is a Parliamentary day, on which I 
am generally engaged all day. But if you will come here 
on Saturday the 14th, at twelve at noon, I shall be very 
happy to receive you. 

' Ever yours most faithfully, 


<Lieut.-Gen. Sir S. Whittingham, K.C.B.' 

Secretary to abstain, had the surprise of hearing through a door not closed, 

these energetic words : ' What does the d old fool want ? ' 

* No record remains of what passed at either of the interviews with 
the Duke of Wellington in 1835 or 1840. Their occurrence became 
known to the Editor only by finding his Grace's notes, when Sir Samford's 
papers reached his hands last year. 


The visit to Chatham was to Colonel, afterwards 
General Sir Charles Pasley, of the Eoyal Engineers, to 
which he was accompanied by his son. The visit lasted 
two or three days, and was passed in investigations and 
experiments of a scientific military nature, as well as in 
friendly intercourse. 

The Commander-in-Chief, Lord Hill, gave Sir Samford 
a dinner, at which, amongst other guests, he met the Earl 
of Cardigan, and all the heads of the Staff of the army. 
At the usual dinner given by the Chairman and Court 
of Directors in Leadenhall Street, Sir John Cam Hob- 
house, in his wonted grand style, proposed, as President 
of the Board of Control, the health of Sir Samford Whit- 
tingham, to which he responded in his usual easy and 
unembarrassed manner. His Staff were invited with 
him ; but he alone, of all the guests present, had to 
appear in uniform. Lord Seymour, now Duke of So- 
merset, was present, and, the Editor thinks, spoke also on 
this occasion. 

On the 24th February, 1840, Sir Samford had written 
a long letter to the President of the Board of Control (he 
wrote to liim many letters, for which there is not space 
even to allude), after c having perused with great atten- 
tion the whole of the Indian correspondence relative to 
the expediency or otherwise of annulling the General 
Order of Lord William Bentinck, abolishing corporal 
punishment in the native army of India.' 

He declares to Sir John that he had always advocated 
its abolition, as far as was consistent with discipline, and 
had greatly diminished its infliction in his late command, 
with very beneficial results to the service. But he 
thought it necessary in the field ; and at the same time 
he considered it ill-advised that the Articles of War, 
or the Act of Parliament, should recognize such dis- 
tinction. He also thought it invidious and dangerous 
that in the same command the black troops should be 


exempt from, and the white troops be subjected to, cor- 
poral punishment. 

Practically, he was disposed in time of peace to do away 
with all corporal punishment, except in cases of gross in- 
subordination, accompanied by violence to a superior, 
such as are in Continental armies visited with death. 
'Still/ he adds, 'it will be obvious that it would be 
highly disadvantageous and injurious to appear to affix 
by Act of Parliament, or by general regulations, a 
special penalty on going into active service : a result 
likely to make taking the field most unpopular with 
the soldier, and to impress his mind with the feeling 
that active service was the road to disgrace instead of 

On the 16th April, 1840, Sir Samford Whittingham 
and his Staff embarked for Madras. Knowing the dif- 
ficulty of finding in India a horse strong enough to carry 
a man of his weight and stature, he had requested 
General Brotherton to purchase for him a first-rate 
English charger, which was effected at a considerable 
price, viz. 14:71. Most unfortunately this very superior 
acquisition perished on board ship on the 5th May, from 
inflammation in the bowels. His first aide-de-camp 
wrote home : ' He is certainly a great loss to Sir Samford, 
as he fears he will not be able to replace him at Madras.' 
It is not too much to say that this mishap was in all pro- 
bability the main cause of his premature decease some 
seven months later, in the midst of promises of pros- 
perity and success, such as had never before shone so 
brightly on the whole of his career ! The ways of Pro- 
vidence are awfully inscrutable ; but those convinced 
that there is a Providence must feel that all will come 
right at last under its wise and beneficent rule. 


To Sir John Cam Hobhouse. 

< At Sea, 22nd May, 1840. 
<Lat. 5° 10' North, Long. 20° 17' West. 

' Dear Sir, — As you have kindly permitted me to sub- 
mit to your consideration two Memoirs on the attack and 
defence of British India, I now beg to call your attention 
to the enclosed memorandum on the same subject. It 
is probably the last time I shall trouble you with my 
comments on this truly interesting topic; as my time 
and attention on arriving at Madras will,- I imagine, be 
directed to another quarter. 

; I have, &c. 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

To Sir Willoughby Gordon, Quartermaster-General. 

1 At Sea, IGth June, 1840. 
< Lat. 35° 4' South, Long. 7° 20' West. 

c My dear General, — As the busy scene which India 
at present offers will probably absorb my whole time 
and attention on my arrival at Madras, I avail myself 
of the leisure of a sea voyage to offer to you the ex- 
pression of my sincere gratitude for all your unwearied 
kindness to me since the commencement of my military 
career, and at the same time to request your acceptance 
of two Memoirs, and a Memorandum written by me, on 
the subject of India as connected with England and 

; Ever, my dear General, gratefully and truly yours, 

6 Samford Whittingham.' 

The old Quartermaster-General had long ceased to be 
that channel and dispenser of favours which, as Military 
Secretary to the Duke of York, he had been in the earlier 
part of the Peninsular War : the more graceful was the 
warm and disinterested tribute of gratitude. 

It was in the course of this voyage that the General 


wrote out the small manuscript that exists of his Penin- 
sular ' Eecollections.' 

On the 1st August the Commander-in-Chief and his 
Staff landed at Madras, propelled over the breakers in 
the way so novel and exciting to strangers, and was 
received with the usual salutes and honours. Two 
kind letters awaited him from the absent Governor, 
then on the Nilgherry Hills. The first was dated 12th 
July, inviting him either to join his Lordship at once on 
the hills, or to take possession of Government House at 
Madras, till he had time to hire his own house, for which 
there was a fixed annual allowance. 

It also stated that the temporary Chief, Major-General 
Gough,* was at Bangalore with the General Staff of the 
Army. The two civil members of the Council, Messrs. 
Lushington and Sullivan, were with the Governor on the 
hills, a visit to which during summer is so beneficial to 
mental and bodily health and activity that it is difficult 
to understand the violent objections constantly made to 
it by the great officials sitting at home at ease in England. 
Lord Elphinstone in the same letter mentioned, amongst 
other matter of business, a plan for converting beautiful 
and salubrious Outacamund into a military station. Also 
he had left at Madras an excellent aide-de-camp, Lieute- 
nant Thornhill, to attend and assist Sir Samford, as one 
experienced in the ways of the country. The letter con- 
cludes as follows : ' I do not think of descending into 
the plains before the middle of October at soonest. I 
need hardly say that carriages, horses, and everything I 
have at Madras, are entirely at your disposal. Servants 
and everything are ready at Government House, and I 
have only to entreat you to make use of them and to 
excuse my absence.' 

Lord Elphinstone's second letter, dated Outacamund, 
20th July, 1840, exhibited a fear, implied rather than 

* Now Lorl Gough. 


expressed, that the new Commander-in-Chief might be 
offended at the absence of his Lordship and Council on 
his arrival. In spite of his health, he would have come 
down, ' if I had not some hopes of seeing you here ; 
or, indeed, if I thought that my presence at Madras 
could be of any use to you, either private or public. 
Your commissions provide for your assumption of office 
in both capacities — as Commander-in-Chief and Member 
of Council — on your landing ; and Colonel Steel, the 
Secretary of Government at Madras, will immediately 
wait upon you with all the necessary papers, and will 
explain to you the manner in which business has been 
done since I left Madras, and the mode in which it is 
proposed to carry it on, should you prefer to remain 
there during the remainder of the hot season. I know 
it is hardly necessary to enter with you into these details ; 
for I am not apprehensive of any misunderstanding be- 
tween us upon these or any other points. But I am 
anxious to explain everything to you beforehand, as I 
fear that there may be some who are interested in giving 
a contrary interpretation to my conduct, and who, I 
perceive, have already began in the newspapers to 
speculate upon the effect which my " want of courtesy," 
as they term it, may produce upon your mind. Such 
obvious trash I am really almost ashamed to notice. 
For not only on personal grounds, but from a conviction 
that our mutual comfort and happiness — and, I will 
add, success in our public duties — mainly depends upon 
the existence of harmony, and of a perfect understanding 
with each other ; you may rest assured that I am most 
anxious to welcome you, not only with courtesy, but 
with the most perfect cordiality, and with the strongest 
desire to renew and cultivate your friendship, and to 

secure your confidence and support If I have 

dwelt too much on this subject, you must attribute it 
to my anxiety, both on your account and my own, to 


dejouer a game which has too often been played here, 
and at the other presidencies.' 

The reader, who knows the character of Sir Sarnford 
Whittingham better than Lord Elphinstone then did, will 
easily believe how groundless were his Lordship's appre- 
hensions. Yet these were rationally grounded on pre- 
cedents, in cases where conscientious performance of 
duty, and loyal and generous support of authority, were 
not first principles of action. In a letter dated, ' Govern- 
ment House, 2nd August, 1840,' Sir Samford set his 
Lordship perfectly at ease, in acknowledging his letters 
of the 12th and 20th July. The fashionable young 
Captain of the Blues, whose first appointment was a 
job, had now ruled some years in Madras, and was 
daily becoming fitter for his office. He was a man of 
much tact and common sense, and made a fair average 
Governor ; and later in life, when he again returned 
to India as Governor of Bombay, he contributed with 
zeal and energy to the suppression of the mutiny of 1857 
by speedily despatching reinforcements from that presi- 
dency to the scene of action. 

For want of space, Sir Samford's reply to Lord Elphin- 
stone is omitted, except a few sentences, fair samples of 
the whole letter. 

'I should have been much grieved had you come 
down from the hills to meet me.' (He then states his 
intention of shortly joining his Lordship on the hills, 
and expresses the greatest satisfaction at the prospect 
of the meeting, and adds :) — c A very few days before 
leaving England I had the very great pleasure of dining 
with the Admiral [Elphinstone Fleeming] at Greenwich, 
in company with your uncle Mountstuart Elphinstone, 
and all the ladies of the family. I shall follow your 
directions as to the journey to the Nilgherries. I will not 
enter into further details till we meet ; but I am quite 


certain that our co-operation in every respect will leave 
neither of us anything to desire.' 

He adds great praises of Lieutenant Thornhill, the 
Governor's aide-de-camp, who truly was a model of a 
personal Staff Officer, beloved and respected by every 

As Commanders-in-Chief visited only a few persons 
of position, and these were mostly on the hills in 
August, Sir Samford had not much to do in this way ; 
but the Military Secretary and the two aides-de-camp 
were duly taken on a visiting tour of Madras society. 
The hot dry wind then blew, and though the insides of 
the houses were cooled with tatties, the air outside re- 
sembled that of ah oven. 

On the 9th August Sir Samford wrote home a long 
joint letter to his brother-in-law and two nephews, stating 
that after a very prosperous voyage he had landed on 
the 1st August. The letter, chiefly full of private affec- 
tion and chit-chat, describes the departure of the expedi- 
tion for China from Calcutta, that had previously taken 
place. He adds : ' I shall send them a reinforcement 
of a Madras battalion in a few days ; but I must change 
the commanding officer; the present is too old and 

The effects of those three years passed in his second 
service in the West Indies had began to tell on Sir 
Samford's constitution before leaving England, and he 
was unwell for some days soon after arriving in Madras. 
The loss of the English horse also was irreparable. He 
bought others, but it was impossible to find one that 
could carry safely, except at a walk, a man of his 
weight and size ; and as it was not a good climate for 
walking, he was thus debarred from that exercise which 
had become necessary to his existence. 

Early in August he received a letter from a distin- 


guished statesman and amiable man, Lord J 
as follows : — 

' Downing Street, 26th March, 1840. 

6 My dear Sir Samford, — I have been asked to re- 
commend to your notice Major H , who will be 

under your authority at Madras. I understand that he 
has served in India many years. His father-in-law, 

Mr. L , the artist, has asked me to introduce him 

to your favourable notice. I should therefore be very 
glad if you should be able to do anything to serve 


' Yours, &c, 

' J. .' 

To this letter, Sir Samford made on the 12 th August 
a brief reply assuring his Lordship that he would do 
everything in his power to meet his Lordship's wishes. 

About the same time he must have received the fol- 
lowing application : — 

Lord Burghersh* to Sir Samford Wkittingham. 

< London, 2U1i April, 1840. 

c My dear Whittingham, — I am very sorry I missed 
you while you were in England : but I wish you joy of 
your appointment to Madras ; and indeed of the high 
and distinguished services you have so constantly ren- 
dered since our first meeting at the battle of Talavera. 
I enclose you a letter from the widow of my former 

tutor She requests me to recommend to you 

her son-in-law, , a Lieutenant in the Madras Native 

Infantry ; and if you can do anything for him I should be 
very much obliged to you* I give you no news from 

* The late Earl of Westmoreland, soldier, diplomatist, and eminent 

If II 


hence — there is none of any importance. Prince Albert, 
as you see, has got the 11th Dragoons. 

' With every wish, &c, 


To which on the 15th August Sir Samford replied 
that he would do his best to meet the wishes of Lord 
Burghersh, and adds ; ' When I met you at dear Lord 
William Bentinck's, previous to my departure for the 
West Indies, I was much gratified to see how little 
impression time had made upon you. For truly you 
appeared to me as well and as young as when we sat 
together on the hill of Talavera. May you long continue 
thus to prosper, and as one of the High Councillors of 
the Crown, lend your powerful support to the stability 
of the British monarchy.' 

The following was addressed to the nephew and Mili- 
tary Secretary of the Governor-General : — 

Sir Samford Whittingham to the Hon, William 

Godolphin Osborne. 

1 Madras, 20th August, 1840. 

{ My dear Osborne, — I have delayed writing to you 
for some days, in the hope of the arrival of an overland 
mail. But as that hope has not been realized, and as I 
leave this place for the Hills on the 22nd instant, I 
write these lines to request you will present my respect- 
ful compliments to Lord Auckland and to the ladies of 
his family. 

' I had the pleasure of seeing Lady Godolphin a short 
time before my departure, and also your uncle, Lord 
Sidney, at Hampstead ; and I have to thank her Lady- 
ship for a copy of your very excellent description of 
"Runjeet Singh, his Court and Camp." 

; Nothing can exceed the . enthusiastic admiration in- 


England of Lord Auckland's celebrated campaign in 

c Yours very sincerely, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

Amongst the General Officers, whose congratulations 
and applications, he received and replied to, were Sir 
Frederick Adam, and Sir George Walker ; both greatly 
distinguished in the Peninsular War ; and the latter him- 
self Commander-in-Chief at Madras, at an earlier period. 

Sir Charles Felix Smith, R.E., to Sir Samford 



t Gibraltar, \±th April, 1840. 

c My dear General, — When I heard of your appoint- 
ment to India, I became desirous of offering con- 
gatulations on a destiny which I knew would be so 
entirely in accordance with your wishes. But I hesi- 
tated from not being certain whether your command 
in the West was to terminate at your own pleasure, or 
on the arrival in Barbadoes of your successor ; who, for 
the sake of the poor old West Indians, I hope may be 
guided by the sound and able example you have left 
him. Unprofitable as was your command in a pecuniary 
point of view, it must have been rich in the opinions it 
gained for you — if indeed your former distinguished 
career could derive lustre from actions short of absolute 
triumphs in the field. 

' Hitherto you have been a true prophet : but, query, 
will not the road opened by Sir John Keane tend to 
increase alarm, and render more important than ever 
the views you had taken with regard to the Indian 

* No one then anticipated the evils which misfortune and mismanage- 
ment subsequently occasioned. 

t This letter probably reached Sir Samford in August, and has this pecu- 
liarity that the congratulations were not accompanied with any requests ! 

H II 2 


empire ? It is well for them that one so enlightened 
as yourself should have been at hand to aid them in 
the crisis which is rapidly approaching. Don Fernando 
will doubtless accompany you. My memorias to him : 
and you will, my dear General, accept the renewed, the 
reiterated expressions of respect, from your faithful friend 
and humble servant, 

4 C. F. Smith/ 

Sir Charles, then commanding Eoyal Engineers, had 
been the second in command in Barbadoes, under Sir 
Samford, and had also known him well in the Peninsula. 
Sir Charles's conspicuous valour made him the hero of 
many a Peninsular anecdote, familiar to veterans. He 
had a very strong head, as well as a very stout heart, 
and his warm voluntary testimony to the merits of his 
late commander, is not unworthy of record in this mili- 
tary Memoir. 

Mr. W. 0. Osborne, on his way with dispatches to the 
Governor-General from China, addressed a letter to Sir 
Samford, dated ' Macao Boads, 1st August, 1840,' giving 
an account of his career in China, since leaving Lord 
Auckland's Staff to join the 26th Cameronians. The 
letter is written with characteristic ability, and its criti- 
cisms on the first incompetent commander sent to China 
were but too well founded. 

The following letter was addressed to Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) James Cosmo Melvill, Secretary to the Court of 
Directors of the East India Company. 

From want of space and also of present interest, the 
local details regarding the politics of Madras are omitted : — 

Sir Samford Whittingham to Mr. Melvill. 


1 Madras, 11th August , 1840. 

'My dear Mr. Melvill, — I landed here on the 1st 
instant, and am getting on entirely to my satisfaction. 


Nothing can be more delightful than the commence- 
ment of the intercourse between Lord Elphinstone and 
myself. I never saw a man more popular, and appa- 
rently most deservedly. He is in the Hills at present 
for his health ; but no delay of business takes place, as 
the Secretary of Government is here, and he is as inde- 
fatigable as able. 

'A battalion, 37th Native Infantry, is here under 
orders for China. I shall inspect them in a few days 
and probably have to change the commanding officer. 
When the troops have sailed I shall endeavour to join 
Lord Elphinstone on the Hills. You will receive, by 
this mail, a memorandum on the importance of our 
present position in Afghanistan and the Lower Scinde, 
written by me at sea. The case there assumed as more 
than probable, has already occurred, and Bombay has 

become the grand base of our future operations 

For God's sake, my dear Mr. Melvill, let us keep always 
in mind, that we hold this country by the magical charm 
of our supposed invincibility, and by the rapid progress 
of our movements. A reinforcement, such as I propose 
of all arms, arriving suddenly at the scene of action — 
full of health and strength and European energy — would 
create an effect equal to that of ten times that number, 
arriving in the usual slow and ordinary manner. Our 
sentiments on Chinese affairs so entirely coincide, that we 
really have no case for discussion. Asiatic power can 
only be supported by splendid victories. If England ever 
attempt to play a little game in the East, she is lost. . . . 
Pray tell Colonel Pasley not to forget to send me out a 
detailed account of the powder bags. If he is too busy, 
Captain Eutherford will do it. I am much interested in 

the result. 

' Yours very truly, 

' Samford Whittingham/ 


Before leaving Madras to join Lord Elphinstone on the 
Hills, Sir Samford with his Staff paid an official visit to the 
Eegent Azeein Jah Bahadur, the young Nawab of Arcot 
being a minor. Colonel Walpole, the then Eesident, 
regulated all the proceedings connected with the interview 
in the usual manner. 

On the way to the Hills, passing through Tanjore, a 
visit was due to its Eajah, but the Commander-in-Chief 
being unwell, his Military Secretary was allowed to re- 
present him, and accompanied by the Eesident of Tanjore, 
the visit was duly paid. The party, including the Eesident 
and Military Secretary, consisted of six officers. At the 
interview the Eajah sat at the head of the table on his 
little throne, and the visitors were seated three on either 
side — the Eesident on the right and the Secretary on the 
left of his Highness. The only peculiarity about the fat 
and comfortable-looking Eajah was, that he was covered 
with jewels. In that respect he was quite a sight. The 
Eesident declared that, taken together, the pearls, diamonds, 
rubies, emeralds, &c, which his Highness then wore, were 
worth 50,000/.; and no doubt his mouth watered when 
he said so. Eor, sad to relate, this representative of the 
Governor of Madras, afterwards fled as an outlaw for sys- 
tematic robbery of his Highness, which he effected by 
making the Eajah believe that the high-minded Lord 
Elphinstone had an itching palm ; and that by a golden 
key, the Eajah might open his way to the gratification of 
all his wishes ! It was a sad tale, fraught with shame and 
dishonour to a family and to connections that did not 
merit such disgrace and exposure, at the hands of one 
of its most high-placed members. But nothing was sus- 
pected at this time, and the Eesident was held in great 
respect and honour. 

Lord Elphinstone received Sir Samford and his Staff in 
the most friendly manner, and they renewed their former 
acquaintance with mutual satisfaction. 


Sir Samford Whittingham to Vaughan Davis, Esq. 


i Otjtacamukd, 7th September, 1840. 

* Dearest Vaughan, — I have come up to this place to 
transact business with Lord Elphinstone, whose health had 
suffered very seriously from a severe fall on horseback, 
when the horse fell over on him. I have found him all 
I could wish — sensible, well-informed, and possessing 
talents which his extreme modesty alone prevents from 
commanding the high respect and consideration they 
deserve. Be assured that the longer Lord Elphinstone 
is employed, the more he will be appreciated by the 
India House, and by Her Majesty's Government. I have 

only brought up with me, and Bates and Dundas 

have remained at Madras to get the house, &c. in order 
for my return, which will be about the end of this month. 
In the meantime, even this little sojourn on these most 
healthy hills has done me much good. On a well-arranged 
system, no delay takes place here in business, and the 
quantum one can get through is tenfold. On public 
grounds, and for the good of the service, I should strongly 
recommend our passing the hot months of the summer 
on these hills ; when (the Council sitting and the heads 
of a few of the military departments being with me), 
everything else would remain at Madras, and business 
would be done better and more speedily. I wish you 
would have a little private conversation with Mr. Melvill 
on this really important subject. 

c C is now employed at Madras, and his prospects 

are very good, and he is giving me the greatest satisfaction 
in every point of view. God be praised for all things. I 

am truly glad to hear such good accounts of dear B . 

Give him my best love. Hatley Frere is going to be 
married to our Bishop's daughter. She stands very high 
in the opinion of the best people here. 


' The vile West Indies have sadly shaken the old oalc, 
more indeed than I coidd have imagined ; * but as long as 
I can sit in the saddle, I will never forget that a soldier's 
existence belongs to his country, and that it is his duty to 
die in the trench when necessary. I have not been able 
to replace the horse I lost on the voyage, and I sadly feel 
the want of that best of all exercises. 

' Adieu, my beloved Vaughan, 

' Your devotedly attached uncle, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

This letter greatly alarmed his affectionate relatives in 
England; knowing how buoyant and sanguine were his 
spirits, and how little disposed he was to dwell on, or to 
magnify his ailments. It prepared them in some measure 
for the approaching catastrophe. 

Colonel H. Smith f to Sir S. Whittingham. 


' Calcutta, 17th September, 1840. 

' My dear Sir Samford Whittingham, — There is a sort 
of freemasonry amongst old soldiers, who mutually shared 
the dangers of their eventful lives, which so unites them 
that I cannot refrain from addressing your Excellency, 
although I do not call to my recollection that I have ever 
had any personal intercourse with you since a period of 
time so long ago as when you were A.D.C to poor ill- 
used General Whitelocke, and I a more humble performer, 
adjutant to los Cazadores, the 95th Eegiment. I say ill- 
used General Whitelocke, for as a boy I thought so ; and, 
since a more mature knowledge of our profession has en- 

* These words are placed in italics by the Editor, for in the opinion of all 
the relatives and friends of Sir Samford Whittingham, that second service 
in the West Indies, greatly shortened a life that seemed made by Nature 
to endure far beyond the limits set by the Psalmist. 

t The Adjutant-General of the Queen's troops in India, afterwards the 
well-known Sir ITarry Smith, made a Baronet of Aliivcd. He had married 
a Spanish lady during the Peninsular War. 


abled me better to judge, I say so still for many reasons. 
I can call you to my recollection in those days as clearly 
as if the many wonderful scenes of our lives had never 
occurred, or Time, that imperceptible destroyer of us all, 
had never progressed. The object of my letter is one 
which I hope your Excellency will regard as it is humbly 
intended, to offer to your acceptance any service which it 
may be in my power at any time to render you. This 
done, I leave the power of so doing to future circum- 
stances, and pray you to calculate upon Obras y no 

'Your Excellency's command having been indented 
on — that elegant expression — for the 55th and 62nd 
Eegiments, has an enlivening appearance; but whether 
they may enjoy a mountainous climate or not, is a 
question to be solved. The tea trade, in commercial 
language is looking up, and everything has been done 
by Admiral Elliot which was expected. I think old 
Sir Varment Willoughby* has his hands full, and Shah 
Shooja. Vivas el Rey are very likely to end in Vivas el 
Emperador; that barony of Ghuznee is far from being 

6 1 hope your Excellency will not consider me intru- 
sive in thus addressing you ; but accept as my apology 
the high regard I cannot fail to entertain for every soldier 
of conspicuous and bright career, and in which [number] 
you stand grouped. May you continue to enjoy your high 
command in good health, the great requisite of this or any 
country. Did you see that noble-hearted old Radical 
Admiral Fleeming ? Many is the anecdote I have heard 
of you from him. Believe me, General, 

' Very faithfully and sincerely yours, 

' H. G. Smith.' 

The Editor also possessed a later letter or rather note 

* A playful nom de guerre, for General Sir Willoughby Cotton. 


from Colonel Smith to Sir Samford, which is unfortu- 
nately lost or mislaid. It contained one important pas- 
sage ; the pleased expectation of the Staff at Calcutta, 
that the Commander at Madras would shortly succeed 
to the supreme Commander-in-Chief-ship. By science 
and by experience assuredly no one, then available, was 
fitter for the post, but the race is not always to the swift 
nor the battle to the strong. At length Sir Samford had 
obtained in the British army rank equal to that which 
twenty-six years previously he had obtained in the Spanish 
army. Was he at last to have that opportunity on a great 
scale, which Sir Willoughby Cotton had written was all 
that he wanted, and which in speech and in writing Wel- 
lington had practically confirmed ? That final crowning 
of his labours was denied him by an unscrutable but 
allwise Providence. That, indeed, was decided when the 
prejudices of his father had retarded for ten or twelve 
years the entrance of his son into the service, which 
brought him to the Peninsula bereft of that rank, without 
which it is rarely possible to make a great name, whilst 
many men younger than himself were already English 
Generals. The long and severe tropical services, with the 
brain ever at work, and finally the injurious second stay 
in the West Indies, completed the evil, and deprived of 
his well-merited rewards a servant of the Crown whose 
great talents and unwearied zeal and abilities are proved 
by testimonies which, in number and in weight, could 
hardly be surpassed. 

On most cordial terms with the Governors, both in 
public and in private matters, Sir Samford was equally on 
the best of terms with all the other authorities. Space 
will not allow of many proofs ; but here is one : — 


Dr. Spencer \ Bishop of Madras^ to Sir Samford 


1 Kotagherry, 10th October, 1840. 

'Dear Sir Samford, — Accept my best thanks for the 
copy of your Excellency's most Christian and sensible 
letter.* If such principles are steadily acted upon, our 
blessed religion cannot be kept back from this benighted 
land, and I am indeed thankful that they are held by 
one occupying so very distinguished and important a 
station in India. 

' I most sincerely hope that your Excellency continues 
in good health, and that you do not feel the Madras 
climate disagreeable. My duties call me to the Western 
coast, and it will be long before I can hope to visit the 
Presidency. May I be permitted to add then one induce- 
ment to wish myself there would be the opportunity it 
would afford me of improving an acquaintance, which, 
however, I hope to be allowed to cultivate next year 
under a more genial sky. I have the honour to be, dear 
Sir Samford, 

c Your Excellency's most faithful servant, 

' G. T. Madras.' 

The extreme courtesy he displayed to the amiable 
young Governor did not prevent the Commander-in- 
Chief from asserting his rights, and especially when the 
good of the service required their assertion. In all his 
correspondence with his Lordship, constant and copious, 
only in one letter is there the slightest cloud, namely 
in one dated 'Madras, 19th October.' He there writes to 
the Governor, that while it is his duty to carry his wishes 
into effect as regards the movement of troops, he is anxious 

* This probably refers to a letter written to Mr. James Cosmo Melvill 
advocating the o-eneral secular education of the Natives, as the best means 
of gradually destroying their superstitions, without risk of creating jealousy 
or animosity. 


the details should be left to him. He goes on : ' There is 
not a company of artillery in the command which can 
be said to be fit for service ; for there is not one with 
its complement of officers. Your private letter to me, 
my dear Lord, was just as satisfactory as though it had 
come in the most official form. And I was only anxious 
to call your attention to the state of the personnel of our 
artillery, in support of the minute I have submitted to the 
Council on that subject.' 

' I quite agree with you that everything must be left to 
the decision of the Bombay Government ; and I rejoice 
that your Lordship has done everything in your power to 
aid and assist that Government.' 

On the 8th November, he informs Lord Elphinstone: 
'I know of nothing in which officers in command are 
more often neglectful than in furnishing connect returns of 
the real efficiency of the different arms. We shall at last 
arrive doubtless at the truth ; but unless attention be paid 
to the requisite changes of system, recommended in my 
minute on the artillery of this Presidency, we shall never 
be efficient in that most important of all arms. 

' Unless the Punjab were conquered and in our posses- 
sion, that line of our operations from our North-west 
frontier to Afghanistan must always be more or less 
insecure. Nevertheless the assembling of a large force on 
that frontier to protect our advance to the Sikh country 
is a wise and prudent measure. But under existing cir- 
cumstances too much attention cannot be paid to Herat 
as the real pivot of all our operations in Scinde ; as secur- 
ing to us the command of the Indies, and of the Bolan 
Pass ; and consequently of our communicating from Bom- 
bay to Candahar and Cabool.' 

The letter is not extant to which the following is a 
reply : — 

sir samford's loyalty to the government. 477 

Sir Samford Whittingham to the Eon. J. Sullivan, 

(Member of Council). 


' Madras, 2Uh November, 1840. 

' I cannot tell you how much I regret the not seeing 
you again before your departure for England ; but I trust 
we shall pass many days together on your return. My 
opinion of your delightful hills can never vary ; but there 
is a point of view to which we have none of us hitherto 
given due weight. I allude to the colonization of that 
interesting part of the country ; which would be the 
certain consequence of locating a regiment in the vicinity 
of Outacamund. You, better than any man, are acquainted 
with the importance of those hills in the military and civil 
view. I recommend them to your protection at home. 
The cultivation of coffee alone would be of infinite value. 

' If you are still inclined to let me have your house on 
the Hills, I shall be happy to rent it on your own terms, 
from the 1st April* next to the 1st October. 

* With regard to my Memoirs on Indian affairs, I will 
state to you frankly, that as I predicted too tridy many of 
the evils which have occurred, and as the Government 
have taken most active measures to remedy these evils, I 
should not wish to appear to criticize any acts of my 
superiors, when the time for rendering my opinions useful 

has gone by, 

'Ever &c.,&c, 

4 Samford Whittingham/ 

Noble sentiments the reader will allow ; and worthy of 
the man who was soon to die, as he had lived, in the 
arduous and zealous service of his country ; with nothing 
to transmit to his family, but a name that he alone had 
raised from insignificance, and under the greatest dis- 

* Ominous date : which he lived not to see. Lhomme propose, mats 
Dieu dispose. 


advantages, to a height which had gained the esteem of 
the most illustrious and most aristocratic of Englishmen ; 
as recorded on many memorable occasions. 

Sir Hugh Gough was now sent to China ; and was 
destined soon to be Sir Samford's nominal successor at 
Madras, and thence to pass on to the chief command 
in Calcutta, on his road to many victories and two peer- 
ages, pensions, and prize money, with fairy-tale-like 

The following letter can hardly fail to interest the 
reader : — 

Major Stokes, Resident of Mysore, to Sir Samford 


L Elwak, 16^ November, 1840. 

' Your Excellency, — I had the honour to receive in due 
course of post, your letter of the 5th October, with its en- 
closed copy of a letter from Colonel Gurwood to your 
address on the subject of the c Wellington Dispatches.' 
I also had the honour to receive a letter from Lord 
Elphinstone on the same subject. 

6 1 am much obliged to your Excellency for having 
given me an opportunity of aiding, in however slight a 
degree, in rendering more perfect a work of such great 
national interest as that referred to. 

'As required by Colonel Gurwood, I have carefully 
compared the letters and other papers in the records of 
my office, bearing the signature, " Arthur Wellesley " (the 
present Duke of Wellington), with the printed copies of 
them published in the first volumes of His Grace's ' Dis- 
patches/ With this day's post, you will receive a packet 
containing the particulars of the inaccuracies in the letters, 
which this comparison has led to the discovery of, together 
with correct copies of eighteen letters, bearing his Grace's 
signature, which are not to be found in the printed 
volumes referred to. 


' As indicative of the industry of his Grace — and as every 
particular connected with his career must be interesting 
to every lover of his country — I have added a column to 
the statement which I forward to your Excellency, which 
will show that, with very few exceptions, the whole of his 
letters -on the records of this department are in his own 

' To one who loves the Duke, as I know your Excel- 
lency does, it will be a gratification to hear that though 
it is thirty-five years since he was last in the town of 
Mysore, the name of " Wellesley " is still generally and 
publicly known in it. 

' I have, &c, &c, 

' T. D * Stokes.' 

In his reply dated 25th November, apologizing for de- 
lay in consequence of his suffering from ophthalmia Sir 
Samford thanks the Eesident, and promises to forward 
all the papers and also his letter to Colonel Gurwood 
by the first opportunity. 

Sir Samford Whittingham to Colonel Gurwood. 

•' Madkas, 4th December, 1840. 

' My dear Colonel Gurwood, — I have now the pleasure 
to enclose the papers received from Major Stokes, the 
Eesident at Mysore, in answer to your queries on the 
subject of the " Dispatches." 

1 Major Phillips of the 15th Hussars, who proceeds to 
England in the merchant ship "Reliance" to sail from 
hence in a few days, has undertaken to deliver them to 

y° u - 

' Should you have any further investigations to make 
on this most interesting subject, I shall be too happy to be 
employed ; for I consider myself in common with every 

* The second initial of Christian names can only be guessed at in the 


British subject,* as owing to you a debt of gratitude we 
never can repay. 

'Believe me, &c, 

' Samford Whittingham.' 

One of his last extant letters is of the 23rd December, 
and addressed to the late Lord (then Sir Hussey) Vivian, 
in praise of his relative Major Vivian, ' a promising 
young officer,' whom he intends to provide for as soon 
as possible. 

Of his private letters, the following are extracted from 
those of latest date, supposed to be now in existence. 
A merciful providence was gilding his last days with 
happiness and contentment, and preparing a bright and 
cheerful sunset for the close of a somewhat harassing 
and agitated, though honourable career. 

Without entering deeply into religious matters, which, 
though precious to friends, might be out of place in this 
work, it must here be stated, that the state of mind of 
Sir Samford Whittingham had been for some years such, 
as to render the idea of sudden death terrible neither to 
himself, nor to his friends ; and his last letters fully es- 
tablish his possession of that peace of mind, which prac- 
tical Christianity nearly always instils into its votaries. 

On the 28th November he writes to Miss Davis, his 
youngest niece : ' Our overland communications being 
stopped, I avail myself of the expected arrival of the " Re- 
liance " from Calcutta for England, to prepare a letter for 

dear home. C is still with me, and is the delight 

and comfort of my life. is an able and enlightened 

Military Secretary. My house is a home of peace and 
tranquillity ; and I am more thankful to Almighty God 
than I have words to express, for all his many mercies to 
me and mine. The weather here is now very pleasant, but 
I have not yet regained my former strength and vigour. 

* More than most men he had cause for gratitude; for these Dispatches by 
doing him justice have helped to neutralize {//justice. 

SIR samford's last letters. 481 

On the 30th he writes in the same contented and cheer- 
ful strain. 6 I cannot tell you how very happy we all 
are, and what a charming little family circle we form. 
They all study my happiness and comfort. This house is 
by far the best I have ever lived in, and we are all well 
lodged. How truly thankful do I feel to the Almighty for 
all the blessings I enjoy! My health is fast amending, and 
all the young ones are quite blooming.' 

Two more proofs will suffice to demonstrate the happy 
and religious state of mind, in which his sudden summons 
found him, to the great consolation of his surviving rela- 

On the 4th December, 1840, he writes to his younger 
nephew : ' Our overland correspondence having been 
brought to a close, we are bound to avail ourselves of 
every private channel which may present itself. I have 
latterly been a great sufferer from an attack of ophthalmia ; 
but it is now, thank God, well over, and has merely left 
a little weakness in the eyes, which makes me abstain from 
writing more than I like. Our domestic luck -is quite 

heart cheering. C is living with me ; and is the 

charm and comfort of my life. I hope to obtain for him 

very shortly a really good situation.* is as steady 

as an old man of business, and a really able Military Secre- 
tary. B is my right hand ; and I shall be indebted 

to him for whatever may be my future independence.^ 
In short, such a family of love and happiness I have 
only witnessed at home.' 

Owing to some stoppage in the overland route at this 
period, and the state of his eyes, Sir Samford did not 
write much during the last few weeks of his life. His 
latest (extant) letter was written to his first, oldest and 

• In the Civil Service. 

t This aide-de-camp successively served on the Staff of Sir Samford 
Whittinghani, Lord Elphinstone, Sir Robert Dick, Lord Gough, and then 
with Lord Elphinstone a second time, equally valued and esteemed by 


1 1 


best friend, his brother-in-law, an extract from which 
closes Sir Samford's correspondence: — 

' Madras, 2±th December, 1840. 

' My dearest Brother, — The long-expected overland 
mail has arrived at last, and brought letters up to 

October 12th from you, and the darling C , my 

dear Hart, B , and D . Only conceive what a 

treat after so long a privation, and such a state of un- 
certainty as to the future ! The only drawback is the 
exceedingly short space allowed us to answer the nume- 
rous arrivals. I only received the letters last night, and 
the express goes off to-morrow evening ; and to-morrow is 
Christmas Day. There was a time when that considera- 
tion would have had little weight with either you or me ; 

but I thank God that time is over It is indeed 

a blessing to find C all I could wish, just the dear 

amiable creature he used to be. He is without exception 
the pleasantest domestic companion I have known. In 
the house he is the delight and comfort of us all. Alas ! 
for how short a time he has been with us. He was 
obliged to join his station at Cuddalore, where he has 

already arrived. Pray tell my much-loved V to 

send me "Blunt's Lectures." They are intended as a 

present to C from me. 's judgment, ability, 

and steadiness, fill me with admiration and pleasure. He 

is an excellent Military Secretary There is not in 

existence a human being whose heart more overflows 

with humble gratitude to God than mine. . . . B is 

a treasure in every sense of the word.' [After many 
long and endearing messages to all his relatives the writer 
continues] : ' I cannot tell you, my dearest brother, with 
what delight I look forward to the time of my returning 
to England, and to the renewal of that intimacy which 
has for so many years been a source of comfort and hap - 
piness to us both ! May our friendship and love go on 
increasing to the last day of our lives ; and may God's 


mercy grant that we may yet pass a few happy years to- 

* Your affectionate and devotedly attached brother, 


On the 19th January 1841, one of the dragoons of 
the Commander-in-Chiefs escort was dispatched for the 
Chief's son, then taking his afternoon ride on the Madras 
beach, who gallopped home in time to witness the last 
breath, and no more. This sudden call was a mercy to 
the departed, whose last moments were thus spared the 
grief of knowing that he was leaving his family before 
making adequate provision for them. And nothing could 
exceed the kindness of Lord Elphin stone to the sons of 
the deceased General, and to his personal Staff. 

Mr. Melvill, in the name of the Chairman of the Court 
of Directors, and the Adjutant-General of the Horse- 
Guards, also forwarded their kind and valued condolences. 
That of Lord Fitzroy Somerset, the Military Secretary to 
Lord Hill, with the account of the funeral, will now close 
this Memoir : — 

To Lieutenant F. Whittingham, Qlth Regiment. 

1 Horse-Guards, Slst March, 1841. 

' My dear Sir, — The last mail from India brought me 
your letter of the 22nd January, conveying to me the 
melancholy intelligence of the sudden death of your father, 
Sir Samford Whittingham ; and I avail myself of the ear- 
liest opportunity to condole with you upon an event, 
which has not only deprived you of a kind and affec- 
tionate father, upon whose assistance and exertions you 
naturally relied for advancement in your profession, but 
has likewise deprived the service of a distinguished Gene- 
ral Officer, who was devoted to his duty, and by the zeal 
and ability he had ever displayed, when the occasion 

i i 2 


was afforded him, had obtained the esteem and confi- 
dence of the Government and the Commander-in-Chief. 

' Lord Hill most sincerely laments his loss, and desires 
me to assure you that he feels very much for you, and 
will be happy when circumstances may enable him to 
select you for advancement. In the meantime, his Lord- 
ship has granted you leave of absence to enable you to 
remain in India : and as no officer has yet been selected 
as successor to your much-regretted father, and in the 
absence of Sir Hugh Gough, Sir Eobert Dick is supposed 
to be acting Commander-in-Chief, I have received Lord 
Hill's directions, to express to him his Lordship's hopes, 
that he would, if he should be able, place you in some 

1 1 remain, dear Sir, 

4 Your very faithful servant, 

1 Fitzroy Somerset.' 


' It is with extreme regret we have to announce the 
death of Sir Samford Whittingham, K.C.B. and K.C.H., 
Commander-in-Chief of this Presidency. The melancholy 
event took place about half-past seven o'clock on Tuesday 
evening last (19th January, 1841). 

' His Excellency had attended Council in the course 
of the day ; and, on his return home about four o'clock, 
partook of some slight refreshment, and lay down for 
a short time, desiring his servant to call him precisely at 
five, at which hour he had ordered his carriage, for the 
purpose of taking his evening's drive. After coming down 
stairs, he went into the compound to give some directions 
regarding the pitching of a tent, and almost immediately 

* Taken from The Athenceum, Madras Newspaper, of Thursday, January 
21, 1841. 


returned complaining of indisposition. Dr. Cole was sent 
for, and arrived about a quarter to six, and proceeded at 
once to take from his Excellency a considerable quantity 
of blood ; but apoplexy quickly succeeded, and, notwith- 
standing that most prompt means were adopted, both by 
Drs. Cole and Lane, to prevent fatal consequences, he ex- 
pired shortly after the attack. 

' We believe but one feeling exists with regard to the 
departed, and that of the most favourable character. 
During the short time that he had been amongst us, he 
had secured to himself the respect and esteem of all who 
came in contact with him. The army had just begun to 
reap the fruits of his unremitting concern for its welfare ; 
and, from his known reputation as a soldier, the highest 
expectations were formed as to the measures he would in 
future adopt, to perfect its mechanism, and uphold its 
efficiency. This sudden stroke at once disappoints the 
hopes entertained, and deprives the soldier of a warm 
and zealous friend, and Her Majesty's and the Honourable 
Company's Army of an officer of consummate military 
talent and ability. 

' It is an event calculated to produce a seiious, and we 
hope also a salutary impression, throughout all ranks of 
society, and especially in the army. To his family it is 
a severe visitation. The suddenness of his death reads 
an affecting lesson to the living. It should not, there- 
fore, be permitted to pass by, without fixing in the mind 
the necessity of preparing for so solemn an event. The 
records of every day are fraught with instructions to this 
effect ; but, when a great man falls — a mighty man, a 
man of war — it points a moral, the neglect of which 
argues an insensibility distressingly painful to every in- 
dividual who feels interested in the happiness of the 

human family. 

'The undermentioned Official Orders were issued in 

the course of the following day : we merely insert them 

486 MEMOIE OP SIR S. F. whittingham. 

for the information of our up-country readers, and to show 
the deep interest excited by this unexpected and truly 
affecting event. 

' Garrison Morning Orders. 

i Fort St. George, 20th January, 1841. 

c It is with extreme regret the Eight Honourable the 
Governor announces to the garrison the death of Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir S. F. Whittingham, K.C.B. and K.C.H., 
Commander-in-Chief of all the Forces on this Establish- 
ment, which melancholy event occurred about half-past 
seven o'clock last night. In testimony of respect for 
the memory of the deceased, his Lordship directs that 
the colours of the Fort be immediately hoisted half-staff 
high, and to continue so until after the interment has 
taken place; and minute guns (15), corresponding with 
the rank of the deceased, be fired from the saluting bat- 
tery, on the arrival of the procession at the Government 

'A serjeant, corporal, and twelve privates, from the 
light company of H. M.'s 57th Eegiment to be sent imme- 
diately to the residence of the late Commander-in-Chief, 
as a guard of honour over his remains. 

' F. L. Doveton, 

' Town Major. 

' Garrison After Order. 

' A funeral party, for the interment of the late Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir Samford Whittingham, K.C.B. and 
K.C.H., to be formed at half-past five this evening, on 
the road leading from his Excellency's garden towards 
the Fort, by the Mount Eoad, near the Dispensary. The 
party to consist of the whole of the effective troops in 
garrison, with the Eight Honourable the Governor's body- 
guard, and a proportion of artillery from St. Thomas's 


1 Detailed instructions respecting its order of formation 
will be issued from the Adjutant-General's office. 

'A salute of 15 guns to be fired from the saluting bat- 
tery immediately after the infantry has ceased firing. 

" The Eight Honourable the Governor directs that all 
officers belonging to the garrison, not on duty with the 
troops, will attend ; and that every officer will wear a piece 
of black crape on his left arm, and have their ornaments, 
on hat or cap, also the sword-knot, covered with the same 

When the troops halt, to form a street, no carriages or 
other conveyance will be permitted to enter it, with the 
exception of those belonging to the Eight Honourable the 
Governor, the members of Council, the judges of the 
Supreme Court, and the chief mourners. 

c Twelve privates of the light company to be selected as 

c F. L. Doveton, 

' Town Major. 

6 With deep regret the Eight Honourable the Governor 
in Council announces the demise of his Excellency Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir Samford Whittingham, K.C.B. and 
K.C.H., and requests the attendance of all officers, civil 
and military, of Her Majesty's and the Honourable Com- 
pany's service, and of all other gentlemen at the presi- 
dency, at his Excellency's funeral this evening. The pro- 
cession will move from his residence to Fort St. George 
at five o'clock, p.m. 

* Fokt St. Geokge, 20th January, 1841. 

c By order of the Eight Honourable the Governor in 


' H. Chamier, 

' Chief Secretary. 


4 General Orders by the Right Eon. the Governor in 


'Fort St. George, 20th January, 1841. 

'With great grief the Eight Hon. the Governor in 
Council announces to the army the demise of his Excel- 
lency Lieutenant- General Sir Samford Whittingham, 
Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Military 
Order of the Bath and of the Eoyal Hanoverian Guelphic 
Order, Commander-in-Chief at this Presidency, which 
event took place at Madras, on the 19th instant. 

' On this melancholy occasion, the flag of the Fort will 
be hoisted half-mast high ; and 15 minute guns, corre- 
sponding with the rank of the late Commander-in-Chief, 
will be fired at each of the principal military stations 
under this government. 

4 The Governor in Council further directs, that the 
Officers of Her Majesty's and the Hon. Company's Army 
will wear mourning for a fortnight from this present date. 

6 By Order of the Eight Hon. The Governor in Council. 

4 H. Chamier, 

' Chief Secretary. 

' Programme. 

4 The arrangements made by the authorities for con- 
ducting the procession were in conformity with the fol- 
lowing programme : — 

4 The troops ordered for the funeral of his Excellency 
Lieutenant-Gen eral Sir Samford Whittingham, K.C.B. and 
K.C.H., Commander-in-Chief, &c, &c, assembled yes- 
terday afternoon (the 20th), at a quarter to five o'clock, 
on the Mount Eoad, — under the command of Lieut.- 
Colonel E. E. Jones, K.H., of H. M.'s 57th regiment. The 
troops in the garrison formed in column of quarter dis- 
tance, left in front, facing to the Fort ; the rear of the 
column halted opposite to the Athenseum Library. 

4 The artillery marched down left in front, and formed 
in rear of H.M.'* 57th regiment. 


' The procession moved in the following order : — 

Garrison Band. 

39th Reg. N. I. 

H. M.'s 57th Regiment. 

Golundauze Battalion of Artillery. 

2nd Battalion of Artillery. 

The Right Honourable the Governor's Body Guard. 

Band of H. M.'s 57th Regiment. 

His Excellency the Commander-in-Chiefs Charger, led 

by Non-commissioned Officers of Cavalry. 

Flanked by his Ex- Flanked by his Ex- 
cellency the Com- <fiTU c OKnrin cellency the Com- 
mander in Chief s ^^ iPUUg* mander in Chief 'a 
Escort, in file. Escort, in file. 

His Excellency the Commander in Chiefs Carriage. 

The Right Honourable the Governor's Carriage. 

The Honourable the Chief Justice's Carriage. 

The Honourable the Councillors' Carriages. 

The Honourable the Puisne Judge's Carriage. 

Other Carriages in succession. 

'No carriages but those of the chief mourners, the 
Eight Hon. the Governor, the Members of the Council, 
and Judges of the Supreme Court, were allowed to pass 
beyond the Wallajah Bridge, where the procession halted. 

c The infantry and foot-artillery moved forward into the 
Fort, passing by the Town Major's house and main guard, 
toward St. Mary's church, where the column halted, and 
the troops formed street. 

- ' The body-guard passed over the bridge, and formed 
up in line to the right and left on the road leading to the 
Saluting Battery and General Hospital, fronting the river, 
resting upon their swords reversed, and the trumpets 
sounding a Dead March as the hearse passed. 

' The procession then moved forward, the troops rest- 
ing upon their arms reversed, bands of music playing 
the Dead March in " Saul." 

' The garrison band fell back to the front of the hearse, 
and preceded it in its progress to the church/ 


' The Funeral. 

4 The procession followed the corpse in the following 
order : — 

The Right Honourable the Governor and Staff. 

The Councillors and Judges. 

Commander in Chief's Personal Staff. 

Secretaries to Government. 

Members of Boards. 

Officers and Gentlemen two and two, the juniors leading. 

6 When the procession reached the church, the artillery 
and infantry formed in line, broke into columns of sub- 
divisions, left in front, and the left resting upon St. Mary's 
church, the right thrown back, and prolonged towards St. 
George's gate. The body was then taken from the hearse, 
accompanied by pall-bearers, in the persons of his Excel- 
lency the Governor,* Col. Monteith, Col. Doveton, Sir K. 
Comyn, and the Hon. Mr. Bird. The corpse was then met 
at the gate by the Eev. Mr. Mahon, A.M. and the Eev. Mr. 
Knox, B.A. The funeral service was chiefly performed 
by Mr. Mahon, assisted by Mr. Knox, who read the Psalms 
and Lessons usual for such occasions. After which the 
corpse was lowered into the grave by 24 grenadiers of 
H.M.'s 57th regiment, when three volleys were fired by 
word of command and by signal, which was made by the 
garrison flag being hoisted to the mast-head. 

' During the procession 15 minute guns were fired from 
the Saluting Battery, which commenced when the hearse 
reached the Government Bridge ; and a further salute of 
15 guns after the body was deposited in the grave, next 
to Lord Pigott, late Governor of Madras, on the north side 
of the pulpit, facing the communion table, which was 
made known by the hoisting of the garrison flag. 

c The parade was then dismissed, and the troops 

* Lord Elpkinstone, then Governor of Madras ; and, many years later 
Governor of Bombay. 


marched to their respective quarters, right in front, no 
drums beating until outside of the Fort. 

c The inner coffin was of wood, covered with lead, and 
this was again enclosed in a wooden case. We under- 
stand the Governor gave instructions for an arch to be 
thrown over the grave, which work commences this day. 

' The sight was one of the most affecting and solemnly 
imposing that has been witnessed in Madras for many 
a day. Nearly the whole of the civil and military service 
at the Presidency were in attendance, and a great multi- 
tude of people from among all classes of the population. 

6 The flag-staffs at the Fort and the Custom House had 
the union jack flying half mast high, as was also the case 
with all the ships in the roads. The general feeling har- 
monized in every respect with the mournful occasion.' * 

* A tablet was subsequently put up by his sons to the memory of Sir 
Samford Whittingham, in the Garrison Church at Madras. 



Copy of Original Report of Major-General Whittingham to 
Lieutenant-General La Pena, Commander-in-Chief, of his 
Share in the Battle of Barossa, fought on March 5, 1811. 

4 Exmo. Senor, — Como a las dos de la tarde del dia 5 del 
corriente recibi 6rden de V. E. para quedarme con tres escua- 
d rones y dos companias de Caballeria, y mil trecientos cincuenta 
hombres de la Infanteria que mandaba el Brigadier Don Anto- 
nio Begines de los Rios en el campo del Cerro del Puerco, en 
conseeuencia iba a tomar posicion, uniendome a la Infanteria, 
cuando me aviso el Coronel Don Luis Michelena que se veian 
tropas que parecian enemigas por su marcha acia nosotros. 
Accelere la reunion, y reconoci al enemigo que marchaba en 
dos fuertes columnas, llevando un batallon de tropas ligeras a 
su vanguardia; la una marchaba directamente a mi posicion, y 
la otra se prolongaba por su izquierda para envoi verm e. Mande 
formar la Infanteria en cuadros, y la Caballeria al flanco iz- 
quierdo en escalones para sostener el punto. A este tiempo 
recibi la orden de V. E. para replegarme sobre el grueso del 
exercito, y descubri ademas de las dos columnas enemigas ya 
dicnas, otra mas fuerte que venia acceleradamente sobre mi 
izquierda para interponerse al Pinar que mediaba entre mi 
campo y el del exercito, unico paso que me quedaba para cum- 
plir, replegandome, la ultima resolucion de V. E. Las fuerzas 
enemigas eran quadruplas cuando menos a las que yo tenia. 

' Determine, en virtud de dicha orden, que la Infanteria 
emprendiese su retirada cubierta por la Caballeria. El batallon 
Ingles, a las ordenes del Coronel Bran, rompio la marcha, y en 
seguida las tropas Espanolas. Lleve coDmigo el destacamento 
de Carabineros Reales, y una compania de Husares Ingleses 


para cubrir el flanco derecho de la linea de marcha retrograda, 
y interponiendome entre esta y el enemigo, continuando la reti- 
rada hasta toniar posesion del bosque, donde inmediatamente 
coloque al Brigadier Don Juan de la Cruz, encargandole cu- 
briese el flanco derecho de la posicion que el enemigo ya inten- 
taba envolver. En cumplimiento a mis instrucciones, el Mayor 
Bush, con los Husares Ingleses, los Tenientes Coroneles Don 
Francisco Kamonet y Don Francisco Serrano con un escuadron 
de Granaderos, y el de la misma clase Don Santiago Wall con 
dos compaiiias del de su mando, se sostuvieron con algunas 
guerillas de Infanteria, hasta que se retiro la Infanteria, todo el 
bagage del exercito, y las dos piezas de artilleria, que hasta el 
momento de ser atacadas vivamente, hicieron firmes un muy 
acertado y vigoroso fuego sobre los enemigos. 

6 La Caballeria cubrio perfectamente la retirada, y en buen 
6rden, no obstante las continuadas escaramuzas que hizo la 
enemiga en todo su avance, reunida desde que se avisto, y mas 
fuerte en una tercera parte contra la nuestra, repartida entonces 
en varios puntos. 

6 En este momento divise el cuerpo del General Graham, que 
salia del bosque, dirigiendose sobre su antigua posicion de las 
alturas ya ocupadas por el enemigo. Dificil seria dar una justa 
idea del impetu con que fue arrojado de todas ellas por las 
bayonetas Inglesas el enemigo comun que venia cargandonos 
con tanto orgullo y confianza, como si tuviera ya la victoria con- 
seguida. Su fuerza era doble de la Inglesa, pero la victoria, 
aunque costosa, fue completa, y decidida por el acero de las 
bayonetas. Se hubiera recogido el fruto de esta senalada Jor- 
nada, aun mas alia del objeto principal, si los enemigos en su 
precipitada retirada — pues abandonaron alii sus heridos de todas 
clases y caracter, tres piezas, y dos carros de municiones — hubie- 
ran sido cargados de flanco, 6 amenazados por la retaguardia. 

' Un escuadron de Husares Ingleses que estaba & mi mando 
ataco al de Guardia del Mariscal Victor, lo destrozo, y disperso 
completamente. Dicho escuadron de Husares Ingleses, junta- 
mente con el ya indicado de Granaderos Espanoles al mando 
del Baron de Carondelet, y las dos compaiiias de Don Santiago 
Wall, cubrian el ala derecha, y sostenidos por las tropas de los 
Brigadieres Don Antonio Begines y Don Juan de la Cruz, evi- 
taron por su bizarra conducta, y maniobras, que el enemigo nos 


envolviese por la playa como lo intento por dos veces. Aquellas 
dos companias se portaron con bizarria, retirandose y avanzando 
oportunamente sobre el enemigo, como igualmente el destaca- 
mento de Carabineros Eeales, Toda la Caballeria en fin cumplio 
brillantemente con su deber, 

' El exercito enemigo, despues de verse rechazado de las altu- 
ras, emprendio su retirada en orden, cubierto por su Caballeria. 
Este fue el instante en que me prometi reunir y obrar ofensi- 
vamente con los cuatrocientos cabal los que tenia a mi disposicion, 
para lo que avise a Eamonet, y Serrano, que en union con Wall 
observasen y cooperasen a los movimientos de los Husares 
Ingleses y Carabineros Eeales que yo llevaba conmigo, cuando 
se dejo ver sobre la derecha de toda la linea una columna de 
Infanteria como de quinientos hombres, precedida de una partida 
de Caballeria, y moviendose como para ganar nuestra espalda. 
Fue indispensable maniobrar en su observacion mientras la 
reconocia un sargento y seis hombres del escuadron de Grrana- 
deros, y se me escapo la ocasion de cargar al enemigo, que se 
retiraba de priesa, con toda mi Caballeria disponible. A la 
cabeza de los Husares Ingleses segui sobre el, y resolvi atacar 
un trozo de Caballeria situado al lado de una laguna, que cubria 
su flanco izquierdo ; mas en mi marcha descubri que toda la 
Infanteria enemiga se habia colocado a su derecha, y sostenido 
por su Artilleria, apoyandose en el Pinar, situacion que no per- 
mitia un movimiento aislado 6 parcial contra dicho trozo prote- 
gido tan inmediatamente. En est a situacion se colocaron en 
posicion por el General Graham dos piezas de artilleria, que 
tirando con acierto, obligaron al enemigo a continuar su retirada 
entre la laguna y el Pinar con direccion a Chiclana. 

' No puedo menos de suplicar a V. E. haga presente a S. A. S. 
el particular merito a toda prueba que han contrahido todos los 
gefes, oficiales, y tropa que en esta accion se hallaron a mis 
ordenes, sin resolverme a individualizar ante V. E. a ninguno, 
pues todos a porfia llenaron cumplido, y honrosamente, con su 
deber, al paso que les llegaba la ocasion feliz de mostrar a la 
nacion que son sus defensores. 

' Dios guarde & V. E. muchos anos. 

4 Campo del Cerro de los Martires, 7 de Marzo de 1811. 

' Exmo. Senoe Don Santiago Whittingham. 


' Exnio. Seiior Bon Manuel de la Pena, 
General en Gefe.' 




Retuim of Corps of different Arms of the Spanish Army 
under the Orders of Lieutenant-General Whittingham, when 
only Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army. 

Saragossa, Head-quarters, April 1, 1814. 

Regiments of Infantry 

Regiments of Cavalry 

Horse Artillery 

5th Battn. of Grenadiers 
1st Regt. of Cordova 
1st do. Guadalaxara 
1st do. Grenada 
2nd do. Majorca 
2nd do. Burgos 
2nd do. Murcia 
1st do. NuevaCreacion 
Cazadores of Majorca 
Company of Sappers 

The Prince's Regt. of Horse 
Santiago do. 
Calatrava do. 
Queen's Dragoons 
Almanza do. 
Madrid do. 
Soria do. 
Olivenza Chasseurs 
Ubrique do. 
La Mancha do. 
Ferdinand VII. 's Hussars 

Squadrons 5th 
and 6th, each 
squadron con- 
sisting of 3 
troops, each 
troop 4 pieces 
of 8, and 2 
howitzers of 
5 J inch. 

Total: — 9 regiments of infantry; 11 regiments of cavalry j 18 pieces of 

Military College at Majorca, founded by General Whittingham, and 
under his direction. 

General Cavalry Depot, established by General Whittingham, and under 
his orders. 


Sir Samford Whittingham's Letter to Viscount Combeo^mere 
concerning Lieutenant (noiv Lieutenant-Colonel) Caine. 

1 Cawnpore, November 26, 1827. 

' My Lord, — In compliance with your Lordship's wishes, I 
have the honour to state officially the gallant conduct of Lieu- 
tenant Caine (late of the 14th Foot), 3rd, or Buffs, at the 
assault of Bhurtpore on the 18th January, 1826. 

6 Lieutenant Caine accompanied the right column of attack 
(in his capacity of Major of Brigade of the 1st Brigade), under 
the command of Major Everard, 14th, and continued at its head, 
during the day. Whilst leading a small party of ten or twelve 


men in advance of the column, he found his progress arrested 
by a deep cut in the rampart of Gopalgurh, which he leaped 
across, but his men being unable to follow in a similar manner, 
were obliged to descend and reascend the rampart before they 
could join the Lieutenant, who found himself singly opposed to 
three of the enemy, two of whom he killed with his double- 
barrelled pistol, and destroyed the third man by closing with 
and throwing him over the rampart into the ditch, as the Lieu- 
tenant found his sword could not make any impression through 
the armour of the Jaut, which was worn over a cotton jacket. 

6 Lieutenant Caine was the first officer up at the taking of the 
Kumbheer Grate, which was carried by him, with about thirty 
men of the 14th. On Major Everard's column halting at the 
bastion beyond the Kumbheer Grate, the Major found his num- 
bers, which were originally 300, dwindled down to not more 
than 100 or 120 bayonets, without one round of ammunition or 
any support whatsoever, having in his rear a rampart of nearly 
two miles in extent, on which the enemy were reassembling 
from the town. The Major, finding his party in this helpless 
situation, asked who would volunteer to head a few men back, 
and to bring him a reinforcement and ammunition. Lieutenant 
Caine instantly stepped forward and volunteered his services, 
which were accepted, and with one serjeant, one corporal, and 
twelve men, he cut his way through the enemy, drove them 
from their guns, which they had re-manned, and was the first 
person who reported to the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Com- 
bermere, the success and situation of Major Everard's column; 
and having received the required reinforcement and ammu- 
nition, he returned. The Lieutenant was slightly wounded by 
a grape-shot in the foot whilst leading his small party of volun- 
teers in charging the enemy's guns at the Goverclhun Gate. 

On the morning of the 19th January, Captain Meade, Aide- 
de-Camp to General Eeynel], waited upon Lieutenant Caine, 
and told him that the General had sent him, and had been 
pleased to approve of the Lieutenant's conduct during the 
assault, in consequence of a report made by Major Everard, 
and that therefore the Major-General had introduced his name 
in the following manner, in his despatch dated 19th January, 


' " Major Everard reports that Brigade-Major Caine, of the 

K K 



14th Regiment, accompanied him throughout, and distinguished 
himself particularly.'. « T have> &c< 

' Samford Whittingham, 

' Major-General. 
' His Excellency the Lord Viscount Coinbermere, G.C.B., &c. 
' Conimander-in-Chief in India.' 



Sir Samford Whittingham? s Commissions. 

In the British Service. 

29th January, 1772 
20th January, 1803 
10th March, 1803 
14th February, 1805 
12th March, 1810 
30th May, 1811 
4th June, 1814 
27th May, 1825 
28th June, 1838 
28th March, 1838 


Lieutenant ..... 
Captain ..... 
Major ..... 

Lieutenant-Colonel (back dated to) 
Colonel ..... 
Major-General .... 
Lieutenant- General 
Colonel of 71st Highland Light Infantry 

In the Spanish Service 
Colonel ...... 

Brigadier- General .... 

Mariscal de Campo .... 

Lieutenant-General .... 

20th July, 1808 
2nd March, 1809 
12th August, 1809 
16th June, 1814 


Commanders-in-Chief of India, under whom Sir Samford 
Whittingham served from 1822 to 1835. 

Date of Appointment. 
12th March, 1813 

The Marquis of Hastings* 

3rd January, 1822 
14th March, 1825 
28th February, 1820 
7th June, 1831 
17th May, 1833 

The Hon. Sir Edward Paget 
Viscount Combermere 
The Earl of Dalhousie 
Sir Edward Barnes 
Lord William Bentinck f 

* Lord Hastings was Governor-General and Cominander-in-Chief during 
the whole of his stay in India. 

t Lord William Bentinck was Commander-in-Chief during a part of the 
latter half of his rule as Governor-General. Lord Amherst succeeded Lord 
Hastings as Governor-General, and was himself succeeded by Lord William 
Bentinck. Thus Sir Samford Whittingham served under three Governor- 
Generals and six Commanders-in-Chief. Lord William left India in Feb- 
ruary, 1835. 




List of such Memoirs and Memoranda ivritten by Sir Samford 
Wkitt Ingham for Sir Edward Paget or Lord William Ben- 
tinck, as are now in the Possession of the Editor. 


Jane 10 

July 5 

Sept. 30 

March 31 

April 25 

June 28 
July 10 
Nov. 2o 
Nov. 25* 

not dated 

not dated 

Feb. 22 

Dec. 16 
Dec. 30 
Dec. 31 

Feb. 28 
March 5 

April 7 

April 16 

May 15 

Observations on the Consequences of a 
Russian Invasion of India 

Memoirs on the Burmese Euipire, com- 
mencing in 1752 ..... 

Memoir on the Bengal Army . 

Some Observations on the Possibility of 

an Invasion of India by Russia ; and on 

the Nature and Extent of their Means 

of Execution ..... 

Memorandum of the State of the Bengal 

Army, as handed over to Sir Edward 

Paget by the Marquis of Hastings 

Propositions on the Survey Department 

Memorandum on the Campaign in Burmah 

Indian Army ..... 

Probability of a Russian Invasion 

Proposed Distribution of Bengal Army 

Expedition of the Burmese against Man- 

nipore and Cachar in 1774 . 
India, as it should be governed 

On the Indian Army (sent to Lord TV. B 
from Dinapore) .... 

Papers on similar Subjects; altogether 
nearly ..... 

Distribution of Southern Army of India 
Russian and British Administration of 

Eastern Colonies compared . 
Proposed Organization and Distribution of 

Madras Army 

On the proposed Equalization of Bengal 

and Madras Armies 

An Inquiry into the Means of Attack on 
British India, and of the Defence to be 
opposed to it 





















* The dates refer to the completion of the papers. Two appear to have 
been completed on the same day. Two papers are without date, and one paper 
has only the year marked on it. These were probably rough copies. 




Adam Colonel ; and next General Sir 
Frederick. Mentioned in General 
Orders after Cast alia, by Sir John 
Murray; p. 190. Governor of Ma- 
dras ; p. 386. 

Alava, General Don Miguel. His 
valour at Mcdcllin ; p. 63. Ambas- 
sador in England ; p. 449. 

Alburquerque, Duke of. His charac- 
ter ; p. 53. Himself and Staff saved 
by the vigilance of Col. S. W. ; p. 56. 
His gallantry at Medellin ; p. 63. 
His letters in praise of Col. S. W. 
to the Duke of York and Viscount 
Castlereagh ; p. 68. Saves Cadiz by 
a rapid march ; p. 110. Resigns his 
command; p. 112. Ambassador in 
England; p. 114. His death; note 
at p. 114. 

Arabin, Captain. (Afterwards Colonel.) 
Praised in General Orders after Cos- 
tall a; p. 190. 

Auckland, Lord. His notes to Sir 
S. W. ; pages 413 and 414. 

Barnes, General Sir Edward. Fifth 
Commander-in-Chief over Sir S.W. ; 
p. 380. Signs his own official death- 
warrant ; p. 382. Is superseded by 
Lord "William Bentinck ; p. 391. 

Bentinck, General Lord William. Em- 
ploys Col. S. W. at Aranjuc.7 ; pages 
50 and 401. Relieves Sir John 
Murray in the east of Spain ; p. 201 
Consults, in India, Sir S. W. regard- 
ing his personal Staff; p. 355. 
Adopts the Duke of Wellington's 
opinion of Sir S. W.; p. 372. Styles 
Sir S. his Friend and Counsellor ; p. 

Cadogan, Colonel, the Hon. Henry. 
Meets Capt. S.W. at Buenos Ayres; 
p. 24. Two letters to him by S. W. ; 
pages 43 and 98. His heroic death ; 
p. 201. 


Caine, Captain. (Now Lieut.-Colonel.) 
His great valour at 21 Intrt-j tore ; p. 
329. Made A.D.C. to Sir S. W. ; 
p. 345. Second to Sir S. in a duel 
with an Ensign ; p. 388. 

Calcutta, Dr. Middleton, Bishop of. 
Sir S. W. introduced to him by Wil- 
berforce; p. 290. His death ; p. 305. 

Campbell, Colonel Patrick. His letter 
to Sir S. W. concerning the English 
Officers in Spain ; p. 252. 

Castanos, General. (Afterwards Duko 
of Baylen.) His generous conduct to 
General Dupont; p. 35. Sends Col. 
S. W. on special mission ; p. 36. His 
kindness to S. W. after Tudcla ; p. 47. 
Gives away the bride at the marriage 
of Gen. S. W. ; p. 109. Capt.-Gen. 
of Andalusia; p. 109. Appointed to 
the Regency; p. 133. Commands 
Army of Catalonia in 1815 ; p. 254. 

Castlereagh, Viscount. (afterwards 
Marquis of Londonderry). Offers Sir 
S. W. commissionership of Austrian 
army ; p. 257. His opinion of Mr. 
R. H. Davis; p. 284. His death; p. 

Colltngwood, Lord. Visit of Col. S. W. 
to him about treaty of Baylen ; p. 37. 

CoMBERiVTERE, General, (afterwards 
Field-Marshal) Viscount. His cold- 
ness to Sir S. W. ; p. 326. His 
visit to him ; p. 345. His friendli- 
ness to him; pages 346 and 353. 
His confidence in him ; p. 357. 

Considine, Captain William. His letters 
to Sir S. W. on the praises of the 
Adjutant-General ; pages 432 and 
437. His remarks on Sir George 
Napier ; p. 433. 

Cotton, Colonel. (Afterwards General 
Sir Willoughby.) His affectionate 
letters to Sir S. W. ; pages 350 and 
353. His admiration of Sir Edward 
Paget ; p. 352. 

Craufurd, General Robert. His high 
opinion of Capt. S. W. ; p. 27. 

Cuesta, General. His folly loses the 

In this Index S. W. stands for SamforJ Whittingham. 





battle of Medcllin; p. 62. S. W. 
was his earliest British critic; p. 73. 
His conduct before Talavera ; p. 86. 
His interview with Sir A. Wellesloy ; 
p. 86. Resigns command; p. 95. 
Capt.-Gen. of Balearic Islands ; p. 
137. His hostility to everything 
English, and his insolence; p. 148. 
His death; p. 150. 

Dalhousie, Earl of. Fourth Com. -in- 
Chief over Sir S. W.; p. 364. 

Dalr-oiple, General Sir Hew. Per- 
mits Capt. S. W. to join Gen. Cas- 
tanos, as a volunteer ; p. 30. 

Davis, Mr. Richard Hart, M.P. for 
Bristol. Writes to Sir S. W. of the 
Duke of Wellingtons repeated praise 
of him; p. 371. 

Donkin, General Sir Rufane. His con- 
duct in the affair between Sir S. W. 
and Colonel Napier ; pages 407 and 

Eliot, Hon. William Writes to Mr. 
Murdoch to appoint Lieut. Whitting- 
ham to meet Mr. Pitt, the Premier ; 
p. 6. 

Elfhinstone, Lord. Governor of Ma- 
dras ; (and afterwards Governor of 
Bombay). His fears that Sir S. W. 
might on arrival take offence at his 
absence; p. 461. Chief pall-bearer 
at the funeral of Sir S. W. ; p. 490. 

Fife, James Earl of. His coolness at 
Talavera, when Lord Macduff; p. 90. 
His letter to S. W., conveying Mar- 
shal Suckefs opinion of the latter, 
and of the Majorca Division ; p. 239. 
His Lordship's letter to Editor ; vide 

Frere, Mr. Bartle. Acts as Minister 
on departure of Marquis Wellesley ; 
p. 104. Marries by proxy the sister- 
in-law of Gen. S. W. ; p. 271, 

Frere, Right Hon. John Hookham. 
Minister in Spain, S. W.'s letters to 
him; pages 58, 60, 65, 69, 70, 73, 
and 80. 

George IV. H. M.'s eulogistic letter, 
introducing Sir S. W. to the Hon. 
Sir E. Paget ; p. 292. H. M.'s high 
opinion of Mr. R. H. Davis ; p. 284. 

Glenelg, Lord. Secretary of State for 
Colonies. Presents Sir S. W. to King 
William IV., at a private audience ; 
p. 416. Expresses to Mr. Harford 
his delight at Sir S, W.'s being ap- 

pointed Colonel of71stRegt; p. 439. 
Credit due to his Lordship for the 
emancipation of negroes in the West 
Indies ; p. 441. His approval of Sir 
S. W.'s conduct in that command ; 
p. 453. 

Gordon, Colonel. (Afterwards General 
Sir Willoughby.) His praise of S. W. ; 
pages 27 and 41. 

Graham, General. (Afterwards Sir 
Thomas, and eventually Lord Lyne- 
doch.) His laudatory letter to Gen. 
S. W. ; page 118. His mention of 
him in his Barrosa dispatch ; p. 124. 

Gurwood, Lieut.-Colonel. His corre- 
spondence with Sir S. W. regarding 
the Wellington Disjiatches ; pages 
412, 478 and 479. 

Hastings, Marquis of. His kind re- 
ception of Sir S. W. ; p. 297. His 
confidential conversations with Sir S. ; 
pages 298 to 301. 

Hill, Lord. Gen. Com^.-in-Chief. His 
opinion of Sir S. W. ; pages 379 and 

Hugel, Baron. His terse description 
of the West Indies in a letter to Sir 
S. W. ; p. 284. 

Infantado, Duke of. His want of de- 
cision causes the defeat of General 
Venegas and his own supersession ; 
p. 56. 

Kent, H.R.H. the Duke of. His two 
letters to Mr. H. Davis in praise of 
Gen. S. W. ; pages 83 and 132. 

Knighton, Sir William. His first ac- 
quaintance with Gen. S. W. ; p. 95. 
His testimony to the abilities of Sir 
S. W.; p. 331. 

La Pena, Lieut. -General; By joining 
him, Capt. S. W. took part in bat- 
tle of Baylen, and thus became the 
first Englishman who fought in Spain 
during the Peninsular War ; p. 36. 
Is rejoined by S. W. ; p. 44. His 
generous resignation in favour of the 
Duke of Infantado ; p. 53. Com- 
mander-in-Chief of Allied Army at 
Barrosa; p. 122. His conduct that 
day a matter of controversy still ; 
pp. 122-123. One of the Generals 
employed in regulating the order of 
San Fernando; p. 264. 

Liniers, General. General Whitelocke's 
capitulation with him ; p. 21. His 
dinner to the British chiofs, and 
modest behaviour ; p. 22. 




Liverpool, Earl of. His letter to Mr. 
Davis on Sir S. W.'s defence of the 
Bengal Government; p. 331. 

Macdonald, General Sir John, Adjutant 
General. His praise of Sir S. W. ; 
p. 432 and 437. His congratula- 
tory letter on the Colonelcy of 71st 
Rcgt, ; p. 436. 

Madras, Dr. Spencer, Bishop of. His 
letter of thanks to Sir S. W. ; p. 475. 

Majorca, Llaneres, the Bishop of. His 
great liberality to the Military Col- 
lege, founded by Gen. S. W. ; p. 154. 

Montenegro, Count. Congratulates 
Sir S. W. on having greatly contri- 
buted to the suppression of the 
Spanish Slave-Trade \ p. 275. 

Monti jo, Count of. His base conduct 
occasions Sir S. W. to make a very 
ell active speech to a furious Spanish 
mob ; p. A 8. 

Murdoch. Mr. Thomas. Introduces 
Lieut. S. W. to Mr. Pitt, the Pre- 
iititr ; p. 6. 

Murray, Lieut. -General Sir John. 
Mentions Gen. S. W. three times in 
General Orders, pages 183 and 190 ; 
again names him in his dispatch 
after Castalla\ p. 195. His trial and 
virtual acquittal ; p. 250. 

O'Reilly, Colonel. Barbarously mur- 
dered by French soldiers; p. 213. 

Paget, Admiral the Hon. Sir Charles. 
Thanks Sir S. W. for sending the 
65th Regt. to Canada during the re- 
bellion ; p. 433. His ' heart and soul ' 
remark regarding Sir S. W.; p. 437. 
His death ; p. 446. 

Paget, General, the Hon. Sir Edward. 
His rapid promotion ; p. 8. Com r .- 
in-Chief in India; p. 302. Employs 
Sir S. W. in drawing up 'a General 
State of India'; p. 307. Resolves 
to keep Sir S. always with him ; p. 
309. Writes to Earl Bathurst that 
Sir S. W. created the means by which 
Bhurtpore was taken ; p. 340. De- 
clines to be second in any duel ; 
p. 405. His dinner to Sir S. W. and 
son at Chelsea Hospital ; p. 455. 
What Gen. Sir Charles Napier 
thought of Sir Edward Paget; see 

Palmerston, Viscount. His letter of 
thanks to Sir S. W. for a Memoir on 
Russia and India, and a plan ; p. 


Pellew, Admiral Sir Edward. (After- 
wards Viscount Exmouth.) His cor- 
respondence with General S. W. : pp. 
141, 154, and 16,1. 

Pitt, Right Hon. William. Employs 
Lieut. S. W. on a secret mission ; p. 7. 

Roche, Colonel. (Afterwards Sir 
Keating Roche.) His letter to Mr. 
R. H. Davis on the gallantry and 
wound of Sir S. W. at Talavera ; p. 91. 

Ruti, Captain. The gallantry and 
energy of this Spanish Officer ; 
pages 180 and 215. 

Smith, Colonel, Sir Charles Felix. 
His eulogistic letter to Sir S. W. ; 
p. 467. 

Smith, Colonel. (Afterwards General 
Sir Harry Smith of Aliwal.) His 
spontaneous letter to Sir S. W. ; p. 

Somerset, Lord Fitzroy. (Afterwards 
Lord Raglan.) His letter to the 
Editor, on the death of Sir S. W. ; 
p. 483. 

Spain, Ferdinand King of. His first 
meeting with Gen. S. W. ; p. 231. 
The Royal gift; p. 233. Account of 
the King's return to Spain, from 
the Recollections ; p. 243. Gen. S 
W. gives H. M. a paper on the Slave 
Trade; p. 261. H.M. invites him to 
ask for favours which are declined ; 
p. 266. His last visit from Sir S. W. ; 
p. 277. 

Tatischeff, M. de. Russian Ambassa- 
dor to Spain. His great influence with 
king Ferdinand; pages 246 and 273. 

Taylor, Sir Herbert. His eulogistic 
letter to Sir S. W. ; p. 336. Deems 
Sir E. Paget to have ensured the 
success in Barmah, and at Bkurtjpore ; 
p. 356. 

Torrens, Colonel. (Afterwards Ge- 
neral Sir Henry.) Successively 
Military Secretary, and Adjutant- 
General at the Horse- Guards. His 
praises of S. W. ; pages 142 and 
223. His very striking letter to 
Sir E. Paget introducing Sir S. ; 
p. 293. 

Vaughan, Right Hon. Charles. H.M.'s 
Minister in Spain. His grateful men- 
tion to Lord Castlereagh of Sir S. W.'s 
diplomatic services ; p. 268. 

Venegas, General. General S. W. sent 
to him on mission by Loid Welling- 




ton ; pp. 107 and 109. Lord W.'s 
confidence in Venegas; p. 110. 

Walker, Colonel (afterwards General) 
David. He and the officers of 58th 
Regt. most happy to serve under Ge- 
neral S. W. ; p. 175. 

Wellesley, Right Hon. Henry. (After- 
wards Sir Henry. Eventually the 
first Lord Cowley.) His arrival in 
Spain; p. 111. His letter praising 
Gen. S. W.'s formation of a Spanish 
cavalry corps; p. 119. Requests 
him not to resign his Spanish com- 
mand ; p. 164. Congratulates him 
on the success, in the field, of the 
Majorca Division ; p. 187. His first 
letter to Lord Castlereagh on the 
military services of Gen. S. W. ; p. 
237. His letter to the Duke of York, 
regarding his great diplomatic obli- 
gations to Sir S. W. ; p. 271. His 
second letter to Lord Castlereagh 
on the services of Sir S. W. and 
their being unrewarded by the 
Spanish Government; p. 279. 

Wellesley, Marquis. His letter, to 
Mr. R. H. Davis, regarding certain 
papers written by S. W. ; p. 82. At- 
taches S. W. to the Embassy ; p. 
95. His letter of thanks and praise 
at his departure from Spain ; p. 105. 
His kind letter to Gen. S. W. from 
England, when Secretary of State for 
Foreign affairs ; p. 120. 

Wellington (the Hon. Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, successively Lord and), 
Duke of. His honourable mention 
in his dispatch of Brig r .-Gen. S. W.'s 
being wounded at Talavera whilst 
bringing two Spanish battalions into 
action; p. 92. Some of his proofs 
of confidence in Gen. S. W. ; pages 
106 and 107. Grants the Inspector- 
ship which he had at first refused, 
as irregular; p. 177. Extract of his 
dispatch to Earl Bat hurst forward- 
ing Sir John Murray's report of two 
of Gen. S. W.'s affairs of advanced 
guards, and specially reporting him- 


self that Gen. S. W. had driven 
Sachet's advanced guard through the 
pass of Albayda; p. 184. Declines 
in the matter of Inspectors of Spanish 
troops (writing to Lord William 
Bentinck) to do for ' anybody else ' 
what he had done for Gen. S. W. ; p. 
205. ' Feels the utmost concern ' 
at the resignation of Gen. S. W., 
and persuades its withdrawal : p. 
216. Indirectly confirms the esti- 
mate formed by Gen. S. W. of King 
Ferdinand; note at p. 233. His 
comprehensive official letter to the 
Duke of York on the Peninsular 
services of S. W.; p. 234. States 
and repeats (sixteen years later) to 
Mr. R. H. Davis that ' We had not 
such another officer in the army ' as 
Sir S. W. ; p. 37 1 . His Grace's note to 
Sir S. W.on the death of Sir William 
Knighton ; p. 419. Writes to Sir S. 
W. that he ' shall be at all times 
very happy to receive him ;' p. 457. 

Whitelocke, Lieut. -General. Appoints 
Captain S. W. to be one of his aides- 
de-camp ; p. 12. Employs him on 
very hazardous service; p. 16. His 
trial, condemnation, and sentence ; 
p. 25. 

Wilberfoece, Mr. William, M. P. His 
dictated letter introducing Sir S. W. 
to the Bishop of Calcutta; p. 290. 
His autograph letter to Sir S. ; p. 291. 

William IV. His Majesty's audience 
to Sir S. W. before starting for the 
West Indies, and his gracious re- 
marks ; p. 416. 

York, H.R.H. the Duke of. Recom- 
mends Sir S. W. to Sir Henry Wel- 
lesley ; p. 258. His letter to Mr. 
Davis in praise of Sir S. W. ; p. 271. 
His letter to Sir E. Paget recom- 
mending Sir S.W. as ' highly deserv- 
ing of his confidence;' p. 292. Ex- 
presses, through Sir Herbert Taylor, 
the interest with which he had read 
Sir S. W.'s journal of the siege of 
JBhurtj)ore; p. 337. 


LCNDON: printed by 



(Which appeared up to the completion of the printing of the 

New Edition). 

'Sir Samford Whittingham was one of those men whose lives ought to be 
written .... and though he died Commander-in-Chief of the Madras army, we 
may safely hazard the assertion that few soldiers who have done so much have 
received so little public recognition of their courage, loyalty, and military 
capacity as that which fell to his lot. His career is specially interesting, as being 
that of one who was born to be a soldier, and who, in many respects, came up to 
the popular ideal of a soldier, sans peur et sans reproclic. . . . The story of the 
battle [of Talavera], so far as it came under Whittingham's own eyes, is as lively 
an account of the horrors, and moreover of the ludicrous aspects, of a murderous 
conflict as we have ever come across.' 


' The estimate of his character, which his son leaves the reader to draw for 
himself, is that of a brave, clear-headed, just, and stern warrior, apt at organising 
raw levies, and capable of any work that might be entrusted to him. His 
generosity, amiability, and unselfishness are patent everywhere to the most careless 
reader. Many of the. sentiments expressed in his correspondence, and not a few 
of the ideas worked out in his memoranda, show his sagacity, wisdom, and 

1 He [Sir Samford] was constantly occupied in the negotiations between the 
English and Spanish Governments, as well as in the various military operations 
during the campaigns, and describes with much ability the scenes that he 
witnessed. His opinions on passing events are written with soldier-like frank- 
ness, and display remarkable powers of discrimination and foresight. . . . The 
biographer has displayed mnch impartiality, although coupled with a natural 
pride in his father's distinguished services. . . . The memoirs .... are altogether 
very interesting, and afford a valuable study for young soldiers.' 


4 Ax officer whose services are not so well known as they ought to be, and 
though recorded by Wellington, and published in the London Gazette, are not to 
be found in " Napier." .... Though only an English Captain till 1810 .... he 
was, in fact, a General Officer in command of large bodies of [Spanish] troops that 
did good service ; among them the Majorca division .... of which Marshal 
Suehet, after the war, spoke as being "in as high a military state as any of his 
own troops." .... The reader will find many acute remarks on men and things 
in India .... which, had they received the attention that they merited, would 
have caused the transfer of the Government to the Crown, and might probably 
have averted the Indian Mutiny. . . . The care that he took of the health of his 
troops shows that he was as earnest and enlightened as any sanatory reformer of 
the present day. Taken altogether, this memoir is one that deserves an attentive 
perusal, which it will well repay.' 

Extracts from Reviews. 


1 This goodly volume records the gallant deeds of one of England's bravest 
soldiers, of whose history it is to be feared his countrymen generally are ignoraut. 
Yet his military career .... was one of no ordinary character ; and the 
testimony borne to his worth by the great Duke must be not only satisfactory to 
his family, but should commend the work to the general public, for Sir S. F. 
Whittingham was not merely a soldier, though devoted to his profession, but 
performed important civil functions.' 


'These memoirs, published by his son, are worthy of this permanent record. 
They illustrate the history of two important epochs, by throwing light on the state 
of the Peninsula during the first quarter, and by explaining the position of affairs 
in India during the early portion of the second quarter, of this century.' 


' The name of Sir Samford Whittingham is one little known, yet he was a brave 
soldier, a good administrator, and an able general. The memoir seems to be well 
and conscientiously done. It is extremely interesting.' 


' It is never too late to correct statements of historical events. . . . The 
memoirs will, no doubt, be read with great satisfaction.' 

' He had the .... disadvantage of being an Englishman. If he had only 
had the good fortune to hail from north of the Tweed, or west of the Irish 
Channel, we should have had no end of solos on the trumpet of Eame to his 
honour. As it is, we are glad to receive this record of his services.' 


1 He was held in high esteem by appreciating adversaries {the reviewer here 
quotes Marshal Suchefs testimony), and may be said to have fought his way to 
distinction. He was a gentleman as well as a soldier, and had a quick eye to see 
what was before him. . . . King Ferdinand had a valuable general in our hero. 
, ... If our readers would refresh their memories touching the fiasco at Buenos 
Ayres .... and if they have curiosity about incidents of military life in various 
parts of the world, they will find their account by looking into these memoirs of a 
gallant old English soldier.' 


' The subject of this biography is, in fact, made to tell his own story, and a 
very pleasant and instructive story it is for all military readers.' 

'The subject of the memoir .... may be readily accepted as one of old 
Bristol's sons, of whom she may be justly proud.' 


' He [the Editor] tells us all the fads concerning a career that ought to interest 
every soldier of England's army. . . . The imputations against his father the 
author effectually rebuts .... the vindication of Sir Samford's conduct and 
motives is complete .... whose reputation will be not inconsiderably enhanced 
by these memoirs of a life well spent in the service of England.' 

*, '■>': 


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• i ■